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of the 

American Ethnological Society 
Edited by FRANZ BOAS 







collected by JEREMIAH CURTIN and edited by EDWARD SAPIR 



LEYDEN, 1909 







I. Myths 2 

1. What Coyote did in this Land 3 

The Origin of Fish in the Columbia 3 

Coyote and the Mischievous Women 7 

Coyote as Medicine-Man n 

Coyote and the Mouthless Man 19 

Coyote and the Pregnant Woman 25 

Coyote makes a Fish-Trap 27 

Coyote spears Fish 29 

Coyote eats Dried Salmon 29 

The Story concerning Coyote 31 

Coyote and At!at!a'Jia 35 

Coyote in Sklin 39 

Coyote and Itcls'xyan 41 

Coyote at Lapwai, Idaho 43 

Coyote and the Sun 47 

2. The Salmon Story 49 

3. Coyote and Antelope 67 

4. The Adventures of Eagle and his Four Brothers ... 75 

5. Coyote's People sing 95 

6. Coyote enslaves the West Wind . 99 

7. The East Wind and the West Wind 103 

8. Coyote and his Daughter 105 

9. The Visit to the World of Ghosts 107 

10. Eagle and Weasel 117 

11. The Five East- Wind Brothers and the Five Thunder 

. Brothers 121 

12. Eagle's Son and Coyote's Son-in-law 133 

13. The Deserted Boy 139 

14. Coyote and Deer 145 

15. Coyote and Skunk 149 

1 6. Raccoon and his Grandmother 153 

17. The Raccoon Story 153 

1 8. The Boy that was stolen by At!at!a'liya ..,.,. 165 



II. Customs , 174 

1. Marriage X 75 

2. Childhood *77 

3. Death 179 

4. Medicine-Men 179 

5. Clothing 183 

6. First Salmon Catch 183 

7. Erection of Stagings at Cascades 185 

8. Right to Fish-Catches 187 

9. Training for Strength at Cascades 187 

10. Winter Bathing 189 

11. Rainbow and Moon Signs 191 

12. Shaker Grace at Table 193 

III. Letters 194 

1. Letter of a Woman to her Father 195 

2. Letter of a Man regarding his Son's Illness, and Klickitat 

Version of Same Letter 195 

3. Letter of a Man regarding the Death of his Son . . . 197 

4. Personal Letter 199 

IV. Non-Mythical Narratives 200 

1. A Quarrel of the Wishram 201 

2. A Personal Narrative of the Paiute War 205 

3. A Famine at the Cascades 227 

4. A Prophecy of the Coming of the Whites 229 

APPENDIX. Supplementary Upper Chinookan Texts (collected by 


1. Coyote and Eagle, a Wasco Text 233 

2. The Boy that lied about his Scar, a Clackamas Text . . 235 


Introductory Note 239 

I. Tales 242 

1. A Wasco Woman deceives her Husband 242 

2. A Hard Winter near The Dalles 244 

3. An Arrow-Point Maker becomes a Cannibal 246 

4. Diabexwa'sxwas, the Big-Footed Man 248 

5. A Woman marries a Person who is a Dog in the Day 

and a Man at Night 253 



II. Guardian-Spirit Stories 257 

1. The Hunter who had an Elk for a Guardian Spirit . . 257 

2. The Boy who went to live with the Seals 259 

3. A Deserted Boy is protected by Itcli'xyan's Daughter . . 260 

III. Coyote Stories 264 

1. Coyote deceives Eagle, and stocks the Columbia with Fish, 264 

2. Coyote is swallowed by Itcli'xyan 267 

3. Coyote imitates Fish-Hawk and Mountain-Sheep, and meets 

with Various Adventures 269 

IV. At!at!a'Ha Stories 274 

1. Two Children escape from an At!at!a'Ha 274 

2. The Five At!at!a'lia Sisters steal a Boy 276 

3. A Jack-Rabbit Boy tricks an At!at!a'iia 279 

4. An At!at!a'lia has her Arm pulled off 281 

5. The At.'at.'a'Ha who was deceived by her Two Sons . . 282 

V. Miscellaneous Myths 287 

1. Eagle defeats Fish-Hawk, and pities Skunk 287 

2. Eagle has Tobacco-Man and Willow wrestle with Abu 'mat, 290 

3. Eagle, a Klamath Man, goes to the Columbia River to gamble, 292 

4. Panther and Wildcat fight with the Grizzlies 294 

5. Old Man Grizzly-Bear deceives the Five Brothers . . . 298 

6. Five Stars visit the Earth 302 

7. The Ascent to the Sky and Return to Earth 303 

8. Two Brothers become Sun and Moon 308 

9. A Singing and Dancing Festival 311 


THE Wishram Texts, forming the bulk of the Upper 
Chinookan material presented in this volume, were ob- 
tained, for the most part, in Yakima Reservation, situated 
in southern Washington, in July and August of 1905. 
A portion of the material (last two episodes of I, i, 17, 
18; II, ii; IV, 3, 14) were sent to me after I had re- 
turned from the field by my half-breed interpreter, Pete 
McGuff. As I had taught Pete the phonetic method of 
taking down Indian text followed in my own work, the 
additional texts forwarded by him were all in strictly pho- 
netic shape, and are published here with such compara- 
tively slight revision as they seemed to demand. Besides 
the two short Wasco and Clackamas texts that were 
collected many years before by Dr. Boas, and are here 
published as an Appendix to the Wishram Texts, these 
texts of Pete's are the only Indian linguistic material em- 
bodied in this volume not personally obtained in the field. 
The work in Yakima Reservation was undertaken under 
the direction of the Bureau of American Ethnology. For 
permission to publish the Wishram texts in the present 
series I have to thank Professor W. H. Holmes, the 
Chief of the Bureau. The remainder of the Wishram 
material, together with ethnological specimens and infor- 
mation secured by correspondence with Pete McGuff, was 
obtained under a private grant from Mr. G. G. Heye of 
New York City. It is a pleasure to record his liberality in 
this place. 

The approximately 1500 Indians (according to the Census 
Report of 1890) who now make up the population of 


Yakima Reservation belong to two quite distinct linguistic 
stocks. The greater part (chiefly Yakima and Klickitat 
Indians) are speakers of Sahaptin dialects, the minority 
(Wishram, more properly Wi'cxam, Indians; their own 
name for themselves is Ha'xluit) speak that dialect of 
Upper Chinookan that is illustrated by the present texts; 
before their removal they occupied the northern bank of 
the Columbia about The Dalles. The number of the latter 
was given by Powell as 150 for the year 1885-86. Ac- 
cording to the information supplied by Pete McGuff, the 
number of Wishram individuals still able to speak their 
own language is about 150, this estimate including those 
that regularly live at the fishing village of Wishram on 
the Columbia. The more numerous Wascos (238 accord- 
ing to Powell) of Warm Spring Reservation, Oregon, 
speak the same language. As is to be expected from 
the decided preponderance of Sahaptin Indians in Yakima 
Reservation, most of the Wishrams speak, or at least 
have a smattering of, Klickitat, as well as their own lan- 
guage and the Chinook jargon; very few, however, if 
any, of the Sahaptin-speaking Indians, can also speak 
Wishram, the language having a reputation for great 
difficulty, chiefly, it is probable, because of its harsh pho- 

The bulk of the linguistic material obtained in the field 

(I, i [except last two episodes], 2-10, 12-16; II, 1-5; IV, 

i, 2) was dictated by Louis Simpson (Indian name ME'- 

nait), Pete McGuff serving as 'interpreter ; Pete McGuff 

himself was the narrator of most of the remainder (I, 1 1 ; 

6-10; III); while Louis's brother Tom Simpson (In- 

name Ta'xcani), the since deceased head of the 

Ihurch in Yakima Reservation, was the source 

very short texts (I, i [variant of second episode]; 

The seven texts already referred to as having 


been taken down by Pete himself were dictated by vari- 
ous elderly Indians, - Yaryarone, Sophia Klickitat, Jane 
Meacham, and A'nEwikus. 

A few words in reference to Louis Simpson and Pete 
McGuff may not be out of place. Louis Simpson is a 
fair example of the older type of Wishram Indian, now 
passing away. Of short and stocky build, bow-legged 
from constant riding on horseback, he is about seventy or 
seventy five years of age, of an impatient and somewhat 
selfwilled temperament, dramatically talkative, with a good 
deal of the love of gain and bargain-driving proclivities 
with which many of the early Western travellers charged 
the Indians about The Dalles ; yet, despite this, he proved 
to be a lovable personality, owing chiefly to his keen 
sense of humor. He has a command of Wishram, 
Klickitat, and the Chinook jargon; but his English is 
extremely broken, hardly intelligible at times. Superficially, 
Louis is a convert to the ways of the whites ; in other 
words, he is a "civilized" Indian, - - lives in a frame house, 
raises and sells wheat and hay, is dressed in white man's 
clothes, is theoretically a Methodist. Judging by the con- 
tents of his mind, however, he is to all intents and pur- 
poses an unadulterated Indian. He implicitly believes in 
the truth of all the myths he narrated, no matter how 
puerile or ribald they might seem. Coyote he considers 
as worthy of the highest respect, despite the ridiculous 
and lascivious sides of his character; and with him he is 
strongly inclined to identify the Christ of the whites, for 
both he and Coyote lived many generations ago, and ap- 
peared in this world in order to better the lot of man- 
kind. On one point Louis always insisted with great 
emphasis, the myths as he told them were not invent- 
ed by himself, but have been handed down from time 
immemorial, and hence have good claims to being consid- 


ered truth. Pete McGuff, on the other hand, may serve 
as a type of the younger generation of Indian, though 
only a half-blood (his father was a negro, his mother is 
a full-blood Indian). Having lived much of his life with 
the Wishrams, he speaks their language fluently, though 
long contact in early life with the Cascades Indians on 
the Columbia is responsible for a number of un-Wishram 
phonetic peculiarities that the linguistic material obtained 
from him exhibits. He has not of course that feeling for 
the old Indian life, and faith in the truth of the myths, 
that a man like Louis Simpson has; nevertheless, in spite 
of his white man's rationalism, he is not at all disposed 
to dismiss as idle the ideas of the Indians in regard to 
medicine-men and guardian spirits. He has been trained 
in the Agency school, reads and writes English well, and 
in general displayed throughout remarkable intelligence; 
he has been of the greatest help to me, both in the field 
and in correspondence, and I take this opportunity of 
thanking him. 

The arrangement of the texts into the heads of Myths, 
Customs, Letters, Non-Mythical Narratives, and Supple- 
mentary Upper Chinookan Texts, is self-explanatory, and 
need not be commented upon. An effort has been made 
to secure as many types of text as possible, both in order 
to obtain a reasonably wide range of linguistic data and 
to give at least some idea of various sides of Indian life 
and thought. Some brief remarks have already been 
made on the subject of Wishram mythology in another 
The myths now presented, together with the late 
Curtin's "Wasco Tales and Myths," in the latter part 
volume, will serve as evidence for the statements 
In regard to the Wishram language itself, 

, .Preliminary Report on the Language and Mythology of the Upper 
American Anthropologist, N. S., Vol. 9, pp. 542-544). 


it is intended sooner or later to publish a complete study 
of it. Practically the only thing in print explicitly de- 
voted to it is the brief article already referred to. 1 The 
English translation has been so arranged as to correspond 
paragraph for paragraph, and, in the main, sentence for 
sentence, to the Indian original. Some will find the trans- 
lation painfully literal ; I shall more cheerfully bear this 
charge than that of having given a misleading or slovenly 

I cannot close these preliminary remarks without express- 
ing my sense of deep obligation to Dr. Franz Boas. It 
was by his advice and under his guidance that the work 
of which this volume is a product was undertaken , it is 
a heartfelt pleasure to thank him for the friendly advice 
and assistance he has given during its prosecution. 

Philadelphia, Pa., March 19, 1909. 

1 Sapir, Preliminary Report, etc. (American Anthropologist, N. S., Vol. 9, 
pp. 533-542). The main points of structure are identical with those of Lower 
Chinook. For this dialect, see Swan ton, Morphology of the Chinook Verb (ibid., 
Vol. 2, pp. 199-237) ; Boas, The Vocabulary of the Chinook Language (ibid., Vol. 
6, pp. 118-147); and the more systematic study of Chinook soon to appear in 
Dr. Boas's Handbook of American Indian Languages. 




/,/,*. . voiceless stops, approximately as in English. 

*, ^ K voice d st P s a 8 in En g lish - 
f . . . . voiceless velar stop, like Arabic q. 

g . voiced velar stop, voiced correspondent of q. Apt to be 

heard as voiced velar spirant (Arabic ghairi) after vowels. 

* c (/)* ( and ?) followed bv marked aspiration. 

kx, qx k and q followed respectively by their homorganic voiceless 

spirants. Probably best considered as somewhat exagger- 
ated forms of aspirated k and q. 

t t f* . . k and q followed by whispered u, or, probably more accu- 
rately, accompanied by tongue-position and lip-rounding 
of u. 

//, //, k! t q/ "fortis" or "exploded" voiceless stops. Pronounced with 
greater stress than /, /,,?; glottis is closed during their 
production, release of its closure being subsequent to 
that of/, /, k, q. 

5 .... voiceless dental (or alveolar) spirant, approximately like 
English th in thin, or perhaps better like lisped s. Found 
only between dental (or alveolar) stops. 

t . . . . voiceless prepalatal spirant, like sh in English ship. 

/ .... voiceless alveolar spirant, like English s. 

ft, tt... voiceless palatal and dental (or alveolar) affricatives, like ch 
and ts in English. 

IcJ, /// . . tf fortis" consonants related to tc, ts, as are //, //, k/, q/, to 
/, /, k, q. 

x, jr . . voiceless palatal spirants midway, in place of articulation, 
between ch of German ach and ch of German ich. x' 
is used to indicate pronouncedly forward palatal articu- 
lation, but it never quite gets as far forward as ch of 
German ich. 

x . . . . voiceless velar spirant, like ch in German ach, but pro- 
nounced rather farther back. 

/, r, , w, y, h, as in English. 

voiceless palatal lateral ; tongue covers larger part of front 

of palate, and may extend to lower teeth, 
same as J, but with initial stop (dorsal /) quality. Etymo- 
logically it is either derived from t + t or is merely pho- 
netic variant of I. 


L!. . . . "fortis" consonant of L. Related to L (=/Z) as are tc!, ts! , 

to tc, ts. 

8 .... glottal catch, momentary closure of glottis. Not nearly as 

frequent as in Lower Chinook. 

Tabular View of Consonants. 

Voiceless Voiced Fortis Voiceless Voiced Voiceless Fortis Nasal. 

Stop. Stoj). Stop. Spirant. Spirant. Affricative. Affricative. 




Velar q, (q c ) g 
Back- I k k c 
palatal \ ' to 
7^^/- [ _ 
palatal \ 
Alveolar . j 
Labial p b 







X', C 

s, 6 




a, a 
6, a 

0, o 

u, u 

1, i 
i . 
e, e 
e ._ 
a, a 

E . 
A . 

2, 4, 6, 8 


short and long a in German Mann and 

short and long open 0-sounds. Respectively as in German 

voll and English saw. 

short and long close ^-sounds, as in German Ton. 
short and long as in English full and fool. 
short and long close z-sounds, as in German sie. 
short open /-sound, as in English pin. 
short and long close ^-sounds, as in German See. 
short open ^-sound, as in English met. 
short and open as in English hat and bad. 
obscure vowel of undefined quality, 
as in English but. 

denotes elision of final vowel. Thus wa'T igi'ux from 

wa'lu igi'ux. 

denote main and secondary stress accents, 
denote abnormally long (rhetorically lengthened) vowels, 
approximately 2, 4, 6, and 8 times as long as ordinary long 

denotes abnormal length of preceding consonant, 
denotes that vowels so separated are to be prononnced 
enclose words of English translation not found in Indian text. 





I. - MYTHS. 

The Origin of Fish in the Columbia. 

Isklu'lEyE 3 icqagi'lak gatca'wiqiaxit itcta'natck. Kxwopt 
galicglu'ya, tkla'munak ickte'lgwiptck wimalia'mt. Ke'nua 
ikla'munak gali'xox. Gayuxu'ni. Aga kxwo'pt na'qxi 
gacgigr/lga. Ge'ltptck, gali'kta ya'xiba ca'xalix, ikla'ckac 
5 gali'xox. GasfxElutk, gayaxa'limafx, wi'tla gayuxu x ni. 
Gacke'gElkEl yuqxslqt. Gacxh/xwa^it : "Itkxwa'-id idE'l- 
xam ; Ihxni't da'ulEx ilk.'a'ckac." Naxlu'xwa-it axklE'skax : 
AntklgElga'ya." Aga kxwo'pt axgo'qunk na x qxi tq!ex 
gaklo'x ilkla'ckac. Aga kxw6 7 pt luxu^it. Axg6 r qunk 
10 naxtu'xwa-it : "Isklu'lEyE ya^tau." Wa'au axkls'sgax 
gaklgE'lgax, gaklakxa'-ima ilkla'ckac aknfmba. 

Gacx u k!wa'x tctoqlia'mt. Luqxwi'lqt, galksu'klam. Gal- 
kcu'x dakda'k, Twi i x wi galkcu'x. Qucti'axa ikala ik!a x c- 
kac. Axk!F/skax gala x kim: a lt!u x kti ikla'ckac ika'la bam' 
itkia'munak." Aga kxwo'pt galu'ya, Iqlo'p gagi'ux iga'kwal, 

ndcr thb title are included fourteen short myths dealing with Coyote as 

Iturc-hero and transformer, often as trickster. They, very likely with others 

I, evidently belong together as a sort of Coyote cycle, and were, with 

the last two, told by Louis Simpson as one myth in the order 

e conception that keeps them together is that of Coyote travelling 

olumbia as, in the main, corrector of the evils of the mythic or 

c order of the separate incidents being determined by the topo- 


The Origin of Fish in the Columbia. 

<i> J 

Coyote 2 heard about two women who had fish pre- 
served in a pond. Then he went to them as they were 
collecting- driftwood from the river. He turned himself 


into a piece of wood trying (to get them to pick him up). 
He drifted along. But then they did not get hold of him. 
He went ashore, ran off to way yonder up river, and 
transformed himself into a boy. He put himself into a 
cradle, threw himself into the river, and again drifted along. 
The two women caught sight of him wailing. They 
thought: "Some people have capsized, and this child is 
drifting towards us." The younger one thought : "Let us 
get hold of it." But the older woman did not want to 
have the child. Now it was drifting along. The older 
one thought : "That is Coyote." Nevertheless the younger 
woman took the child and put it in a canoe. 

The two women started home towards their house. The 
child was wailing, and they arrived home with it. They 
took off the cradle from it and looked closely at it. As it 
turned out, the child was a boy. The younger one said : 

graphic sequence of the villages at which they are localized. Compare the Coyote 
myth in Boas's Chinook Texts (pp. 101-106) and Kathlarnet Texts (pp. 46-49), 
though the establishment of taboos, which is the chief conception in these, is 
not at all strongly marked in the Wishram Coyote cycle. 

2 Compare, as a striking parallel of this myth, Goddard's Hupa Texts (pp. 124, 
125), where Yimantuwinyai, the Ilupa culture-hero, is also fed with eels by a woman 
who guards all the salmon. 



delict gagi'lukcmit iakcxa'tpa. Na'wit kxopt _ 
tukc ' sa'q" sa'q u gatccu'lxum. Klu'na gagi'lut, wi'tla gatc- 
cu'tu'kc citll'xka. Kxwopt gayugo'ptit, cikxa'-imat ci'tlix 
yak'cxa'tpa. Gackim : 'logo'ptit; ag' atxu'ya itklu'na 
5 tkla'munak." 

Aga kxwo'pt gactu'ya ya'xi. GalixlE 7 tck, gatccu'kct 
ya'xi'ctu'it. Aga kxwo'pt dakda'k galfxox. Aga kxwo'pt 
gatcu'gwiga tcta'lxlEm. Kxwopt galixHqtck uxwaq!e x - 
waial/ Gatkn'kst aga galixhdE'mtck. Gatcugwegfilx itc- 

10 ta'ixlEm wila'laba uxwaqleValal. Aga kxwo'pt i x wi i'wi 
gatci'uxix. Tslfiks gatcixlu'xix. "Dab' a'ntcuqxida'mi- 
daba. Aga kxwo'pt atgi'a yaga'tfpa wi'mal." GwE'nEma 
itga'bun gatclu'x, iga'bsnac E'nEgi gatdu'x. Aga kxwo'pt 
gatclxli'ma kwo'ba. Wi'tia galix u k!wa'x itctoqlia'mt. 

15 Wi'tia da'ukwa gasi'xlutk. Wi't!a kwo'ba galikxa'-ima 
iga'k!wal ci^'lict. Wi'tia gayugo'ptit. 

Aga gactu'yamx. "Ya'qxwiu ikla'ckac," gacki'mx, tt pa- 
lala'i itlu'kti ikla'ckac, iage'wam." Aga kxwo'pt gaLo'qwe. 
Gayutcu'ktix, y^'qxwiu ikla'ckac. Wi'tia gactu'ya tkla'- 

20 munak. Witla gatccgE'lkEl ya'xi ctu'it. Aga kxwo'pt 
nixElga'-ulx. Aga kxwo'pt tcta'hdEm gatcu'gwigax. Aga 
kxwo'pt galixi'lqtck, saq u galixi'lxumx. Aga kxwo'pt 
na'wit gayu'ix liaga'bEnba. Gayu'yam iliga'bEnba. Aga 
kxwopt gatcigE'lga yaga'bsn. Aga kxwo'pt gatcilga'mit 

25 wI'lExba yaga'bEn; gatci'xga, dagwa't wi'lsx gali'xox ; Lla'k 
gali'xox yaga'bEn. Wi'tia i'xt gatcigE'lga, gatcilga'midix 
wi'tlax. Aga kxwo'pt gu't gatci'uxix wilx ; daLla'kLla'k 
gali'xox yaga'bi-n. Wi'tia i'xt gatcigE'lga yaga'bsn. Wi'tia 

- refers to icga'kwal "eel" (duale tantum), a form used along- 
side of ign'kwnl (masc.). 

"A boy is better than driftwood." And then she went 
and cut an eel and put its tail in his mouth. Then 
straightway he sucked at it and ate it all up. She gave 
him another eel, and again he sucked at it, (eating up) 
only half. Then he fell asleep, and half the eel was lying 
in his mouth. The two women said: "He is asleep; 
now let us go for some more wood." 

And then they went far away. He arose and saw 
them going far off. Then he made himself loose and 
seized their food. He roasted the fish on a spit; they were 
done and he ate. He caught sight of the fish, which were 
their food, in a lake. Then he examined (the lake) carefully, 
and discovered a spot where it would be easy (to make 
an outlet from it to the river). "Here I shall make the 
fish break out (from the lake), and then they will go to 
the Great River."- He made five digging-sticks, made 
them out of young oak. And then he put them down 
in that place. He started back home towards their house. 
Again, just as before, he put himself into the cradle. Again 
there (in his mouth) lay the eel's tail. Again he fell asleep. 

Now the two women arrived. "The boy is sleeping," they 
said; "very good is the boy, being a great sleeper." And 
then they retired for the night. Daylight came, the boy was 
sleeping. Again they went for wood. Again he saw them 
going far away. Then he got up and took their food. 
He roasted it on a spit and ate it all up. Then straight- 
way he went to where his digging-sticks were. He took 
hold of one of his digging-sticks. Then he stuck his 
digger into the ground ; he pulled it out, and the earth 
was all loosened up ; his digging-stick broke. He took 
hold of another one and again stuck it into the ground. 
Then he loosened up the earth, and his digger was all 

2 That is, Columbia River. The word wi'mal of the text is never used to refer 
to any other river. All other streams are denoted by wi'qxaL 

gatcilga'mitxix ; dagwa't gateaux wilx, daiJakiJa'k gali'xox 
yaga'bEn Bahi'n. GatcigE'lga ilala'kt; wi'tla L!ak gali'xox 
yaga'bKn. A'ga gatcigE'lga ilagwE'nEma, gatcilga'mitxix ; 
clagwa't gatci'uxix wilx. Aga kxwo'pt gadigusgwa'-ix 
5 ux6q!e'walal yaga'iliamt wi'mal. 

Aga kxwo'pt naxlu'xwa-it axo'qxunk ; gagu'lxam : 
Nimxatxulal, 'Htlu'kti ilkla'ckac; 1 nS 1 ninxik/xwan, 
Isklu'lEyE ya'xtau.' A'kcta yakla'mEla-ix itcftxox txa'ika 
isklu'lEyE da''uya wi'gwa. Niamtxu'lal, 'Na'qxe atklgsl- 

10 ga'ya tfkla'ckac, isk!ulEyE ya'xtau.' A'kcta itxa'giutkwox 
itxo'x, itcl'teox isklu'lEyE." Aga gactu'ya tcto'qliamt. 
Aga ya'xt!ax galicglu'ya tctoqlia'mt. 

Gatccu'lxam : "Aga Iga pu qx^ma mtE uxoqleValal 
nu'gw omtktu'xwa? Emtetsifnon, ag' ayamdulxa^a mda 7 !- 

15 ka. Aga qloa'p atgadrmama idE^xam da 7 uyaba wflx , 
EmtxE'luitcatk." Aga idE^xam qxawitcfmElit "di/lululu." 
a Aga atgadi x mama da x uyaba wi x lx , daxda^aitc itga^xlEin 
idElxam. Cma'nix aqiu r xwa ixqleValal kxwo^t pu am- 
tedi'mama mda'ika. Imda^leu ig^xox isklwo^atsintsin 

20 mda'ika. Aga da x uya wi x gwa i^mtkulk ; qe x dau yamdi/p- 
quna, 'Sklwo'latsintsin.' Cmanix atgad^mama idElxam 
atkignlga'ya ixqle'walal. Aga kxw6 7 pt amtedrmama mda 7 !- 
ka, aqEmdupquna/ya, 'Isklwo^latsintsin icdrmam ; gatc- 
cu'pgEna isklu'lEyE.' Qe'dau pu alugwagi'ma idE'lxam. 

25 "Da'uctax gatctcxcks'in isklu'lEyE itcta x natck ; aga cda'x- 
dax icdi'mam.'" Qe'dau agatccu'pgEna iskiu'lsyE. 

Coyote and the Mischievous Women. 

Aga kxwo'pt galilwilxt wi'mal isk!u x lEyE. Gayuya'2 
gayu'yam Ixtpo' wilx. GatcagE'lksl anE'mckc i'nad wi'- 

1 Contracted from na'ya. 

broken to pieces. He took hold of another one of his 
digging-sticks. Again he stuck it into the ground ; he 
loosened the earth all up, and his third digger was all 
broken to pieces. He took hold of the fourth one ; again 
his digger broke. Now at last he took hold of the fifth 
and stuck it into the ground ; he loosened the earth all 
up. And then the fish slid over into the Great River. 

Now then the older woman bethought herself. She 
said to her companion: "You said, 'The child is good-/ 
I myself thought, 'That is Coyote.' Now this day Coyote 
has treated us two badly. I told you, 'Let us not take 
the child, that is Coyote.' Now we have become poor, 
Coyote has made us so." Then they went to their house, 
and he too went to them to their house. 

He said to them: "Now by what right, perchance, 
would you two keep the fish to yourselves? You two are 
birds, and I shall tell you something. Soon now people 
will come into this land. Listen!" And the people could 
be heard "clu'lululu" (like thunder rumbling afar). "Now 
they will come into this land ; those fish will be the peo- 
ple's food. Whenever a fish will be caught, you two will 
come. Your name has become Swallows. Now this day 
I have done with you ; thus I shall call you, 'Swallows.' 
When the people will come, they will catch fish ; and then 
you two will come, arid it will be said of you, 'The 
swallows have come; Coyote called them so.' 3 Thus will 
the people say : 'From these two did Coyote take away 
their fish preserved in a pond; now they have come.'" 
Thus did Coyote call those two. 

Coyote and the Mischievous Women. 
Then Coyote travelled up the river. He went and went, 

2 This explains why the coming of the swallows is synchronous with the first 
salmon-run in the spring. 


mat. Aga kxwo'pt gagigi x lumnitck i'nadmax wi'mal : 
QK'nEgi' nxtu x xwan ma x ikaba." Qxe x dau gagiu x lxam a x - 
DKmckc isk.'u'lEyE. Kxwopt galixlu x xwa-it : "He tq!e x x 
ag' ano'xw' anE'mEckc Iga." Gayaxa'limalx, IE'P gali x xox. 
5 GaliktcVptck gatcgElkE x lxpa. Gasixlu x tk; k!a x ya. E x wi ga- 
li'xox gayaxa'limatxpa. Kxwo'ba cka'xax. Wi x t!a gaya- 
xalimatx ; IE'P gali'xox ihcqo x ba. Galixlu x xwa-it : " Qucti x - 
axa tqle'x cknuxt; icE x nqoq k!ma na x it!ax incge x taql." Ga- 
liktE'tck; k!a'2ya. 

10 Cta'xya i'nadix qla'tsEnba gatcgE'lgElx. Nixhi'xwa-it : 
"Qucti'axa k!wa x lalaq ckinu'xt." Aga tcic iki'xax. Ga- 
lixlu'xwa-it : a QE x nigiska! qucti'axa istsifnon dsnu'x k!wa x - 
lalaq cknuxt." Galixlu'xwa-it : tt K!wotk' a x ga !" Gatcgi 7 - 
luma: "Aga mda x it!ax kxw6 x ba da / mino' imtx^x imttslf- 

15 non iltcqcVba. IdE^xam alugwag^ma, 'Cda^ctox isk!u x - 
InyE gacki'ux k!wa x lalaq ; ists!fn6n gateci/pgEna.' Da 7 - 
minua vvila'laba amtxu x xwa istslfnon." 

(Tom Simpson's Version. 8 ) 

Gayu x ya isk!u x lEyE; La x x gali x xux. GatccgE x lkEl ctmockt 

icgagi'lak i x nadix ctuwi x lal. Gacgigiluma : "Mti x 'sk!u x - 

20 leyr; ; tqlfx qmuxt." Aga kxwo'pt galixlu x xwa-it : " LE X X!EX 

antcu'xwa kaL.'a x latx, 'Axgi x kal nalu x mqta.'" Aga kxwo'pt 

niktca'x. Aga kxwop x t gatccu x lxam : "Kwaic niga x tEmxt 

Aga wi x t!ax gacgiu x lxam : "Emti x ; tq!i x x qmuxt." 

That is, with which to catch them, so elusive were they. 

docs not appear what sort of water-birds the mischievous women were 
transformed into, possibly divers. 


and arrived at a certain land. He caught sight of two 
women across the river. And then each shouted out to 
him from across the river: "How fond I am of you!" 
Thus the women spoke to Coyote. Then he thought : 
"Well, now I should like to have the women." He threw 
himself into the river and dived under. He came to land 
where he had seen the two of them. He looked about ; 
there was nothing to be seen. He turned about to where he 
had thrown himself into the river. There they are still. 
Again he threw himself into the river and dived under 
the water. He thought: "Truly, they like me; but I for 
my part have left behind a fish-line." 1 He put his head 
above water ; there was nothing to be seen. 

Across yonder were the two women where he had first 
caught sight of them. He thought: "Truly, they make 
me crazy." Now he feels cold. He thought: "How 
now ! they are really two birds, but they make me crazy." 
He thought: "Never mind, now!" and called out to them: 
"Now you two there have for all time become birds in 
the water. 2 People will say, 'These two have made Coyote 
crazy, so he called them birds.' For all time you two 
shall be birds in the lake." 

(Tom Simpson's Version. 3 ) 

Coyote went along (until) he came to open country. 
He caught sight of two women dancing on the other side 
of the river. They called out to him : " Come, Coyote ! 
we love you." And then he thought: "I shall deceive 
them by pretending that my wife has died." So then he 

3 Tom Simpson, brother of Louis, took exception to the transformation in the 
first version, when this was read to him, and denied its correctness. The trans- 
formation to water-birds seems more appropriate than that into rocks, however. 


Aga kxwo'pt gayukli'xa q!w6'bixix; IE P m'xox. Gali'k- 
tatck. Aga kla'ya gatccgF/lkEl i'nadix. E'wi gali'xux ; 
i'nadix gatccgF/lkEl. Aga' wi'tla gayukli'xa, gaHcgElkli'xa. 
Aga wi'tla qloa'p gatccu'x. Aga wi'tla Isp ni'xox. Ga- 

5 li'ktatck. Aga wi x t!a k!a x ya gatccgElkEl. Aga wi x t!a e 7 wi 
ni'xux; gatccgE'lkid wit!' i'nadix. Aga kxwo'pt nixhi'xwa- 
it: a Ag' antcklwa'mida." Aga kxwo'pt gatccklwa'mit. 
Gali'kim iago'niEnilpa, galixlu'xwa-it : "Ag atga'dya Na- 
dida'nuit k!ma k!a x ya pu kwa'lalaq amtktu'xwa idElxam." 

10 Aga kxwo'pt ick!a x lamat gacxu'x. 

Coyote as Medicine- Man. 1 

i'xat iqlfyuxt wfixatpa yuxt, yaga'lx'ix- ixu'xt atqxidi'w' 
ilt'paq. Aga kxwo'pt galixla'gwa isklu'lEyE; mang iaxa't 
gayu'ya. Gatco'guekEl idnE'mEckc tksEnbnE'nhc iltcqo'ba. 
Aga kxwo'pt nexlu'xwa-it : " Anixmictxa'ma iqle'yuxt ia- 
ga'lx'ix-." Galiglu'ya; gatciu'lxam : "Na'qe tci pu Ika'la 
aminKlmi'ctxa imiga'lx'ix- ?" Aga kxwo'pt gatciu'lxam : 
"Kwotka' yamElmi'ctx." Aga kxwo'pt gatcigs'lga, ga- 
tci'uk u l. Kxwopt gatcxutxumi't iak!a'lx'ix\ 

Kxwopt IE'P gatci'ux kxwo'ba saiba' IksEnbna'nlx. Aga 
20 kxwo'pt gakcu'bEn* a'-ixad, gala-tfa'-itam, gayalga'xit dapa't. 
Aga kxwo'pt tea ko'pt gala'xux. 

Kxwopt galgagE'lga, galgal i'wa Ixli'wi. Galga'gElkEl 
dn'nEgi i'algat. Aga kxwo'pt kla'ya qE'nEgi galko'x pu ; 

1 Compare with this myth Boas's Traditions of the Tillamook Indians (Journal 
of American Folk-Lore, Vol. XI, pp. 140, 141); Teit, The Shuswap (Publications 
of the Jcsup North Pacific Expedition, Vol. II, p. 741). 

1 1 

burst out crying. He said to them : " Not long ago my 
wife died," and again they said to him: "Come, we love 
you." And then he swam up close. He was under water. 
He stuck his head out, but did not see them across (from 
where he had started). He turned around and saw them 
on the other side. Then again he swam, swam towards 
the two women. Again he approached them ; again he 
was under water. He stuck his head out, but again he 
did not see them. Then again he turned about, and again 
saw them on the other side. And then he thought : 
"Now I shall take them home." So he took them home. 
He said in his heart, he thought: "Now the Indians 
will come, but you two shall not make the people crazy." 
So then they turned into rocks. 

Coyote as Medicine- Man. 1 

A certain old man was sitting in the trail with his penis 
wrapped about him just like a rope. And then Coyote 
passed by him and went on a little beyond. He saw 
some women jumping up and down in the water. And 
then he thought: "I shall borrow from the old man his 
penis." He went over to him and said to him: "Friend, 
would you not lend me your penis?" And then (the man) 
said to him: "All right, I shall lend it to you." So then 
(Coyote) took it and carried it along with him. Then he 
put it on to his own penis. 

Then he shoved it under water right where the women 
were jumping up and down. One of the women jumped 
up, the penis got between her legs, and it remained stuck 
a little ways. And then she became ill(?). 

Then the (other) women took hold of her and brought 
her yonder to shore. They saw that something was 


kla'ya di-'n Engi *q!6'p pu galgi'axox. Aga kxwo'pt ga*- 
gagn'lga, mank fxle'u galko'x. la'x' isklu'lEyE^ i'nadix 
wi'mat ; gatgilte'dfx. Galiglo'ma isklu'hsyE : " WaqE'nEkc 
tcKX u'mckax; axk' E'nEgi amcgi'uxa Iqlo'p." Gatki'm : 
5 "QE'nEgi IgElxtxulal Ifxat? GalkiX ^WaqE^nskc E 7 nEgi 
JqTo'b Emckfx.'" Aga kxwo'pt galgu'naxtck ; galga'gslga 
waqn'nKkc. TC!EX ga'tgux ka'xdau E x nEgi Iqlo'p galgi'axux ; 
tcaxa'-i gayalda'uixumx. la'xt' isklulEyE yaxi'ba lq!6p 
tq!6'p gatci'ux; sa x q u kwopt gatcilxo'ktcgom iaga'lxix. 

10 Na'wid wi x t!a gayu'ix isklu'lEyE. Qa'matki gayt/yam; 
kxwo'ba galixa'-imaya. Aga da x ua agagi'lak itcatcqu'mEm 
aki'ax; gaqo'kla, na'wit gaqo'kctka. Ga^gi'unaxl ilage 7 - 
wam; gaqigE'lgax ickalax. Galgiu'lxam : "Ag' amugwi'- 
la-ida." Kxwopt a x -i gal^xox. GayuguHa-itum, a r -i nfxox. 

15 Aga kxwo'pt gayugwila-it, gayugwila^itx. Gairkim: 
"Kla'ya dan itca'lxpa, k!a r ya wi'mqt itcalxpa." Qxi'dau 
gali'kim icka'lax. 

Aga kxwo'pt galu'gwakim : "Ya'xib' i'xat isklu'kyE 

yuxt idiage'wam." Aga kxwo'pt gaqiulxa'mam : " Qfi'ngi 
20 mxlu'xwan, amagi'la-ida, qEmtga'lEmam." Aga kxwo'pt 
gali'kim : "A'2, na'qe pu anu'ya ya'xi itgE'xuit ; ha'-e 
fgvvE'nEmikc InK'mckc dan ilaka'lEmax. Kla'ya! algEnt- 
ga'lKmama IgwE'nEmikc ; aic kia'la algEnu'xa." Aga 
kxwo'pt galklulxa'mam IgwE'nEmikc dan itlaxa'lukc: "Ag' 
25 amckiuga'lKmama iqle'yuqt idia'gewam." Ya'x' isk!u'lEyE 
IC!EX gatcu'xwa apxa'dit agaq!a'ptcxak ; tcqa'q tcqaq ga- 
tcu'xwa. Aga gali'guqam ; gatdu'lExam : a Itcqp:'mEm ax- 
qxa'tcpa." Kxwopt gatclu'mquit ; galixalxni'ma dalpa'l 
gatctu'mquit kaLla'latx ilqa'wulqt. 

The Raven plays the part of the medicine-man in Wishram mythology (cf. 
I!M> the story of Coyote and Skunk," No. 15. 


sticking- to her, but they could do nothing with her ; they 
could not cut it out of her with anything". And then they 
took hold of her and carried her a little farther away from the 
water. Coyote was far off across the river, and they 
dragged him into the water. Coyote shouted: "Split a 
stone (as knife) ; with it you will cut it off." They said : 
"Whatdid some person tell us? He said, 'Cut it off with a 
stone knife.' " And then they looked for it and found a stone. 
They split it, and with the same they cut off the (penis) 
from her. It had run up right into her. That Coyote over 
yonder cut it all off. Then he turned his penis all back 
(to himself). 

Immediately Coyote went on again ; he arrived some- 
wheres, and laid himself down there. Now this woman 
is sick ; they took her with them and straightway carried 
her (home). They looked for a medicine-man and found 
the Raven. 1 They said to him : " Now you will treat (her) ;" 
then he assented. He went to treat her ; he had consented 
to do so. And then he doctored and doctored (until) he 
said: "There is nothing in her body, there is no sickness 
in her body." Thus did speak the Raven. 

And then the people said: "Yonder is a certain Coyote, 
who is a medicine-man." Then they went and said to 
him: "What do you think, will you treat her? We 
have come for you." And then he said: "Well, I could 
not go so far on foot -, there must be five women without 
husbands. No ! five women will have to come for me ; 
they will just carry me on their backs." And then they 
went and said to five women who had no husbands : 
"Now you will go and bring the old medicine-man." Coyote 
yonder split some alder-bark and chewed at it. Then the 
women came to meet him, and he said to them : "I am sick 
in my breast." Then he spat ; he showed them that what 
he had spit out was red and pretended that it was blood. 

Aic k!aT amcgEnu'xa klEmEkE'dEc gigwa'ladamt itc- 
qla'qmq* qa'datcix ilqa'wulqt daiaV alu'ya gigwaladamt 
wi'lxiamt. Cma'nix iwat ca'xal itcqla'qctaq dala'x pal 
anxu'xwa Bqa'wulqt, anE'mxta. 1 Gigwa'ladamt itcqla'qctaq 

5 itlu'kti; kla'y' anE'mqta." 1 A^xa x t naVit k!a x la gagi'ux ; 
a'niwat axklfi'skax k!a x la gagi x ux; gigwa'ladamt ^ iaq!a 7 q- 
ctaq kla'la gagi'ux. Gagi'uk^. 'Aga kxwo'pt na'wit ga- 
yaxalga'yapq. Na'wit Llma'n L!man idia'kcEn gatctalga'mit. 
Naxhi'xwa-it : "A-iwa'u ilakla'niEla ilqle'yoqt ; naV it!u x kt' 

10 itgKnu'x itqle'yoqt. Aga kxwo'pt L!a'x u gagiula'da wilxpa. 
Kxwopt gatclE'mquit tqaVulqt gagiula'dabit. Gala'kim 

waga'lxt, gagulxam: 

it!u x ktix 

mux iq!e 7 - 

Aga kxwo x pt wi't!' ae'xat kla'la gagi x ux. Aga kxwo'pt 
15 gagi'uk u h NaVid da'ukwa wi x t!a gatcu'xa; wi't!a gatc- 
talga'mit idia'kcEn. Gagi r uk u l na'qe y^lqdix ; witla gagiu- 
la'da. Witla gagulxam : Na x q' itlu'kti imiuta'da ; tclfl 
imi'ux iqle'yoqt. Si'klslutk ; wi x t!a ilqa'wulqt liagE'lpx, 
kxvva' kxwa ik^xox." Aga kxwo'pt wi'tla klala gagi 7 ux ; 
20 agagi x uk u l alalu'n. Wi 7 t!a da'uxwa gatcu'xa; Llma'n Llman 
gatcu'xa. Gagi'uk 11 ! na x qi ya'lxdix aga wi x t!a gagiula'da. 
Aga kxwo'pt wi'tla gaklu'lxam a^xat : "A" naq' itlu'kti 
mcki'uxt iqle'yoqt. Aga la'blat tdumgwe'lit, Jqa'wulqt 
ligE'lpx; tchd tclE'l 

25 Aga kxwo'pt kla'la gagi'ux alala'kt. Gagi'uk 11 ! wi x t!a 
a'xta. Wi'tla da'uxwa gatco'xwa Llma'n Llman. Wi'tla 
gagiula'da. Qo'ct aga q!6 x p Igi'uxdix itq u H x ba itca'mqtp' 

1 AnE'mxta stands for anu'mqta. 


"You will just carry me on your backs so that my 
head is downward, in order that the blood may slowly go 
down to the ground. If my head is turned upwards, my 
mouth will perhaps become filled with blood, (so that) I 
shall die. It is good that my head be down ; (so) I shall 
not die." One of the women straightway took him on her 
back; the youngest one carried him first; she carried him 
with his head turned down. She went along with him. 
And then straightway he put his hands between her legs. 
Immediately he stuck his hands into her private parts 
and fingered them. She thought: "Oh! the old man is 
bad ; the old man did not do good to me." So then she 
threw him down on the ground. Then he spat blood 
when she had thrown him down. One of the older sisters 
spoke, and said to her: "It is not good that you have 
hurt the old man." 

And then one of the women again took him on her 
back. She went along with him. Straightway again, as 
before, he treated her ; again he put his hands into her 
private parts. She did not carry him long ; she also 
threw him down. Again one (of the sisters) said to her: 
"It is not good that you have thrown him down; you 
have hurt the old man. Look at him ; again blood is 
flowing out of his mouth, he is coughing." And then she 
also put him on' her back ; now she was the third to carry 
him. To her also he did as before; he fingered her pri- 
vate parts. She did not carry him long, but threw him 
down also. And then again one of the women said to 
them: "Oh! you have not treated the old man well. 
Now he is continually spitting out much blood, the blood 
is flowing out of his mouth ; you have hurt him badly." 

And then the fourth woman took him on her back. 
That woman also went along with him. He treated her 
also as before, fingering her, private parts. She also threw 


axi'mat. Gaktu'lxam aklu'na a'exat aga saq u axoqE'nk, 
a'xka waJa'lxt: "QE'nEgiska mcgi'uxt iqle'yoqt idia'ge- 
wam! si'kteiutk, tfqa'wulqt tegE'lpx ; aga qioa'p ag' 
ayu'mqta. QE'nEgi qxfdau Emcgi'uxt iqie'yoqt?" La'-itc- 
5 kaba galki'm ILa'ktikc : "Qxi'dau na'ya itcnu'x iqle'yoqt." 
A'exat wi r t!a da'uxwa na'kim : "LIma'n iJman itcnu'x." 
GalxE'lxamx: tf Ag' alema a'xtiax alaxElqla'xid' alEma; 
alaxtuxwa'-ida yak!a x mEla iqie'yoqt qucti'axa." 

k!a x la gagi'ux wi't!a aklE'n' a'-ixat aiagwE'nEma ; 
10 aga gagi x uk u L Aga w^tla da x ukwa gatcu^a. Aga qloa^ 
itq u Je / ba; aga gagiu}a 7 da kxwo^a. Aga kxwo x pt itca^xt- 
pa aga gaqxo x gwiga idE'lxam atgigi^alama ayugwi x la-ida ; 
gaqxo'gwigax itslfnonks 1 qxfdauEmax wflxpama itqcxila 7 - 
uwukc idaga^Ex idaxitCE^Elit ; alugwa^alam' a^Ema cpak. 

15 Gairkim idiage'wam isklu'lEyE : "Aga t!a x ya mcgaxi'- 
ma." Aga kxwo'pt gaqaxi'ma ; galuxwi'la-it idElxam da'- 
itcka atgigi'lalama. Gali'kim idiaxi'lalit : 3 "Na'qe pu 
anugwHa-ida na'-ima na'ika. Daba/ dan mcg-iaxaia'dagw' 
a-ila'-u qxa'datc' itiu'ktix anugwila-ida." Aga kxw6 x pt 

20 gaqigE'lga ilqloa'dit; a-ila'-u gaqxi^loxix. Aga kxwo'ba 
gayagu'nila-it, agatctulxam : "Cma'nix e x wi anltxa' ilx- 
IccE'n ca'xEl, aga kxwo'pt amcklalama." 

gatctu'ckam idk'ktmax aga galugwa'lalamtck. Aga 
kxwc/pt gayugwi'la-it ; a-iiJa'k gatcto'x itka'qwit. Aga 
25 kxwo'pt gatcielga'mit iaklalx'ix-, gatcu'ctga. Galaglu'ma : 

1 Its'i'nunks stands (or it-ts!i'n6nks. 

Idiaxi'lalit (cf. -gila-it, to doctor") denotes properly medicine-man" in 

capacity of Moctor," of dispeller of disease; idiage'wam is used as equivalent 

to shanum" in its -wider sense of one who can inflict harm on otters by his con- 


him down. Behold, now they were approaching to where 
the girl was lying sick in the house. Now another one 
of the women, the oldest of. all, she was their oldest 
sister, said to them: "How you have treated the old 
medicine-man ! Look, blood is flowing out of his mouth ; 
now he is close to dying. Why have you done thus to 
the old man?" The four women said among themselves: 
"Thus has the old man done to me myself." One again 
said in like manner: "He fingered my private parts." 
They said to one another : " Now she too will find out ; 
she will think that the old man is bad, after all." 

Now also the other one, the fifth, took him on her back 
and went along with him. Her also he treated as before. 
Now the house was near by, and there she threw him 
down. And then people were gotten where the woman 
lay sick who should sing for him, while he was to treat (her) ; 
they obtained animals of such 3 kind from the land, large 
deer who could make much noise ; they were to sing 
out loud. 

Coyote, the medicine-man, said: "Now lay her down 
carefully." And then they laid her down ; the people who 
were to sing for him seated themselves. The medicine- 
man said : "I alone would not treat her. Put something 
around her here to hide her from view, so that I may 
treat her well." And then they took rushes and put 
them over her to hide her from view. Now there he 
sat by her, and said to them : "If I turn my hand up, 
then you shall sing." 

Then he took up the song, and they started in singing. 
And then he treated (her) ; he spread apart her legs. He 
stuck his penis into her and copulated with her. She 

trol of spirits. Not every idiaxi'lalit or "doctor" was such a "shaman" or "tama- 
noas," though an idiage'wam could generally cure disease. In the text the two 
words are used interchangeably for "dispeller of disease." 
3 Accompanied by a gesture in the recital.. 



Lgna'2ctglEl ttqle'yoqt." Ca'xsl gatctu'x Ka'kcEn ; gatc- 
hi'lxam: "AgE mcuda'2gwaltck, cpak mckla'temtcfc, 11 
Aga kxwo'pt cpak galugwa'lalEmtck a'lalalala. GacxEl- 
ga'xit ickla'lx-ix-. laka'xta qucti'axa ya'xta yakla'lx-ix- 
5 Lqlo'p galgi'ux aqE'nEkc E x nEgi-, gaya'lkapq cftlix ya'xtau, 
qxfdau gatcu'ctgax. Gacxgla'qlkax, gacxElga'xitx. 

Aga kxwo'pt xwo't gatciaxu'xax. Na'wit tla'ya galaxu x - 
xwax. GagugEmtcxu'qax wa'kaq: "QE'nEgi aga mki'- 
xax? Aga tci mtlu'kti imxu'x?" - - "Aga ntlu'kti inxu'x 
10 klma' dnux Hgnu'ctk ilqle'yoqt." 'Qxotk' a x -u, ga'n a-ic 
rmxux; aga ti'aya ilgmu'x ilqle'yoqt." Aga kxwo'pt ga- 
qiu'lxam iqle'yoqt: "Aga ma'ika ami'gikal iga'xux." Ga- 
irkim: "Na'qi tq!e'x nluxt Iqagi'lak. Qxa'daga ngucgi r - 
wal; na'qi tqagilak k!a x xc." Aga gayu'pa-, gali^glo'qlq. 

Coyote and the Mouthless Man. 

15 Wi'tlax galHwilxt w^mal isklu'lEyE. GatdgE^kEl ilgoa 7 - 
tilx qucti'axa ilka x la ilaxni 7 !!! ma%ix. GatclgE^kEl lEp 
gatxux ihcqo'ba. GalktE x tck; gi x gad ix't ina^un, di r gad 
ix*t ina'gun ila x kcEn ligE^gat-, galgikxaMm' aknfmba 
ina'gun. Kxwopt tk!f gatdu'x; gatdgE'lkEl galklo'ql' 

20 alakcs'n EnEgi, Igioqte'lal aknfmba. Galixlu'xwa-it : a LE r - 
pEt afxi/xwa anigElga x ya anilxu^tga !xt ila^agun ; gwa x - 
nixtcla qE x nEg' alxu'xwa." 

LE'P gatxo'x. Aga kxwo'pt gayuklwfxa ilaxnfmtemt. 

Gatcignlga txt ila'nagun. Gayu'ya, gatci x ukl iJa^agun, 

25 gatci'upcut itlo'xwatckpa. Aga kxwo'pt yaxta kxwo'ba 


called out: "The old one is copulating with me." He 
put up his hand and said to them : "Now go ahead, 
sing hard." And then hard they sang and sang. The 
two (parts of the) penis stuck together. Truly, that was 
the same penis which they had cut off with the stone 
knife ; that (Coyote) penetrated her halfways, thus he 
copulated with her. The two (parts of the) penis recog- 
nized each other, they stuck together. 

And then he pulled it out of her. Straightway she 
became well. Her mother asked her : " How are you 
feeling now? Have you now become well?" - "Now I 
have become well, but the old one has copulated with 
me." - "Well, never mind, just keep quiet; now the old 
one has done well to you." And then the old man was 
told: "Now she has become your wife." He said: "I 
do not want a woman. I am walking about without 
particular purpose; I desire no woman." Then he went 
out of the house ; he left them. 

Coyote and the Mouthless Man. 

Again Coyote travelled up the river. In the water he 
saw the canoe of a certain person, as it turned out, a man. 
He saw how (the man) dived into the water. He came 
up out of the water, his hands holding one sturgeon on 
that side and one sturgeon on this ; he put the sturgeons 
down in the canoe. Then (Coyote) looked on and saw 
him count them with his finger, pointing about in the 
canoe. He thought: "When he dives, I shall take hold 
of and steal from him one of his sturgeons ; let us see 
what he'll do." 

The person dived under water. And then (Coyote) 
swam towards his canoe. He seized one of his sturgeons. 
He went and took the person's sturgeon with him, and 


gayula'-itx; gali'xpsut. Aga kxwo'pt ga*kta'ptck ilaxnl'm- 
ba ; galktakxa'-ima aknl'mba tfa'nagun 1'xt wi'tla fxt. Aga 
kxwo'pt gatkto'qhi; wi'tla gaMo'qla. Bl x 2t galklo'ql; i'xt 

5 Aga kxwo'pt galku'qti ala'kcEn, ia'niwat ca'xlix, mank 
gi'gwal, wi'tla mank tlugigwal, anix mank tlu'gigwal wflx^ 
pa. Kxwo'ba galgiu'qti yu'xtpa. Pl x 2t kxwo'b' ala'kcsn. 
Ki'nua kfi'la'-ix, wi 7 t!a kxwo'b' ala'kcEn ; ki'nua qxa'damt, 
kxwo'b' aia'kcEn iaxka'ba isklulEyE. Kxwo'b' ala'kcsn, 
10 kxwo'ba sa'iba galu'ya yaxka'ba. Na'awit galigo'qwam. 
Na x 2wit qlwo'bixix galigo'qwom. 

Gatkriuqti'lalumx ; galixtcklwa^anumx t!a x ya galksi- 
kllu'tkax. Kwo'dau ya x xt!ax tk!i x gatclu'x ifgoa'lilx ; 
Ixlu'idEt ilgoa'h'lx. Qucti'axa kla'ya ila'k^xat; ia'ima ila x - 

15 gEtc kwo'dau ilsta^us ila^Lioxwe. Wa r wa galgi x ux 
ilagE r tcpa k x mE na x qxi gatclxtcmo^ ; aic ki^wal ilagE 7 tcpa : 
tt DEn dEn dEn dsn." Qucti x axa Igi^mela ya'xtau q^dau. 
Aga kxwo'pt qe x dau galgiu'lxam ila^Etc E^Egi : "Naqx' 
itlu'kti ma'ika;" qe'dau Igiuxu'lal tfgoa'h'lx ; xa x b illuxt ila- 

20 go'mEnit. "K!ma tq!^x aga Igi'uxt fga ina'gun da'ulax 
itka'la; algEnuwa'gwa Iga." Qe'dau nixlu'xwa-it isklu'lEyE. 

Aga kxwo x pt ga^u'ya wi'tlax alaxnfmiamt. GalixElki'lx 
gahi'yapEt; ilklalamat gatdu'mitcki , watu'lpa gatchda'- 
max. Aga kxwo'pt saq u gahdilx. Gatci'uxc ina'gun 
25 tqlu'p Iqiu'p gatci'uxax ; t!a'ya t!a'ya gatclu'x ilkla'lamat. 
Ina'gun gatcikxwa'tklx, gatciu'qxopk ; sa x 2q u gayu'kst. 
Aga kxwo'pt da r g gatci'ux, gatcfxtklwa. Aga kxwo'pt 


hid it in the bushes. And then that (Coyote) seated him- 
self there and hid. Then the person came up out of the 
water into his canoe; he put his sturgeons clown in the 
canoe, again one and one. A nd then he counted them , 
again he counted them. Quite silently he counted them 
there was (only) one sturgeon in his canoe. 

And then he pointed his finger out, first up high, (then) 
a little lower, again a little lower still, finally a little lower 
still on the ground. There he pointed, where (Coyote) 
was sitting. Quite silently (he held) his finger there. 
(Coyote) tried (to move) to one side, there again was his 
finger. No matter which way (he moved), there was his 
finger (pointing) at him, Coyote. Where his finger was 
(pointed to), there he went straight up to him. Straight- 
way he went to meet him-, straightway he came quite 
close to him. 

He kept pointing at him ; (Coyote) kept dodging from 
side to side; the person kept him well in eye. And he 
also looked at the person ; the person was strange in ap- 
pearance. As it turned out, he had no mouth ; he had 
only a nose and eyes and ears. He spoke to (Coyote) 
with his nose, but he did not hear him ; just deep down 
in his nose (could be heard): "Dsn dEn dEn dEn." In fact 
he was scolding that (Coyote) in this way. Thus he said 
to him with his nose: "You are not good." Thus the 
person kept telling him; his heart was dark within him. 
"But perhaps now this man desires the sturgeon ; perhaps 
he is going to kill me." Thus thought Coyote. 

And then the person went back to his canoe. (Coyote) 
made a fire when he had gone. He gathered some stones 
and heated them in the fire. And then they all became 
heated up. He cut the sturgeon in two, cut it all up, 
and carefully made ready the stones. He laid the stur- 
geon out on the stones and steamed it; it was entirely 


wi't!a galiglu'ya yaka'xt' ika'la da'n ia'kcxat ; galigo'qwam 
ixtxF/lKmax iskiu'lEyE. 

Aga kxwo'pt gatcigE'lga ya'xta yukst it!u'kt' ina'gun. 

Kwopt nixhi'xwa-it iskiu'lEyE: "Qxa'tki'ax' atciu'xwa." 

5 Gatsikllu'tk ; gatcigE'lgax yaxk' itlu'kti; aMc xwi'xwi ga- 

tciu'xox ina^un; kxwopt gatciula'dax. Aga kxwo'pt 

isklu'lEyE: "Na x x' itlu'ktix" galixhi'xwa-it. Gatciugwa 7 - 

lEmamEx ina'gun ; baqba x q gatci'ux dama'la. Aga ixlu- 

xwa'nit isk!i/lEyE: "QE 7 nEgi atciu^wa?" K!u x na fxt gat- 

10 cigElga; wi x t!a da'ukwa gatci'uxox. 

Galiglu'ya; i x wi i x wi gatci'ux. Aga kxwo x pt galixlu x - 
xwa-it: a Lku x n qE r ngi aniu x xwa ia x kcxat anil^xa." Qana x n 
gatcigE'lga iqta x ix ; capca x p gatci 7 ux a x nat ; gali^ox alqi- 
di'w' aq!e'weqe itcak!i x siL Aga kxw6 x pt galiglu x ya ; qana r n 
15 tcigE'lgat iqta^x ; i x wi i 7 wi gatci x ux. Kx^nua galixtcklwa 7 - 
nanEmtck. Aga gatcikxa^imax iak w cxa x tpa; xwfct ga- 
tci'ux; wa x x ga x lxux ftagaVulqt; galiqtu^k : "Ha4 ha4." 3 
Gatciu'lxam : " Mxa'tcktcam wimafta^t." Galikta x ptckpEt 
pla'la igi'xox; aga wa'wa gatci x ux. 

20 Gaqrulxam isklu'lEyE : "Na'qxe Ika yaga'il imiu'qxopk 
ina'gun." Aga kxwo'pt gali'kim isklu'lEyE :' "Hi imEnoa'q 3 
pu; tq!e'x mitxt ina'gun ; imi'nEkux ina'gun." Aga gado- 
xwi'Mitck idE'lxam: "Ika'la yak w cxa v t iqi'lux." Quct 
ka'nauwe, idElxam iaka'uxtau i'xt wflxam da'n ida x k w cxat. 

25 Aga kxwo'pt gatxi'gElukl -, itgakcxa'tkc gatcta'wix saq u 

idElxam iaka'xtau fxt wflxam. Gatcii/pqEna wilx iaka'x- 

'NimtcxaVa. 114 Gaqh/lxam : "AgagHak aqa'mE- 

That is, the mouthless man. 2 Whispered. 

1 ImEnoa'q is for imnu'waq. 

Nimlcxa'ya was a village of the Cascades Indians (Wala'la) situated on the 


done. And then he removed it and laid it down. Then 
that same man who had no mouth went back to him ; 
he met Coyote as he was eating. 

And then he 1 took hold of that good well-done stur- 
geon. Then thought Coyote: "Wonder what he'll do 
with it!" He looked at him; 1 he took the good (stur- 
geon). He just sniffed at the sturgeon, then threw it away. 
And then Coyote thought: "It is not well." He went 
and brought the sturgeon back and brushed it clean. 
Now Coyote is thinking : " What is he going to do with 
it?" Once again he 1 took hold of it and did with it again 
as before. 

He went up to him and looked at him closely. And 
then he thought: "I don't know what I shall do to make 
him a mouth." Secretly he took a flint and chipped it on one 
side ; it became just like a sharp knife. And then he went up 
to him with the flint secretly in hand and looked at him 
closely. In vain the man tried to dodge from side to 
side. Now he put the flint down over his mouth. He 
sliced it open, and his blood flowed out. He breathed: 
"Ha4 hazj.." 3 He said to him: " Go to the river and wash 
yourself." When he had come up out of the water, he 
stopped and spoke to Coyote. 

Coyote was spoken to (thus): "You do not seem to 
have steamed a large sturgeon." And then Coyote said : 
"Well, you would have killed me; you wanted the stur- 
geon for yourself. You got after me for the sturgeon." 
Now the people told one another: "There is a man 
whose mouth has been made for him." In truth, all the 
people of that same one village were without mouths. 
And then they betook themselves to him. He made 

Washington side of the Columbia, about half a mile below a high rock (Ik'.a'lamat) 
now known as "Castle Rock." To make amends for their former mouthlessness, 
the people of Nimicxa'ya are (or were) said to possess particularly large mouths. 

loda." Gali'kim: "Kla'ya! na'qi tq!e'x Enhi'xt pu tfqagi'- 
lak; na'qi anlgE'lgaya." 

Coyote and the Pregnant Woman. 

Wi'tla gayu'ya isklu'lEyE ; gali'lwilxt wi'mal. Galigu'- 
qxom ika'la idia'pc k!a'u uxwe'xt; idia'qxwit de'luxt pa't 
5 itk.'a'munak. SixmrnlW; iaq!a x qctaq E 7 nEgi yutxulft-, 
"Ana^" cixElge^xEnilx. Galigu'qwom ika'la yaka'xta. 
"QE'nEgi mki'ax?" "Na'qe qxada'ga qxi'dau Enki'xax. 
Axgika x l q!oa x p aklgs'lgaya ilkla'ckac. Kxwo'ba qxe'dau 
itkla'munak fnti. 


10 GatcigE x lga ; dakda x k gateaux. T!aya x gatctu 7 x idia- 
kla'munak; gatccu'gmatk itpi 7 nalx E x nEgi. Aga kxw6 7 pt 
gatciogomtcxu'ga : "Qaxpo / moxt?" "la'xiba next," 

gali'kim ika'la. "Atx^ya," gali'kim isk.'u'lEyE, "ma/niwat 
Emi x a naik' a x ga andu'ctxwa da x uda itkla'munak." Aga 

15 kxwo'pt gatciu'lxam : "Qxfdau pu amdu'xwa, sfnEklitk, 
cma'nix itkla'munak amu'ya." 

Aga kxwo'pt gadixlu'ctxEinit iaqla'qctaq ';' xol gadi'x- 
lux isklu'lEyE; Aga kxwo'pt gactu'ya idia'q^iamt ikala -, 
gactu'yam itq^i'ba. Gatctii'ctxuit cpalc. "Daqwa'u qe A - 
20 dau mka'la pu amdu'xwa itkla'munak. Amductxumfda 
cpa'k qe'dau pu daqwa'u." Gactu'pq ; gatca'gElkEl aga- 
gilak; p!a x la itca'lq, faMma Ika'kcEn atk!ftk!iq;ux. 

Twi i'wi gatcu'xwax IkakcE'nba ; qucti'axa alka't agakcE x n 

1 For similar cases in Pacific coast mythology of men walking upside down, 


mouths for all the people of that same one village. He 
called that same land Nimicxa'ya. They said to him : 
"We will give you a woman." He said: "No! I should 
not care for a woman; I'll not take one." 

Coyote and the Pregnant Woman. 

Coyote again went on and travelled up the river. He 
met a man whose feet were tied together, and whose legs 
were full of pieces of wood. He was turning somersaults 
and standing on his head, 1 and he kept crying : " Alas !" 
(Coyote) met this same man (and said) : "What are you 
doing?" "Not of my own accord am I doing thus. My 
wife is soon to beget a child; therefore have I thus come 
for wood." 

(Coyote) took hold of him and disentangled him. He 
put the pieces of wood in order, and tied them together 
with a hazel-bush rope. And then he asked him : " Where 
do you live?" "Yonder I dwell," said the man. "Let 
us go," said Coyote; "go first while I carry these pieces 
of wood on my shoulders." And then he said to him : 
"Thus you should handle it - - look at me - - whenever 
you go for wood." 

And then he packed it on his head; Coyote put it 
around on himself. Then they two went towards the 
man's house, and arrived at the house. He had packed 
the wood good and strong. " Moving along in this way, 
man, should you handle the wood. You should pack it 
good and strong, moving along thus." They entered the 
house. He saw the woman ; her body was sound, only 
she had one of her hands covered up. 

He examined her hand carefully ; it turned out that a 

cf. Farrand's Traditions of the Quinault Indians, p. 85. 


axkte'skax wakxa'ts itcaklaits. Datk!u'b da'luxt tgaxe- 
xwo'lal. E'wi gatcu'xwax ; dafklwo'p gatco'xwax; xwo'i ga- 
tcaxo'xwax wakxa'ts. "Kla'ya!" gatciu'lxam, "na'qe qeMau 
aga'wan; ida'xleu wakxa'ts da'ua nigalga'xit. Qe'dau 
5 knla'-lx pu amu'xwa, aga'wan amalo'xwa. Sf nEk!itk anu'ct- 
ga." Aga kxwo'pt aga'wan galaxa'lux ilkla'ckac itca- 
wa'nba. Kxwopt gakhi'xtum. "Qe'dau pu amlu'xwa 
ilqagi'lak. A'kcta da^ula ilk!a x ckac ma'ika ilmi'xan tfxo'x. 
Qe'dau pu amEcxu'xa da'uya fxt wilxam." 

Coyote makes a Fish-Trap. 

10 Aga gayu'ya isklulEyE. Na'wit gayu'ya; gatco'guikEl 
itkla'uwan iltcqo'ba. Kxwo'pt galixtu'xwa-it : ^QE'ngi 
andu'xwa? 75 Aga kxwo'pt galix lu^wa-it : "Anu x xw' ala x - 
lax." Gatcu'guikEl itkla^wan itksubna x iut. Gatcu x x a x la- 
lax. Aga kxwo'pt k!a r u gatcu'x ala'lax, k!a r u gatca'- 

15 iluxix*. Aga kxwo'pt gatssu'bEna na'wid datca'xa-i ala'- 

Aga kxwo'pt gatcu'lxam ala'lax isk!u'lEyE: "Cma'ni 
pa't amxu'xwa ala'lax, cma'ni pa'! itk!a'uan imi / k w cxat, 
aga kxwo'pt amgi'luma, 1 U'4 nu'temst \ amgi'luma, 

20 l Aga pa'2l itkla'uwan ala'laxpa.'" Aga kxwo'pt galaglu'- 
ma : u U'4 nu'lEmst ala'lax ;" galigi'luma isklu'lEyE : a U'4." 
Aga kxwo'pt gayu'ya isklu'lEyE, gatcu'guikEl aga pa'l. 
Aga kxwo'pt da'k gatcu'x a'lalax. Aga kxwo'pt gali'kim 
Lsklu'lKyE: u Gwa'2nEsum qe'dau amckto'xwa ; gatctu'x 

25 qc'dau isklu'lEyE." (Da'uya wi'lx SkalxE'lEmax 3 ia'xliu 
a'watci Sq! K 'ldalpl.) 

from a rope held by two posts slanting toward each other is suspended a 
t trap, into which the white salmon, in attempting to jump past, fall back. 
SkatxE'lEmax, or Sq'.E'ldalpt, was on the northern shore of the Columbia, above 

2 7 

small thorn was sticking in her little ringer, and that it 
had white pus in it. He turned it over and made (the 
swelling) burst, and pulled the thorn out from it. "No!" 
he said to him, "not in this way is she to become preg- 
nant; this which has been sticking in her is what people 
call a thorn. Thus should you treat her from now on, 
and you will cause her to be pregnant. See me copulate 
with her !" And then she became pregnant with a child 
in her womb. Then she gave birth to it. "In this way 
should you deal with a woman. Now this infant has 
become your own child. Thus should you people do in 
this one village." 

Coyote makes a Fish-Trap. 

Then Coyote went on ; straight on he went. He saw 
white] salmon in' the water. Then he thought: "How 
shall I catch them?" And then he thought: "I shall 
make a fish-trap." He saw the white salmon jumping 
along, and made a fish-trap. And then he tied 1 the fish- 
trap, tied it on to the string. He jumped straightway 
right into the fish-trap. 

And then Coyote said to the fish-trap: "If, fish-trap, 
you become filled, if your mouth becomes filled with white 
salmon, then you shall cry out, 'U'4, I am full;' you 
shall cry out, 'Now the fish-trap is quite full of white 
salmon.'" And then it cried out: "U'4, I, the fish-trap, 
am full;" Coyote shouted : "U^." And then Coyote went 
and saw that it was full now. Then he unloosened the 
fish-trap. Then Coyote said: "For all time shall you 
people catch them thus ; thus did Coyote do." (The name 
of this land is SkahtE'lEmax 2 or Sq!E x ldalpl.) 

the Cascades, at the spot now known as Cooks' Landing, about half a mile below 
Drano. SkaixE'lEmax means "eating- place," while SqlE'ldalpt denotes "it keeps 
tearing out," the reference being to a lake connected with the river by a narrow creek. 


Coyote spears Fish. 

Aga kxwo'pt wi'tla gayu'ya. Gayuya'2 gayu'yam. Aga 

kxwo'pt gali'kim: "Aga palala'i mElxa'cat iltcqoa'." Gal- 

giu'lxam: "Kla'ya iltcqoa'." Aga gatcigE'lkEl wi'mal. 

Aga kxwo'pt gali'kim: "tttcqoa' k!a x xc Ignu'xt." Aga 

5 kxwo'pt galu'y' agagilak iltcqoa 7 ; gaklut!i x b' atlfwat. Aga 

kxwo'pt gagu^ada. GasixEli/tk isklu^Eys gaca^ElqliLx. 

Aga kxwo'pt gayu'ya iskiu'lEys gatca'gElga atli'wat 

gayu'ya ihcqoa 7 ; gatclu^Iiba. Aga kxwo x pt gatch/k 11 ! 

itq^ia'mt iltcqoa x . Aga kxwo^t gaqLi/qxumct qana x n 

10 idE'lxam. 

Gatcu'guikEl itk.'a'uwan ca x xw itk w 6 / kcxot. Aga kxwo^t 
gatci'ux isk!u x lEyE itcu x lq. Aga kxwo^t gatculxam aq!e x - 
yoqt: a lLu x g ila x na ; aniu x xw' itcu^q." Aga kxwo y pt 
gaklHut ilqla^ucEqcEq. N^qxi tq!e x x gatclu^. Aga 
1 5 kxwo x pt gayu x ya ; gatcu x x awoq r tca cu^cux ; gatca^iginxda 

Aga kxwo x pt gatcrutem ik!a x uwan. Aga kxwo^t gatci x - 
uk u l itq u Ha'mt. Aga kxwo'pt gatci'uqxopk. Aga kxwo'pt 
gayu'kst; gayu'ximux iga'pkwal ; qana'n idE'lxam gayu'xi- 
20 mux. Aga kxwo'pt gali'kim iskiu'lEyE : "Qe'dau amcgi'- 
uxa ikla'uan da'uyaba wi'lx idE'lxam." Aga kxwo'pt gat- 
giulxam idE'lxam: "Aga agagi'lak ama'gElga," Gali'kim 
iskiu'lEyE: "Na'qxi tq!e'x Enlu'xt ; naqx' anagE'lgaya 

Coyote eats Dried Salmon. 

25 Aga kxwo'pt gayu'ya. Kxwoba'2 gatcu'guikEl wi'-ixatpa 
itkli'lak. Aga kxwo'pt gadixs'lmux. Aga kxwo'pt gayu- 
go'ptit, gayu'mEqt. Aga kxwo'pt gadiq!Elki'uba icia'gitc- 
ba yaVcxatpa wamiJu'xiba. Qucti'axa .wi'npo ya'xtau 

2 9 

Coyote spears Fish. 

And then again he went on. He went and went (until) 
he arrived (at a certain place). And then he said : "Now 
I am extremely thirsty for water." They said to him : 
"There is no water." Then he saw the river, and said : "I 
desire some of [the water." And then a woman went for the 
water. She dipped down the bucket and lost hold of it. 
Coyote saw that she was crying. And then Coyote went 
and got hold of the bucket ; he went to the water and 
dipped it down. And then he took some water along 
with him to the house. Then it was drunk without knowl- 
edge of the (other) people. 

He saw white salmon with their mouths agape. And 
then Coyote made a salmon-spear. He said to an old 
woman : " Give me a string ; I am going to prepare a 
salmon-spear." . .And then she gave him some large beads. 
He did not want them. So then he went and cut up 
some wild-cherry bark in thin strips ; he wound it around 
on the salmon-spear. 

And then he speared a white salmon. Then he brought 
it to the house and steamed it. Then it was done, and 
they ate a side of split fish ; they ate it without knowl- 
edge of the (other) people. And then Coyote said : 
"Thus shall you people get white salmon in this land." 
"Now you shall get a woman." Coyote said: "I do 
not want any woman. Never mind! I'll not take her." 

Coyote eats Dried Salmon. 

And then he went on. Over there he saw in the trail 
some dried salmon. And then he ate it. Then he fell 
asleep and died. The salmon went out through him at his 
nostrils, at his mouth, and at his ears. In truth, it was 


lu'q! gatci'ux isk!u'lEyE. Gatci'uwaq, gayugo'ptit. Aga 
kxw6'pt gatciu'pgEna wflx. Gali'kim : Aga' da'uya 
whx alixu'xwa ya'xliu Itkli'lak. 1 Aga gwa^nEsum amc- 
giu'pgEna ya'xliu Itkli'lak." Qe'dau ya'xliu Lmuyaqs6'q u . 2 

77/ Story concerning Coyote. 

b Aga kxwo'pt gayu'ya-, gayuya'2 ; gayu'ia-it. Aga 
kxwo'pt gasi'xlmklna-uWtsk isklu'lEyE. Aga kxwo'pt 
isklu'lEyE gasi'xtuks. Aga kxwo'pt qe'dau gali'xox; e'wi 
gali'xox iaklalxixpa, e r wi tcklfc gali'xox iaqla'qctaqba ; 
tcklfc gaqi'ux. Gali'kim isk!u x lEyE : a Naqx' itlu'ktix imc- 

10 gno'x." Aga kxwo'pt idwo'tca gatcuxa'bu ; na r qxi tq!e x x 
gatcto'x pu gaqxawiqLa'xit. Aga idw6 7 tca nitcuxo'dwa-ix. 
Aga kxwo'pt dakda'k galu x xwax idwo'tca ; itkcuqxi'dami- 
daba idwo'tca. 

Aga kxw6 7 pt ka x nauwe can galxElqla'xit qs'nEgi nigi'- 

15 xatx isklu'lEyE. Aga kxwo'pt isklu'lEyE wa'lu gag'iux. 
Aga kxwo'pt nixlu'xwa-it : "Ag' anxlxE'lEma." Aga 
kxwo'pt gali'kta idE^xamba. Aga kxwo'pt galu'gakim : 
a lakla'mEla-ix nigi'xatx isklu'lEyE; iakla'lxix nici'xatukc." 
Aga kxwo'pt wi't'.a gali'kta isklu'lsyE. Galixluxwa-it: " Ya r - 

20 xiba na'cqi qxns'lqlat; kla'ya quct a'ga aqxnslqla'xida." 

Gali'kta wi't!a di'xt i'tq^e. Aga wi'tlax uxokla'iawu- 
lal; "Aga nici'xatukc isklu'lsyE," duxik u inal wi't!ax ids'l- 

1 Itkli'lak, or "Dried Salmon," is now called "White Salmon Landing," and was 
formerly inhabited by both Chinookan (more particularly "White Salmon") and 
Klickitat Indians. Salmon was often dried, pounded, and preserved in baskets, 
for use in winter, and to be traded off to other tribes who came regularly to the 
Dalles for barter. 

Lmuyaqso'q", or Lmie'qsoq, was about half a mile up the river from Itkli'lak, and 
on the same (Washington) side of it. Its site is now occupied by "Burket Ranch." 
It also was occupied by "White Salmon" Indians (Itk'.a'uanbam' idE'lxam), who 
spoke, with probably only slight variations, the same dialect as the Wishram and 

the "story" of what he did, which would spread among the people and 
make Coyote their butt. A curious materialization of the mere idea of a naVra- 


a flea which Coyote had swallowed. It had killed him, 
(so that) he fell asleep. And then he named the land. 
He said: "Now the name of this land shall be Dried 
Salmon. 1 Now forever shall you people call its name 
Dried Salmon." Thus is its name : Lmuyaqso'q 11 . 2 

The Story concerning Coyote. 

And then he went on. He went and went (until) he 
seated himself. And then Coyote looked all around. 
Then Coyote sucked himself. Thus he did : he turned up 
his penis, and bent down his head (so that) he stooped 
down. Coyote said: "You 3 have not done me good." 
And then Coyote locked up the story (of his obscene 
act) ; he did not wish that people should find out about it. 
So he headed the story off. But then the story loosened 
itself; they 4 caused it to break out (from its prison). 

And then everybody found out what Coyote had done 
to himself. Now Coyote became hungry. Then he 
thought: "Now I shall eat." And then he went among 
the people. But they said : " Coyote has acted badly ; 
he has sucked his own penis." And then Coyote went 
on again. He thought: "Yonder I am not known; truly 
now they shall not find out about me." 

He went on (until he came) to another house. But 
again the people were laughing among themselves ; " Now 

live or report into an entity independent of the narrator is here exemplified, simi- 
larly to the common conception of a name as a thing existing independently of 
its bearer. 

4 The text is obscure. It is said that Coyote requested all things present not 
to carry off the "story," but forgot about the clouds (itka'), just then sailing above 
the spot. Not bound by a promise, they tore out the "story" from its fastness 
and conveyed it to the people. Thus was explained how all had heard of Coyote's 
obscenity, though no one had witnessed it, and though he himself did not tell any one 
of it. North of the Columbia and opposite Mosier may still be seen a long, high 
mountain called Idwo'tca or "Story," in which Coyote attempted to lock up the 
"story." Its clefts are due to the sudden force with which the "story" broke out. 


xam. Aga kxwo'pt nixhi'xwa-it : _ tf Qu'ct~aga qxnE'lqfet." 
Aga kxwo'pt gayu'ya. Aga wi'tla gayu'pqa Ju'xt ilq!e'- 
yoqt. Gali'Jlupq ; gatdgE'lksl ilgoa'lilx palala'-i lak! w a'iyukc. 

Aga kxwo'pt gali'kim: "Walu gnuxt." Aga kxwo'pt 

5 galgiu'lxam Igoa^ilx : "Kla'ya itlxlEm. Dauya naik' 

i'tciq da'uya mi'tqxEmit iakla'mEla i'tdq." Aga kxwo'pt 

gagi'lqwim da x uya itca'lq, iqlmfba gagi'lut. Gagiu'lxam : 

^Kla'ya itfxlE'm. Da'uya na'ika yakla'mEla i'tclq ayamEl- 

guE^ma." Aga kxwo'pt gagriquim. Aga kxwo^t galixE 7 - 

10 IEHIUX. Na'qxi sa'iba galixE'lEmux ; na x qxi lu x qx gateaux. 

Gatciu^ada. Aga kxwo^t tslu^us gal^xox. Aga kxwo^t 

galixu'tk iagi x tcxutpa, k!a 7 u gatcruW. Aga kxwo^t ts.'u 7 - 

nus gatcruldi Gayu x pa. Gayu x ya. 

Gayuya x 2-, gayu'yam. Galilla'klwatck. Aga kxwo'pt 

15 gairkim: " Mca'imadikc mcxlxE'lEmax ; aga na x it!a tsiu'nus 

amcginglu'tka ; lu'qx a'lEm' alinxE'lEmuxuma na'itla." 

Aga kxwo'pt^ gayu'ya itkla'lamat ; daLxopLxo'p gatctu'x 

isk!u x lEyE. Aga kxwo'pt gali'kim : " Mca'imadikc mcxl- 


20 Aga kxwo'pt gayu'la-it, gadilmu'ya. Aga kxwo'pt 
e'wi ga'lixox; iage'tcxut gatcigE'lga. Da x k xwo'l gatci'ux. 
Qucti'axa na'mEn ixt igu 7 nat kxwo'ba yagi'tcxutpa yuxwa'xt. 
Gatcixi x ma; na'mEn igu'nat da'k gatci'ux. Na'mEn ik.'un' 
i'gunat yu'xwaxt ; aga kxwo'pt gatcixi'ma. GalixlxE 7 - 

25 kmtck; galixE'lEmux saq u . Gatciu'lxum sa 7 q u iagi'tcxut; 
aya'faxit gala-ixE'lEmux. 

Aga kxwo'pt gayu^a-it; sa / q u gatctu^xum ia'gitcxut. 
Aga kxwo'pt nixh/xwa-it : "Wi'tlax anu x ya ; qucti'axa igu'- 
nad ya'xtau ignE'lqxwim/ . Aga kxwo'pt gayu'ya. Na'wit 

30 kxwo'ba gayu'yam. Aga kxwo'pt gayu'pqa gagilqxi'mba ; 


Coyote has sucked his own penis," again the people were 
saying to one another. And then he thought: "Truly 
now I am found out." So then he went on. Then again 
he entered a house (where) an old person was dwelling. 
He went in to this one and saw that the person had sores 
all over. 

And then he said: "I am hungry." Then the person 
said to him: "I have no food. I have this flesh of mine 
which you see, my ugly flesh." And then she gave him 
to eat of this flesh of hers, she gave it to him in a plate. 
She said to him: "I have no food. This bad flesh of 
mine I shall give you to eat." So then she gave him it 
to eat. Then he ate, (but) did not eat in real truth ; he 
did not swallow it. He let it fall down (until) there was 
a little left of it. And tken he put it into his quiver 
and tied and took it with him. He took a little of the 
(sores) with him. He went out of the house and went on. 

He went and went (until) he came to (some people). 
He got scent of something to eat. And then he said : 
"You are eating alone, but you will save a little for me 
also ; I too will swallow and eat some." And then he 
went for some stones ; Coyote bored them through with 
holes. He said: "You are eating alone." 

And then he sat down, he was tired out. Then he 
turned and got hold of his quiver. He untied it and 
pulled out (what was inside). Behold, there in his quiver 
was one entire salmon. He put it down ; he had taken 
out an entire salmon. There was another entire salmon 
inside, and he put that down. He started in eating, and 
ate it all. He ate up his whole quiver, ate his bow. 

And then he sat down ; he had eaten them all up, (in- 
cluding) his quiver. Then he thought : " I shall go back ; 
truly it was a salmon which she had given me to eat." 
So then he went. Straightway he arrived there. And 



wi'tla kxwo'ba gayu'ya. Kxwopt gagiu'lxam : "Kla'ya 
dEn ayamElu x da ithdE'm. Aga da'b' igidi'mam isklu'lEyE. 
Ini'lqxwim; saq u itci'utada na'ika i'tctq. Na'qxi tq!'x 
itci'ux; itci'ulada sa'q u naik' i'tciq. Aga k!a x ya dan 
5 ayamElgwrma." Aga kxwo'pt isklulsyE gatcu'mila aq!e x - 
yoqt na'qxiba gagHqxwim. Aga kxwo'pt iklma'kan ga- 
tci'ux isklu'lEyE. Aga kxwo'pt wi x t!a gayu'ya isklulEyE. 

Coyote and At'at'a'lia} 

Kxwo'pt aga galixE'ltcmaq isklu'lEyE Atlatla^ia ika'uxau 

10 idE'lxam luxlu'x cktu'xt. Aga kxwo'pt gayu'ya isklulEyE , 
tqlo'p gatclu'x iskkt'kyE ilkE x nEkc. Aga kxwo'pt gatdx'ca 7 - 
mit-, k!a x uk!au gali'xElux ilkE^Ekc sa 7 q u iaqla'qctaqba 
kxwo'dau idia x kcEnba, sa r q u ka x nauwe qa/xpa. Aga 
kxwo'pt gayu'ya isklu'lsyE. A'dit Atlatla'lia. Aga kxwo'pt 

15 gatca'gElkEl isklu'lsyE At!at!a 7 lia. Ke'nua e'wi gali'xox 
aga wi x t!ax gagi^wo-ix. 

Aga kxwo'pt gayu 7 txuit isklu^Eys ; ka x nauwe ce^Llai- 
Llai ya'lq isk!u x lEyE. Kxwopt gagii/lxam At!at!a 7 lia 
"QE'nEgi gamxa'tx?" Kxwopt gatcu'lxam : "Kla'ya p' a- 

20 mulxa'ma; 2 haa x i pu ma^tlax ayam^xwa da x ukwa pu 
kxwo'dau ayamulxa'ma." Aga kxwo'pt gagiu'lxam : 
a QE x ngi ga'mxatx c^iLlaiLlai imi'lq?" Kxwopt gatcul- 
xam : "Htcklwi'an gate'nxitx sa'q 11 i'tdq-, kxwopt gatcni't- 
galq watu'lpa." Gala'kim Atlatla'lia : "Itia'ktix nai'ka 

25 amnu'xwa da'ukwa ; amte'nluxa iitcklwia'n/ Gatci/lxam 
isklu'lEyE: "Ala'mElux' aga." 

Aga kxwo'pt gactu'ya kanactmo'kct. Na 7 2wit igitko'qba 

1 The child-stealing woman-fiend Atlat'.a'Ha of this myth corresponds to the 
Aq!asxc'nasxcna of Kathlamet mythology (see Boas, Kathlamet Texts, pp. 9-19). 


then he entered where she had given him to eat ; there 
he went again. But she said to him: "I shall give you 
no food whatever. Just now Coyote has been here. I 
gave him to eat, (but) he threw away all my flesh. He 
did not like it, (so) he threw away all my flesh. Now I 
shall give you nothing to eat." And then Coyote scolded 
the old woman because she did not give him anything 
to eat. Then Coyote became angry. And then Coyote 
went on again. He arrived (at another place). 

Coyote and At.'at.'a'tia} 

And then Coyote heard that Atlatla^ia and Owl were 
stealing people. So then Coyote went ; Coyote cut up 
some rushes. And then he dried them ; he tied the 
rushes on all over himself: on his head and on his hands 

- on every possible part. And then Coyote went along. 
At!at!a x h'a was coming. And then Coyote caught sight 
of Atlatia'h'a. He tried to turn aside, but without success ; 
now (Atlatia'h'a) headed him off. 

And then Coyote stood still; Coyote's body was rat- 
tling in all its parts. Then At.'atla'tta said to him : "What 
did you do to yourself?" Then he said to her: "I would 
not tell you. I would first have to do that same thing 
to you yourself before I should tell you." And then 
she said to him: "What did you do to yourself to make 
your body rattle ?" Then he told her : " I put pitch all 
over my body, then burnt myself in the fire." Atlatla'h'a 
said: "It is good that you do that same thing to me, 
you shall put pitch on my body." Coyote said to her : 
"Well, I'll put it on you." 

And then both of them went on. Very soon both 

2 P' amulxa'ma is for pu ayamulxa'ma. 


i'wi gactu'yam kanactmo'kct iskhi'lEyE Atlatla'iia. Aga 
kxwcVpt isklu'lEyE gatcu'guikEl idEFxam Ikabla't uxwi'nim ; 
ma'kct mokct ida'qxoq uxwi'la-itix kxwo'ba igitkxo'qba. 
Aga kxwo'pt gatctu'lxam isk!u x lEyE idE'lxam : "Kanauw' 
5 Emttx'tri't." Aga kxwo'pt gathui't idE'lxam. Aga kxwo'pt 
gatctulxam : "Htcklwran EtntHgElga k^nauwe." Aga 
kxwo'pt gatgi'a idE'lxam. Aga kxwo'pt gatklgslga idE x l- 
xam iltcklwi'an. Aga kxwo'pt gatkhi'kfam iltck!wi x an. 
Aga kxwo'pt gali'kim isklulEyE : "Tcfktcik mtkla'lux." 

10 At!at!a x lia isga'xus tcE^tcEk gatda x lux. 

Aga kxw6 x pt gatci/lxam : "Cma'ni ma^tla At!at!a x lia 
qe'dau ayamu'xw', ala'mEluxw' iltckiwi^n, saf<f imrtq 
atcmE'lgalgwa. Aga kxwo^jt idmilxiVulx amxi/xwa ; s^q 11 
klwac atxa'mxuxwa idE^xam." Kxwopt a x ga At!at!a x lia 

15 gala'kim : "Aga 'tlu'ktix amtenlu^wa ilteklw^an nai- 
t! a'ga." 

Aga kxw6 x pt gactu x ya igitkxo^ba, aga gatda x lux ihc- 
k!wi x an. Gatcu^xam: "Haa 7 ! na x ika iskiu^EyE ayamul- 
xa'ma a r ga cman' a'lEma Atlatla'lia atcmElga'lgwa." Aga 

20 kxwo'pt gatcut!i x wa ; gatca 7 lgalq. Kxwopt gali^im iskh/- 
lEyE: a Lq!6 x p itkla'munak mtktxa 7 la'kt ugiLlie'qlqix'." 
Aga kxw6 x pt galgda^gamit itk^munak aga^uguiba 
kxwo'dau ka'namokct itga'xuba kxwo'dau itga'qxuitba. 
Aga kxw6 7 pt galga-iktqwo'xix-. Aga kxwo'pt gatca'lgalq 

25 At!at!a x iia. 

Aga kxwo'pt gala'kim At!at!a^ia : "Aga tcnE'lgalqt." 
Aga kxwo'pt isk!u x lEyE gatcu'lxam : "Haa x i na'ika isk!u x - 
lEyE, na'qxi ma'ika." Gatca'-iktquix. Aga kxwo'pt gali x - 
kim: "Haa'i na'ika ayamulxa'ma." Aga kxwo'pt gala'- 

30 kirn At!at!a'a: "Tcna2lga / lqt. 7 ' Gatcu'lxam isklu'lsyE : 
"Kxwa'ic na'ika ayamulxa'ma." Gatca'lgalq sa'q u ; galo'- 

1 At'.at'.a'Ha's furnace, or perhaps better barbecuing-place, was located on a 

island called At'.at'.a'lia itcagi'tkxoq, near the Falls or "Tumwater," and 

only a short distance up from the main village of Wishram or Nixlu'idix. It was 


Coyote and At!at!a x lia arrived at the furnace. 1 Coyote 
saw many people mourning; there in the furnace their 
children were sitting two by two. And then Coyote said 
to the people: "Do you all stand up." And then the 
people stood up. Then he said to them: "Do you all 
get some pitch." The people went, and then they got 
some pitch. And then they came bringing pitch. Then 
Coyote said: "Do you rub it on over her body." He 
rubbed it over the eyes of Atiatla'h'a. 

And then he said to her: "If I shall do thus to you 
also, O Atlatla'h'a, (if I) shall put the pitch over you, you 
will burn all over your body. And then you will become 
strong, and the people will all be afraid of you." And 
then At!at!a'fta said: "Now it is well that you put the 
pitch on my body also." 

And then they two went to the furnace, and he put 
the pitch on her. He said to her: "I, Coyote, must let 
you know just when you, At!at!a x lia, will be burnt (suffi- 
ciently)." And then he pushed her in, and she burned. 
Then said Coyote: "Do you (people) cut four pieces of 
wood so that they be forked." And then they fastened 
the pieces of wood on to her - - to the front part of her 
neck and to both her arms and to her legs. Then they 
turned her over, and Atlatla'lia burned. 

And then Atlatla'lia said: " Now I am burning." Then 
said Coyote to her : "I, Coyote, must (tell you when you're 
done), not you." He turned her over and said: "I must 
tell you." And then said At ! at! alia : "I am burrrning!" 
Coyote said to her: "Soon I shall let you know." She 

reckoned as the extreme eastern point on the river of the Wishram (hence also 
Chinookan) country. 


maqt At!at!a'lia. Aga kxwo'pt idE'lxam gatctu'lxam 
isk.'u'lEyE : u Ag'amcxk!wa'yuwa." 

Aga wi'tlax gatci'gElkEl ika'uxau At!at!a'lia aya'gikal 
qucti'axa. Aga wi'tla tklu'na tctu'kh idE'lxam ika'uxau. 
5 Aga kxwo'pt gatclgs'lga nWrnxEm isklu'lEys. Aga 
kxwo'pt gatciu'lxam isklu'hyE : "Lga qa'ma pu ma'ika 
ika'uxau idE'lxam pu amdu'xwa qxi'dau? Kla'ya! Da'uya 
wi'gwa imi'xleu ika'uxau." Aga kxwo'pt gatdi-ila'gwa ; 
dacpuqkpu'q gal^xox ika x uxau. 

10 Aga kxwo'pt gali'kim iskiulsyE : "Qloa'b atgadi'mama 
idE'lxam Nadida'nuit. Cma'nix ika'uxau, idE'lxam alu- 
gwagi'ma, l Ag' ika'uxau qiltcfmElit aga qucti x axa il- 
goa x lilx ag' alu'mEqta.'" Aga kxwo'pt gali'kim isklulsyE : 
"Aga mtxklwa'yu idE'lxam ; ag' inuwa'q At! at! alia." Aga 

15 kxwo'pt gali x kim isk!u x lEyE : a Na 7 qxi pu qxfdau amduxw' 
idE'lxam ma^ka At!at!a x n'a ; aga na x ik' isklu^EyE, da x uya 
wi'gwa imu'maqt AtlatJalia." Qxfdau gali x xux Nixlu x i- 
dix'ba 1 k!Eck!E 7 cba. 

Coyote in Sklin. 

Aga kxwo x pt gayu x ya isk!u x lEyE ; galHwilxt 

20 Na'wit gayu'yam Sklfnba ; 2 gayuxuga'nut idslxam Sklfnba. 

Qlwa'p gayu'ya isklu'kyE kica'tckpa; itla'ma 'ngi kxwo'pt 

gayu'ya. Galiglu'ma. Aga kxwopt gali'kim : "Qa'dac 

gwa^nislm qxe'dau amcxu'xwa , amcglu'ma -, cma'nix g!wo x b 

1 Nixlu'idix, across and up about five miles from the present town of The 

Dalles, was the chief village of the Wishram, and contains the same stem element 

(-xluid-) seen in the generic name tta'xliiit, by which the Wishram call them- 

iclves. The first person singular of this, itcxlu'it ("I am a Wishram"), is prob- 

Echeloot" of Lewis and Clarke. The etymology of Nixlu'idix is uncer- 

Louis Simpson suggested that it was connected with diglu'idix ("they 

the people] are heading for it [i.e., the village]"), in reference to the coming- 

f many different tribes of Indians at the Falls for trading-purposes. 

s probably folk-etymology, as ni- is a common local prefix in place-names. 


burned all up ; Atlatla'fia died. And then Coyote said to 
the people: "Now do you all go home!" 

Now he caught sight also of Owl, of whom, in truth, 
At!at!a x Ha was the wife. And he also, Owl, was bringing 
along some more people. And then Coyote took hold 
of some ashes. Then Coyote said to him : " By what 
right, perchance, would you, Owl, do thus to people? 
No ! This day your name has become Owl." And then 
he threw the ashes at him ; Owl became all ashy gray. 

And then Coyote said: "Very soon will come here the 
Indian people. Whenever an owl (is heard), the people 
shall say, 'Now an owl is hooting; now surely some 
person will die.'* And then said Coyote: "Now do you 
people go home ; I have now killed Atlatia'lia." And 
then Coyote said : " No longer would you, Atlatla'lia, do 
thus to the people. Now I am Coyote, you have this day 
died, Atlatla'h'a." Thus he did at Wishram, in ... (?). 

Coyote in Skfm. 

And then Coyote went on ; he travelled up the river. 
Straightway he arrived at Skiing in Sk!in he urinated 3 on 
the people. Coyote went across to the Falls ; he went 
thither by means of a round-pointed canoe. He shouted. 
And then he said : " Mind, now, that you always do thus , 

2 Sklin was the country immediately north of the Columbia and east of the 
Falls or "Tumwater" inhabited by Sahaptian tribes. 

3 Coyote is supposed by the Wishram to have urinated on their Sahaptian 
neighbors to show their inferiority to themselves. This inferiority consists, among 
other things, in the use by the Sahaptians of a smaller and more rudely constructed 
canoe (it'.a'na), as contrasted with the long, elaborately built ikni'm of the Chinoo- 
kan tribes. The use of this it'.a'na is anticipated by Coyote himself. 

4 o 

amcu'ya, aga kxwo'pt amcglu'ma. Mca'ika Hka'imamt ; l 
qxe'dau iamcu'pgEna." 

Coyote and IttiE'xyan. 2 

Aga kxwo'pt gayu'ya iskhi'lEyE wi'tlax. Na x 2wit gayu'- 
yam; galixE'ltcmaq isklu'lEyE gwa'nisim ktutatia'mElqt 1 
5 idK'lxam itciE'xyan. Qxa'damt gayu'y' iknl'm na'wit gatci- 
gE'lga itc!fx-yan; gatciuktla'mElq ka'nauwe dan. "Nail!' 
aV atcnulatla'mElEqEma," isklu'lEyE galixluxwa-it. Aga 
kxwo'pt gayu'y' isklu'lEyE; gatcigE'lga yaga'il ik!a x munak. 
Aga kxwo'pt La'x gali'xox. GatcigE x lga itclE'xyan, gaqiu- 

10 Jatla'mElEq. 

NaVit ihcqo'ba gi r gwal isklu^EyE galix^max'itam 
wt'lxpa. Aga kxwo'pt gatcugi'kEl ikabla'd idE'lxam ; Iga- 
bla'd aknfm axu'xt kxwo'ba gi'gwal ihcqo'ba. Aga 
kxwo'pt gatcigE'lksl isklu'lsyE itc!E x x'yan yago'mEnil qxwo'L 

15 iki'ax. Aga kxw6 r pt gaqiu^xam isklu^Eys : "Ya 7 xtau 
itc!E x xyan yago'mEnil." Aga kxwo'pt Lq!6 7 p gatci'ux 
Lq!6'p gali x xox itclE'xyan yago^Enil. Aga kxwo^t ka x - 
nauwe gatkxEni'utck sa r q u akni^ kxw6 7 dau idElxam kxwo 7 - 
dau isklu'lEyE. 

20 Aga kxwo x pt gali'kim isklulsyE : "Lga pu qa/ma ma^ma 
itc.'p/xyan qxe r dau amdu x xwa idE^xam. Da x uya wi x gwa 
aga kxwo'pt qxe'dau amdu''xwa idElxam. Na'ika isk!u r - 
kyE yamu'lxam. Kwa'ic da'uyaba wflx atgadi'mama idE x l- 
xam. Kxwo'pt alugwagi'ma, 'Qxe'dau S EX gatci'ux is- 

1 The Ilka'imamt were the Sahaptian tribes living on the northern and southern 
banks of the Columbia, east of the Wishram and Wasco. They included the 
people of Sklin on the north, and the "Des Chutes" Indians (Wayam andTenino) 
on the south, of the river. 

The itc'.E'xyan, or Merman, of the Wishram, is evidently, as far at least as 
his name is concerned, identical with the gambler's protector itc!x-ia'n (itslxia'n) 

the Lower Chinook, among whom also his dwelling is supposed to be in the 
waters (see Boas, Chinook Texts, pp. 220-222; and Kathlamet Texts, p. 19). 

you shall shout; whenever you cross over, then you shall 
shout. You are the Ilka'imamt / thus I have named you." 

Coyote and ltd F! xyan: 1 

And then Coyote went on again. Straightway he ar- 
rived (at another place). Coyote heard that the Merman 
was always swallowing people. Wheresoever a canoe 
went, straightway the Merman seized it ; every one he 
swallowed. "Now let him swallow me also," thought 
Coyote. And then Coyote went and got a big tree. 
Then he came into view. The Merman caught hold of 
him, and he was swallowed down. 

Straightway Coyote fell down under the water (appar- 
ently) to the bottom. And then he saw many people ; 
many canoes were piled together there under the water. 
Then Coyote caught sight of the Merman's heart hanging. 
And then Coyote was told: "That is the Merman's 
heart." Then he cut it off; the Merman's heart was cut 
off. 4 And then everything floated up to the surface 
all the canoes and the people and Coyote. 

And then Coyote said : " By what right, perchance, 
would you alone, Merman, do thus to the people? This 
day you will have had enough of doing thus to the people. 
I, Coyote, have told you. Soon the people will come 
into this land, and then they shall say, 'Thus did Coyote 

Even to-day the imagination of the Wishram peoples certain bodies of water 
with mermen ; e. g., a lake in the mountains south of Fort Simcoe (the agency 
town of Yakima Reservation) is said to be ayatc'.E'xyanix ("peopled with 

3 This word is used only in reference to the swallowing of anything by an 

4 Coyote used the tree to climb up to the heart, which was dangling high up 
out of reach. 

itdE'x-yan.' Kxwo'pt a'ga itdE'x-yan p!aT am- 


Coyote at Lapwai, Idaho. l 

Aga yu'it iskiu'liyE caxla'damt aga q!wa'p tdu'xdix quct 
iak!a'mEla-ixba itdi'xiyEn 2 ia'lxam. Kinwa' dan idia'piqx 
5 yugwa'lal ca'xElix klrna' dnux qxa'daga 16 x q! atdu'xwa ; 
ki'nwa gi'gwalix alu'ya da x ukwa 16 7 q! atdu'xwa. Kwopt 
galixk'xwa-it : u Qxa'ngi anxtixwa ?" Gatca'gElksl wa x u- 
nEm. Galixk'xwa-it : "Itbi'naLx andu'xwa." 

Kwopt gatctu x x; a-ikla^i gatcda x lux. Kwopt ya r xt!a 

10 a-ik!a x u gadi x xlux; aga gatcigE^kEl ix^mat yaxagalcq!wa x - 

yamit ixi'mat; s^q 11 k!a x uk!au gatcu'xix itbi^iaLx il^paq 

gatci'iix. Kwopt galigslu^a; a-itsxa 7 p ia^ipaq gali'xL- 

xumx. Wi x t!a gateaux ik!u x na ili x paq; wi r t!a galigslu^a 

aga mank qlwa'p tsxa x p nixi/xwax. Wi x t!ax gatctu x x ; 

15 wi'tia galigElu^a tsxa x p. Da x ukwa galixu^alEmtck ; ila- 

gwE'nmixba aga Lq!a x p galigugwa^x qlwa^ixix gwEnmaba/t 


Kwc A )pt galigfmx isklu^iyE : "Hi itdi'xian! yamux^mul 

atxlat!a / manqma. w Ga x n ix^mat itclfxiyan. K!a x ya qxa r ngi 

20 gairkim. Wi x t!a gatdu^xam; it^gwEnmixba kwoda^i xa 7 !: 

gatci'ukct. A.'-i gatd x ux ya r xa k!a r u ilu^dix wo^nEmba 

iabina'Lx Engi. 

Aga fQV gali'xux itclfxiyan ; qatgi cpa/k gayupsakla'xit , 

sqxi'iak p!a x la gatci'ux. Aga ya'xtlax isklu'liyE gali'xux 

25 ffl'2 -, qatgi WxYix galixu'xwax itcjfxiyan Wi't!a ya r xt!a 

I.apwai is in the western part of what is now the Lap wai or Nez Perces Indian 

nervation, and lies south of Clearwater River, an eastern tributary of the Snake. 

The same word, itc'.E'xyan, is here used for the "mountain monster" as was 

used in the preceding myth for the "Merman." The latter is supposed to be half 


transform the Merman.' And then you, the Merman, 
will do no harm." 

Coyote at Lapwai, Idaho} 

Now Coyote goes towards the uplands, and he ap- 
proaches truly a bad place, the land of the mountain 
monster. 2 Anything with wings would try to fly over- 
head, but still he would swallow it without difficulty ; should 
it try to go by underneath, he would swallow it likewise. 
Then (Coyote) thought: "What shall I do?" He saw a 
hill and thought: "I shall make a hazel-bush rope." 

Then he made it and tied it on to the (hill) ; then he 
tied it about himself also. Now he saw the (monster) 
lying down, lying with face and belly down. He tied 
some hazel-bush ropes all together and made a long rope. 
Then he went up to him ; his rope ran out, falling some- 
what short. Again he made another rope ; again he went 
up to him and came a little nearer, yet fell short. Again 
he made a rope ; again he went up to him and fell short. 
Thus he kept doing, and at the fifth time reached close 
enough, about five steps off. 

Then Coyote said : " O mountain monster ! I am chal- 
lenging you that we two swallow each other." The moun- 
tain monster lies silent. He did not say anything at all. 
Again (Coyote) spoke to him ; it was the fifth time before 
he looked up at him. He said "Yes" to him, although 
(Coyote) was tied on to the hill by means of his rope. 

Now the mountain monster drew in his breath, - - fu 7 2 -, 3 
the (rope) was stretched out somewhat forcibly. In a 
little while he let it come to rest. Then Coyote also 

fish and half man, while the former is described as resembling rather a sphinx. 

3 The monster had been wont to devour all beings that passed by by drawing 
them to himself with his breath. Fu2 represents the sound made by sucking 


gatci'ux fa' 2. LagwE'nmix qxi'dau gacxu'x. Aga cpa'k 
gali'xux itcllxiyan ; adl'2 sEm ga'lixux isklu'liyE ; qatgi a'nuit 
gayula'platcgwixlitEmtck ; ca'xEli ca'xEli galixu'lalEtntck aga 
qlwa'p Iqiu'p iki'xax iabi'naLx; aga ya'xi caltla'pqt wou- 
5 na'mba kwo'ba qxi kla'u aki'xax. Fu'4 ia'Lqdix gatci'ux 
alalala Iga'la kwo'dau p!ala x gatci'ux. 

Aga ya'xtia isk!u x liyE gali'xux fu'4 da'uka Iga'la. Kwopt 
gaqHtcmoq: a A 7 4 na, a'4 na. BuV 1 " gaqi'ltcmoq ; ia'wan 
Igu'p galixu'xwax; gadigs'lba idiaq!a x mcukc. Qxida r uba 
10 da'minwa ixi'mat; ixkxa'-imat ia'wan. Cma'nix aqxigat- 
gwa'iaaxdixa na'wit lgu x p alixu'xwa ia'wan. Aga ya'xdau 
iskli/liyE fu 7 gatci'ux; anwit galiktgwo'xidix. Aga ya'xdau 
wa/x galuxwa'xax idiaqla^cukc ; qxi x dau idiak!a x ni. 

Aga kwo'pt cuV gatci'ux. Aga kwo'pt idE'lxam gatc- 

15 tu'x yaka'yaxdau sngi idiagfwoq. A-ilq!a'p ts!u 7 nus, 

Lla'x 11 , i x xt wrixam ; qxida 7 u aga gatct^x idE^xam. I'wi 

gali'xux aga k!a x ya idiagfwoq ; kwaic k!a x ya Wi'cxam 

idE'lxam gatctu x x. Ya^ima imal^tklu^mat ixi x mat. "Hi 

ya'xka aga aniu'xwa idE^xam Wrcxam." Aga ga 7 nwit 

20 Wi'cxam idE'lxam idapla'qxa imalx u tk!u / lmat Engi ; ya 7 xdau 

algi'ma ilca'xlatkc idElxam Wi'cxam imal^tklulmat diwi 

ilaqlo'qxctaq caipla^geq. 

Wi'tla i x wi galixu'x. A 7 la! K!a x ya kwa'ic kwp'ba bama 

iclK/lxam tcdu'xt La'pwai bama; aga kla'ya dan. Aga 

25 kwo'pt wi'c gali'xux. La'-ima ilga'wulqt JHuxt idia'kcEn. 

Kwc A )pt gu't gatcu'x wa'tckti ; gala-ixi'naLx idia'kcEnba ; ga- 

tcuLa'da. Ga1i x kim : "Ya'xdau imcxu'x Cwa'nic idE'lxam." 


drew in his breath - - fu2 ; the mountain monster became 
somewhat shaky. Again he also tried to draw him to 
himself, - - fu'2. The fifth time the two did thus. The 
mountain monster went at it with great force. Oh, dear ! 
Coyote became uneasy. Somehow he kept rising straight- 
way ; he kept getting higher and higher, and his rope 
almost snapped. Now the hill is worn far in at that part 
in which it had (the rope) tied to it. Long he tried to draw 
him to himself fu'4, and so on for quite some time 
before he let him come to rest. 

Now Coyote, in his turn, drew in his breath, -- fu"4, also 
for quite some time. Then the (mountain monster) was 
heard groaning: "A^na, a^na, Bu x x u ," he was heard ; his 
belly burst, and his guts went out of him. It is for this 
reason that he was always lying down, - - lying down on 
his belly. If he were to be turned over, his belly would 
straightway burst. And that Coyote tried to draw him 
to himself, fu' ; straightway he turned over. And that 
(monster's) guts were spilt out. Thus was his character. 

And then he skinned him. Then he made people out 
of that same (monster's) flesh. (He) cut off a little, threw 
(it) away, one village (came into being). In this way he 
made people. Then he discovered that he had no more 
flesh, (yet) he had not yet made the Wishram people. 
There was only the tongue lying down. "Well, then I 
shall make the Wishram people out of it." And indeed 
(he made) the flat-headed Wishram people out of the 
tongue. Therefore the people dwelling farther up say 
that the Wishrams' heads are like a tongue, flat. 

Again he looked around. Behold ! As yet he had 
not made any people belonging to that place, to Lapwai ; 
but there was nothing left at all. And then he felt sorry. 
There was only blood on his hands. Then he plucked 
some grass, wiped his hands with it, and threw it away. 

4 6 

Qxi'dau algi'ma : "Cwa'nic ittlu'xialmax tfga'wulqt Engi 
idr/lxam; ana'i idE'lxam idaxa'dinax." 1 

Coyote and the Sun? 

Aga yu'it isk.'u'liyE aga La'xiamt. Aga gayu'yam. 
"Hi," gatcu'lxam aga'Lax, "tlu'kdix anxu'xwa nla'-itix ayam- 
5 uwa'lalma. Qxa'daga anxEmga'ba ; Emcta'mx." Yaxa a x -i 
gagi'ux. Ka'dux u galugwa'wulx aga'Lax. Galu'ya ; kwo'ba 
ya'xt!ax isklu'liyE gatcu'wa. Adi r 2 tk!i x gali'xux ; ka'na- 
wi dan gatcigE'lkEl. 

Wi'tlax ka x dux u gacdu'ix ; wi'tla da'uka da'nmax ga- 

10 tcu'gegElx, idslxam qxa^gimax ugak^xax, qxa x ngi qxlu 7 - 

damit Rgage x lak, a x watci dan qxi x uxtkt, iakla'mEla dan, 

qxlu'waqt ; ka x nawi dan gatcigE x lkEl isk!u x lyE. Ani r x ssm 

ni'xux. Kwopt niglu'ma: " Yamcu'qxEmit dan imcgi'uxt." 

Wi'tlax gatcuge x kEl ; da 7 ukwa wi x t!ax galiglu^a : " Yam- 

15 cu'qxEmit." Kwopt k!a 7 ya tql^x 11 gag^ux. Gagiu^xam : 

"Aga kwo'pt ayamu^La. K!wa x txala imik!a / mEla ; na x qxi 

itlu'ktix pu amdu x xwa idE^xam mani 7 x man^x. Ku / ldix 

pu aluxwa x xa iak^mEla-ix." Qxida x u Engi da 7 uya k!a x ya 

ilxalqxLa'xilit. K!ma cma^ix pu gal^xux isk!u x lyE pu 

20 da'uya wi'gwa ka x nawi can mani x x mani x x qxLC^xt. Qxi x - 

dau ki'nwa gali'xux iskli/lyE. Aga kwo x pt dami x nwa ga- 

li'xux. Kwoba p!a r la gali^xux ; t!u 7 gayu x yam. 

1 This is a Neg Perce that has been borrowed by the Wishram probably in recent 
times (sec Herbert J. Spinden, in Journal of American Folk-Lore, Vol. XXI, 1908, p. 14). 

* This myth fitly closes the Coyote cycle, as in it Coyote reaches the farthest 
point to the east possible, the home of the Sun, who is conceived as a woman 
(a^a'Lax, u sun," is feminine in gender). A widespread myth, of which this seems to be 


He said: "Out of that you have become the Nez Perces 
people." Thus do men say: "Nez Perces are brave 
warriors, a people made out of blood. They are a dan- 
gerous people of warriors." 1 

Coyote and the Sim? 

Now Coyote is going towards the sun. Then he arrived 
(there). "Well," he said to the Sun, "it is good that 
I shall be your slave and that 1 shall follow you about. 
I shall work for nothing, you are chieftainess." So she 
said "Yes" to him. Early next morning the Sun arose. 
(Wherever) she went, there he also, Coyote, followed her. 
Oh, dear! he looked on and saw everything. 

Early next morning they two went again. Again, as 
before, he saw various things, - - in what various ways peo- 
ple were acting, how women were eloped with, or what was 
stolen, what bad things (were done), who was killed, - 
everything Coyote saw. At last he became uneasy. Then 
he cried out: "I see what you people are doing." 

Again he saw them. As before, he cried out again : 
"I see you." Then she did not want him. She said to 
him : " Now I shall have taken you with me long enough. 
You are too mean. It would not be good that you should 
always tell on people. There would soon be trouble." 
It is because of this that we do not find everything out. 
But if Coyote had become (the sun), everybody would 
to-day be betrayed in his secrets. In this way did Coyote 
in vain try to become (the sun). And then he gave it 
up. There he stopped ; he had arrived at the end. 

a kind of variation, or with which, at any rate, this is related, represents the 
various animals in council as to who is to be the sun. All are tried, but some 
objection is found in every case except in that of the one who is now the sun. 
Coyote also is tried, but is derided for his tale-telling', life would be impossible 
with him for the sun. 

4 8 

Ikla'n' isklu'lEyE. Qedau gaqi'ux iqa'nutck ga'ngadix 
itqleyo'qtikc. Da'uya wigwa kla'ya itqleyo'qtikc. 


Aga kxwo'pt galgi'uwaq igu'nat tfcgi'lukc IgwE'nEmikc 
isklu'lEyE fa'itc ipli'cxac. Galga'gslga aya^ikal iguna 7 t. 
5 Sa'q u galilxE^Emux. Galxu^uktcu iiia x gapt l^x't. Kxwc/pt 
aga gactugwe'Lkti. Aga kxwo^t da x k galxu^. Galu r ya 
wimalia^t. Aga kxwo^t galu 7 xuni yaga x ilpa wi^al ilga^t. 
Aga kxwo^t igu x nat gali^ox ag' idiahceVulx gali^ox. 
Aga kxwo'pt gali^ox iaga x il igu x nat. 

10 Aga kxwo x pt gayu x ya ; gatclu^axlam galgiVaq la^itcka 
wi'am. Aga gayagi^qxam agagHak wi-ixa 7 tpa. Aga 
kxwo'pt L.'a x k gatciu x x itca x qxuit. Aga kxwo x pt gala x ktcax : 
a Na x qx' itiu'ktix LJa 7 k imiux." Gaca^alqxilx. Aga kxwo^t 
gatci/lxam : a Aniu^wa t!a r ya imrqxuit atcrnEmax a^iEni." 

15 Aga kxwo'pt t!a/ya gatci x ux itca r qxuit. Aga kxw6 x pt ga- 
giu'lxam: a Yaxta 7 ba isklu^EyE yu x xt ip!i r cxac. KxwoMau 
ya x xiba ilcgHukc galgi x dwaq malka wi'mam. Ia r xiba 
bcHa-itix ikgi'lukc IgwE'iiEmikc." 

Aga kxwo'pt gayu'ya iguna't. Na'wit gayu'yam isk!u x - 
20 lyaba qa'xba ctu'xt ipli'cxac, watcE'lxba ctu'xt. Aga 
kxwo'pt i'wi gatclu'x ilie'kcEn igu'nat. Aga kxwo'pt gac- 
ki'm: "Na'qxi da'pt alidi'a hixwan kla'ya." Aga kxwo'pt 
gali'clupq iguna't. GacgigElksl. Aga kxwo'pt gacktca'x 
ip!i r cxac isklu'lEyE. Galicgu'qxam . Kxwo'pt gacgi'ulxam. 

The Salmon myth of the Wishram presents several striking analogies with 
that of the Lower Chinook (see Boas, Chinook Texts, pp. 60-87). Salmon 
and Eagle are the two most heroic figures in Wishram mythology, and the deeds 


(This is) the story of Coyote. Thuswise did the men 
of old in ancient days relate the tale. To-day there are 
no longer (such) men of old. 


Now the five wolves and Coyote, they and Skunk 
killed Salmon. They seized Salmon's wife and ate him all 
up. One of his eggs dropped down. And then it rained. 
Then it was loosened up and went on to the river. Now 
the salmon-egg floated in the Great River. 2 And then it 
grew into a salmon and became strong. He became a 
well-grown Salmon. 

And then he went, went to look for those who had 
killed his father. Then he met a woman in the trail. 
And then he opened her apron (?). She cried: "It is not 
good that you have opened it." She wept. And then 
he said to her: "I shall make beautiful your apron (?) by 
means of dentalium-shells." And then he made beautiful 
her apron (?). Then she said to him: "Yonder dwell 
Coyote and Skunk. And farther yonder are the wolves 
who have killed your father. Way yonder are dwelling 
the five wolves." 

And then Salmon went. Straightway he arrived at 
where Coyote and Skunk were dwelling ; they were living 
in an underground lodge. And then Salmon examined his 
hand. Then they two said: "He will not corneas far as 
this ; I think not." Then Salmon went in to them, and they 
saw him. And then Skunk and Coyote started in crying-, he 
went up to meet them. They spoke to him. Coyote said : 

of the former form what is evidently one of the most popular tales of the Chi- 
nookan tribes. 

2 That is, Columbia River. 



Gali'kim isk!u x lEyE: "Qa'ntcix gayu x mEqt wi'mam kxwopt 
bama' nuqE x lqt gwa x nEsum na x ika isk!u x lEyE ag' ip!i x cxac." 

Ag' amanElxE x ktcgwaya ala'xit wi x namc aya x laxit gamt- 

gi'dwaq." GatcagE x lga isk!u x lEyE _ala x xit ; kxwo'pt gatca'- 

5 ilut iguna't ia'xan. Gaqa'-ilut. E x wi gatcu'xwa; daLlak- 

L.'a'k gala'xox ala'xit. Aga kxwo'pt gatci'ugwilx. Ga- 

tcrulxam: "Aklo'n' a'nid ala'xit wi x nEmc ayala'xit. Qfi'nEgi 

gama'tx' ala'xit?" Gatca'-ilut aklo'na isk!u x lEyE iguna't 

ia'xan; gaqxa'-ilut ata'xit. Aga wi x t!a daL!akL!a'k gala'- 

10 xox. Aga kxwo'pt wi'tla gatci'ugwilx. 

Gaqxa'-ilut ala'xit alalu'n ; e x wi gatcu'xwa ; daL!a'kL!a x k 
gala'xox ala x xit. Aga kxw6 x pt wi x t!a gateau gwilx. Aga 
kxwo'pt gatca r -ilut aklo^' ala x xit alala^t; e x wi gatcu x xwa; 
wi x t!a da x ukwa daL!akL!a x k gala x xox ala x xit. Aga kxw6 x pt 
15 wi x t!a gatciugwilx. Aga wi x t!a a x -ixt ak!</na gatca x -ilut. 
GatcagE'lga ; e x wi gatcu x xwa. Gatcalla x da ala^it-, aga 
gatcagE x lga wram ayafo/xit ; axk ' 

Gatccu / lxam : " Gamtg^dwaq mda x ika wi x nEmc ; ayala x xit 
aga da x uya wig x wa inagE x lga." GaqigE x lga isk!u x lEyE. Aga 

20 kxwo'pt gaqi x ulada isk!u x lEyE gi x gwal wimalia x mt ; itpo x qux- 
iamt gaqi x ulada wi x t!ax ip!i x cxac. Qxe x dau gatciu x lxam isk!u x - 
IsyE: "Ma x ika ag' amgucgi x walEma isk!u x lEyE wi x malpa." 
Kxwo x dau ip!i x cxac wi x t!a da x ukwa gatciu x lxam. Qe x dau 
gali'kim iguna x t iaxa x n. Ip!i x cxac aga isk!u x lEyE qe x dau 

25 gatccu x x cta x xka gacgi x waq wi x am igu x nat. Aga gatccin- 
k!i x mnagwa ; qe x dau gatccu x x. 

Aga wi x t!ax gayu x ya igu x nat ia x xan. Na x 4wit gayu x ya. 

Aga kxwo'pt gatdxtcmo x q ilgagi x lak luqxE x lqt. Aga 

kxwo'pt galixlu x xwa-it : "Digutci x x Ika wi x namc da x ua aya x - 

30 kikal o'qxidqt." Aga kxwo'pt gayu x ya. Na x 4wit gayu x ya 

itq u il r ba. Gagiu x kct, gagiu x gulaqlk. Naxhi x xwa-it : "Naik' 

"When your father died, ever since then, I, Coyote, have 
always been weeping, also Skunk." 

"Now you will give back to me the bow, the bow of 
my father whom you have slain." Coyote took hold of 
a bow; then gave it to Salmon's son. It was given to 
him, and he turned it about ; it broke to pieces. And 
then (Salmon) beat him and said to him: "Give me 
another bow, my father's bow. What have you done with 
the bow?" Coyote gave Salmon's son another one. The 
bow was given to him, but again it broke to pieces. And 
then again he beat him. 

A third bow was given to him. He turned it about, 
and the bow broke to pieces. And then again he beat 
him. Then (Coyote) gave him another bow, the fourth. 
He turned it about ; again, as before, the bow broke to 
pieces. And then again he beat him. Now he gave him 
still another one. He took it and turned it around. He 
spanned the bow , now he had gotten his father's bow , 
now he recognized it. 

He said to the two : " You two have killed my father ; 
now this day I have obtained his bow." He seized Coyote. 
And then Coyote was dragged down to the river, while 
Skunk was thrown up to the mountains. Thus he said 
to Coyote: "You, Coyote, shall prowl up and down along 
the river." And also to Skunk did he speak in similar 
manner. Thus did speak Salmon's son. Thus did he 
treat Skunk and Coyote, two of those who had killed 
Salmon's father. Now he had taken revenge for him on 
them ; thus he did with them. 

Now Salmon's son went on again. Straight on he went. 
And then he heard a woman weeping. Then he thought : 
"Perhaps this is my father's wife who is weeping." And 
then he went on. Straight on he went into the house. 
She looked at him and recognized him. She thought : 


itcgika'l digutci'x *ka ya'xan igu'nat gaqxe'doaq ; digutci'x 
ia'xan." Aga kxwo'pt gagiu'lxam: "Lgws'nEmikc ifcgi'- 
lukc gaqxe'doaq wi'mam. Da'uya dik' itq u le'ba Iki'xax 
txe'la-itix. Kwaic atai'mama." Aga kxwo'pt gayu'lait 
5 itq u fe x ba; Vx gali'xox iqle'yoqt. 

Aga kxwo'pt i'xt gayu'yam icgi'lukc itq^e'ba. Gali'- 
kim icgHukc: "HE'mm, igu'nad ia^tckc." Aga kxwo'pt 
galixigE'ltcim. Aga kxwo'pt iq!e'yo'qt gayula'daxElitimtck. 
Aga kxwo'pt gagiu'lxam icgi'lukc agagi'lak: "ImiE'qcix 
10 ya'xtau iqle'yoqt na'ika wi'nEmc. P!aT ixa/ Iklu'na i'xt ga- 
yu'yam aga wi'tlax gali'kim: "HE'mm, iguna'd ia'q u tckc." 
Aga kxwo'pt galixigE'ltcim. Aga kxwo'pt iqle'yoqt gayu- 
la'daxElitimtck. Gagiu'lxam: u P!aT ixa iqle'yoqt na'ika 
wi'nEmc imiE'qcix." 

15 Wi'tla iklu'na ix't gayu'yam icgi'lukc. Wi't!a da'ukwa 
gatci'ux. Gagiu'lxam: "Imis'qcix ya'xtau na'ika wi'nEmc. 
P!aT ixa." Hala'kt icgi'lukc gayu'yam. Wi'tla da'ukwa 
gatci'ux. Gatciut!e'walalEmtck iqle'yoqt. Agagiu'lxam : 
"PlaT ixa. ImiE'qcix ya'xtau na'ika wi'nEmc. " Axa wi't!a 

20 ixgo'qEnkt icgi'lukc gayu'yam ; aga sa'qx u gayu'yam. Aga 
tlaya' gatsklsk!lu'tk iqle'yoqt. 

Aga kxwo'pt galgu'lxam agagi'lak IgwE'nEmikc iicgi'lukc 

a'xka itga'xalukc, ilga'gikal kanamlgwE'nEmikc ilcgi'lukc, 

- "Ag' amiulxa'ma wi'mam iqle'yoqt, aga itga'matcx atc- 

25 dintclu'xa intca'qcix." Aga kxwo'pt gagiu'lxam iqle'yoqt: 

"Aga amdu'xwa itga'matcx da'ula-itc IgwE'nEmikc." " A'i," 

gali'kim, u andu'xwa." Galu'qxwui. Ka'dux; aga kxwo'pt 

gatctu'x iqle'yoqt itga'matcx ; ila'qcix Icgi'lukc agatctu'x. 

A'lxt La'q u gatcu'xwa; wi'tla a'-ixt La'q u gatcu'xwa; 
30 wi'tlax a'-lxt La'q* gatcu'xw' alatu'n ; wi'tlax a'ixt La'q u 


"Perhaps it is the son of my husband Salmon who was 
slain ; perhaps it is his son." And then she said to him : 
"Your father was slain by five wolves. In this very house 
they are (to be found; here) they dwell. They will come 
presently." Then he sat down in the house and trans- 
formed himself into an old man. 

And then one of the wolves arrived in the house. 
The wolf said: "Hp/mm, there is a smell of salmon." 
And then he violently pushed against him, and the old 
man staggered to and fro. Then the woman said to 
the wolf: "That old man is your father-in-law and my 
father. Let him alone." Another one came and also said : 
"HE'mm, there is a smell of salmon." And then he vio- 
lently pushed against him, and the old man staggered to 
and fro. She said to him : " Let the old man alone, he 
is my father and your father-in-law." 

Still one other wolf arrived. Also he treated him like- 
wise. She said to him: "That is your father-in-law and 
my father. Let him alone." The fourth wolf arrived. 
Also he treated him thus ; he pushed the old man about. 
Then she said: "Let him alone. That is your father- 
in-law and my father." Now also the eldest wolf arrived; 
now they had all arrived. Then the old man took a 
good look at them. 

And then the five wolves said to the woman, her whose 
men they were, - - all the five wolves were her husbands, - 
"Now you will tell the old man, your father; now let our 
father-in-law make arrows for us." Then she said to the 
old man: "Now you will make arrows for these five." 
"Yes," he said, "I shall make them." They slept over 
night. It was morning and then the old man made the 
arrows; their (supposed) father-in-law made them. 

He took out one (arrow) ; yet one (arrow) he took 
out ; yet a third one he took out ; yet a fourth one 


gatcu'xw' aJala'kt; aga wi'tlax a'-brt Laq u gatcu'xwa ala- 
gwE'nEma. Gatctu'kt gwE'nEma itga'matcx ba'ma la'-itcka 
a'lEm' atdudi'na. Aga kxwo'pt gahi'qx ui - Gayutcu'ktix ; 
gatcLu'kwaLqk. Aga kxwo'pt gatcLlu't idga'matcx. Aga 
5 kxwo'pt sa'q u galixElxada'midagwa. Aga la'-itc ilcgilukc 
aga wi'tla galxkloa' ka'dux. Aga kxw^pt gayu'pa. Aga 
kxwo'pt i'wi i'wi gatci'uxix sa x q u wflx igu'nat. Aga gali'- 
kim, qe'dau galixlu'xwa-it : "Aga da'uya wi'gwa anludi 7 - 
naya ikgi'lukc wi x nEmc galgi'dwoq." 

10 Aga kxwo'pt iltcqoa' Vx gatclu'x. Ga'lupa aga'lax ; 
galixli'x; cpa'k aga'lax gala'xox. Aga kxwo'pt sa x q u 
galxca'q ihcqoa 7 . Kla'ya ihcqoa'. Aga kxwo'pt gatchi'x 
ihcqoa' igu'nad li'xtka itpoqo'xba; Waxca'mba 1 Iqu 7 ct ga- 
tdu x x iltcqoa". Sa 7 q u datsma'nix li'xtka iltcqoa 7 gatdu'x 

15 igu'nat. Aga kxwo'pt galilxac' icgttukc. Aga kxwo'pt 
ke'nua gayu'ya i'xtbo wi'qal. K!a x y' ihcqoa 7 gatdgElga ; 
ixca'qH wi'qal. Aga kxwo'pt gatclgs'lkEl iltcqoa 7 icgi'lukc. 
Ag' ilxE'cEt; kxwo'pt gayu'ya iltcqoa'ba. 

Aga kxwc/pt iguna x t gatcto x x idaga x itsax itkia^iunak 
20 tslu'nus itlo'xatck; qloa'p iltcqoa x gatctu x x. Aga kxw6 7 pt 

t!aya x gayu'la-it it!6 x xatckba iguna x t q!oa x p iltcqoa x ba. Aga 

kxwo'pt gayu'ya icgi'lukc ; gatclgE^kEl iltcqoa x ; gayu x - 

yana x 2wit iltcqoa'ba ; gatdugu'mctEm tftcqoa" icgi'lukc ; 

kxwo'pt gatdcYqxumct. Vx gatdu r x iguna'd iltcqoa". 
25 Aga kxwo'pt man(g) gi'gwal galxu 7 x iltcqoa'-, a-ila'u isi'a- 

xus gasxo'x. Aga kxwo'pt ia'maq gatci'lux icgi'lukc. 

Galixi'maxit icgi'lukc ; gayu'mEqt. Aga kxwo'pt gatdgslga 

iguna't icgilukc. Gatd'waq, gatd'ulada. 

Wa'xcam is on Yakima Reservation, four miles east of a point about midway 


he took out; and one (arrow) besides, the fifth, he took 
out. He took with him the five arrows in order that he 
might kill them. And then they slept over night. Day- 
light came, and he finished the (arrows). And then he gave 
the arrows to (the wolves). Then he transformed himself 
back entirely to his original form. Now the wolves came 
back home in the morning, and he went out of the house. 
And then Salmon looked all over the land. [He said,] 
thus he thought: "Now this day I shall kill the wolves 
who have slain my father." 

And then he exercised his magic power upon the water. 
The sun rose and it became warm ; the sun shone strong. 
Then all the water dried up. There was no water to be 
found. And then Salmon made just one spring of water 
among the mountains , at Wa'xcam, 1 indeed, he made the 
water. Just one spring of water Salmon made, plainly 
seen by all. Now, then one of the wolves became thirsty. 
So he went to a certain small river to quench his thirst, 
but in vain. He did not get any water; the river was 
dried up. And then the wolf caught sight of the water 
(that Salmon had made). Now he was thirsty, so he went 
to the water. 

And then Salmon made some small trees, a few 
bushes-, near to the water he made them. Then Salmon 
sat down well prepared in the bushes near to the water. 
Now the wolf went on and saw the water. Straight on 
to the spring he went. The wolf went to drink the water ; 
then started in drinking it. Salmon exercised his magic 
power upon the water. So then the water sank down 
a little, and the wolf's eyes just disappeared from view. 
Then he shot at the wolf, and the wolf fell down , he was 
dead. And then Salmon took hold of the wolf. He had 
killed him, and threw him away. 

between Fort Simcoe and Block House. 


Wi'tla gayu'ya kxwo'ba; gayu'la-it iguna't. Sa'q u ga- 

td'waq, gatciuta'da. Wi'tla iklu'na i'xt gayu'ya icgilukc 

ittcqoa'ba. Aga wi'tlax gatdo'qxEmct. Aga wi'tla ya'maq 

gatci'lux. Klu'na fxt wi'tla gayu'maqt icgilukc. Wi x t!a 

5 gatci'gF/lga ; gatciula'da. Wi x t!a k!u x na fxt gayu'ya icgi x - 

lukc ilatu'n ihcqoa'yamt. Wi x t!a gatdo'qxEmct. Wi r t!a 

ya'maq gatci'lux; gatci'waq. GatcigE 7 lga ; gatciu'tada. 

Wi x t!a k!u r na fxt gayu'ya icgilukc ilala'kt iltcqoa'yamt. 

Gatdo x qxEmct. Wi'tla ya'maq gatcilut iguna't. Gatci'waq -, 

10 gatcigE^ga; gatciula'da. 

laga'its ixkls'skax icgilukc wi x t!a gayu'ya ihcqoa'yamt. 
Gayu'yam iltcqoa'ba. Na'qxi gatdu'qxumct Ke'nua ga- 
lixk'xwa-it igu'nat : " AtdugE'mcta." K!a'ya gatclu'gEmct 
ixkte'skax icgi'lukc. Aga ' kxwo'pt gali'ktcax : "U'6;" 

15 qe'dau gali'xox ixkls'skax. Aga kxwo'pt iguna't galix- 
Ju'xwa-it: "Na'qx' itlu'ktix." Itkla'munakiamt gayu'yam 
icgi'lukc. Aga gatchi'dina lla'ktikc iguna't ia'xan ; la'-itcka 
galgi'waq wi'am iguna't. Pu gatchi'dina ka'nauwe JgwE x - 
nEmikc pu kla'ya ilcgi'lukc da'uya wi'gwa ; k!ma lla'ktikc 

20 gatdu'dina, i'xt nixwo'axit ixk!s'skax ila'-uxix. 

Aga kxwo'pt gayu'ya itq u lia'mt iguna't qa'xba a'yagutx 
u'xt. Aga kxwo'pt gayu'yam itq u h"'ba. Kxwo'pt gatcu'l- 
xam: "Aga inlu'dina ikgi'lukc lla'ktikc ; ixa'tk' ixkls'skax 
icgi'lukc igixwo'axit." Aga kxwo'pt gatcu'lxam agagi'lak: 

25 tt Ag' atxk!wa'ya." Aga kxwo'pt gactu'ya ; aga gatcu'kia. 
Luwa'n qa'uadix gactu'goyom, aga kxwo'pt gatcaxi'ma, 
gatsaltsgi'ma iguna't agagi'lak. Ilk!a'ckac la'luxt ; qucti'- 
axa ilcgi'lukc itcawa'nba. 

Aga kxwo'pt gayaktxui't. Aga kxwo'pt galagslga'ba 
30 itakla'its ilskli'luks li'x't. Wi'tla ' gaya'ktxuit itca'wanba; 


He went back to his place ; Salmon seated himself. 
He had killed him completely and thrown him away. 
Again one other wolf went to the water. Now he also 
started in to drink it, and again (Salmon) shot at him. 
Again one other wolf died. Again he took hold of him 
and threw him away. Again one other wolf, the third, 
went towards the water. He also started in to drink it. 
Again (Salmon) shot at him and killed him. He took 
hold of him and threw him away. Again one other wolf, 
the fourth, went towards the water. He started in to 
drink it, and again Salmon shot at him. He killed him, 
took hold of him, and threw him away. 

The smallest and youngest wolf also went towards the 
water. He arrived at the water, but did not drink of 
it. Salmon thought: "He will drink of it," but in vain. 
The youngest wolf did not drink at all. And then he 
cried : "U6 ;" thus did the youngest do. And then Salmon 
thought: "It is not well." The wolf escaped to the 
woods. Now Salmon's son has killed four (wolves) ; they 
had slain his father Salmon. If he had slain all five, there 
would be no wolves to-day ; but he killed (only) four, (for) 
one had been scared away, their youngest brother. 

And then Salmon went to the house where his step- 
mother was living. Then he arrived at the house, and 
said to her: "Now I have slain four of the wolves ; only 
one, the youngest wolf, was scared away." And then he 
said to the woman: "Now let us two go home." Then 
the two went on ; he took her along with him. I do not 
know how many times they camped over night when he 
laid her down, Salmon laid the woman down belly up. 
There was a child inside of her ; as it turned out, there 
were wolves in her womb. 

And then' he stepped on her; one tiny little wolf came 
out of her. Again he stepped on her belly; a tiny wolf 


gafagE'lba itcawani'amt ifekli'luks. Da'ukwa IgwE'nEma 
itakla'itsax gala'gElba. Aga kxwo'pt gatdu'dina ilakla'i- 
tsax. Kxwo'ba i'wi gatcu'x watu'l, kxwo'ba gatdu'x wa- 
tu'fpa. Qxi'dau ga'lixox iguna't. Aga kxwo'pt gactu'ya. 
5 Kxwo'pt aga gatcu'kl' agagi'lak wi'am a'gikal. Da'uax 
atk!u'ntk!un, qxuct gaqxi'waq itca'gikal iguna't. Atk!u'n- 

tk!un uqxE'lqt : E feEE^E^Ei^l EH gwa'nESEm. Cma'- 

u u 

nix alidi'mama iguna't aqxe'dwagwa Nixlu'idixpa; aga 
kxwo'pt alaktca'xEma atk!u x ntk!un. 

10 Na r 2wit gatcu'kla, na'wid iltcqo'ba gatcu'klam. Aga 
kxwo'pt gacgigE'lg' iknfm, gact^kta-it. Aga kxw6 7 pt ga- 
tculxam: "Ag' anugopti'da, aga ma'im' amqli'watcgwa/ 
Iguna't gali'kim : " Ag' anxu'qcida ; aga ma^ma agag^lak 
amqli'watcgwa." Aga kxwo'pt galixo^cit. Gactu x xuni 

15 iltcqo'ba y^lqdix. Aga kxwo'pt itka'pcba li'xlix gala'xux. 
Aga kxwo'pt i x wi gala r xux; w^mwa gagigE x lga itka'pcba. 
Aga kxwo^t i x wi gagi x ux ; gagagE^ksl wa x mw' a-ik!i x L- 
xeugwax ya^qpa. GacaxElqxfLx agagi^ak. Aga kxw6 7 pt 

20 Aga kxwo'pt gali'kim : "Na'qx' itlu'ktix imnu'qutck, 
q!u r m imnux." Aga kxwo'pt gatcigslg' icki 7 , gatcia'x- 
cgam. Itklalamat eVi gatcto'x ; gatctigEldi'ba-ix itk!a x la- 
mat; daLxoa'b galu'xax itk!a x munak. KXU'L gatcie'lux 
icki'. Aga kxwo'pt gatca'gElg' agagilak. E'wi icki x 'ngi 

25 gatcu'lada itkla'lamatba. Aga kxwo'pt gayagE'ltaqlq aga- 
gilak; ma'sa gali'xox qlu'mba gagi'ux iguna't. Aga 
kxwo'pt gayu'y' igu'nat aga ya'-ima. Aga kxwo'pt ia'l- 
qdix gayu'ya, ia'xi aga gayu'ya. 

Aga kxwo'ba pla'la gayu'la-it; luwan qxa'uad ifc'lx, 
30 qa'ntcipt aga ya'lqdix gayu'la-it. Aga kxwo'pt gatccx- 


came out from her belly. In this way five little (wolves) 
came out of her. Then he killed the little (wolves). 
There he built (?) a fire, there in the fire he put them. 
Thus did Salmon. And then they two went on ; he took 
with him the woman, his father's wife. This woman was 
the Dove ; truly it was her husband Salmon who had been 
killed. The Dove is always wailing: "U' u'." Whenever 
the salmon comes, they kill him at Wishram, and then 
the Dove cries. 

Straight on he went with her, straightway he came 
with her to some water. And then they got hold of a 
canoe and seated themselves in it. Then he said to her : 
"Now I'll sleep, while you alone will paddle." Salmon 
said: "Now I'll lie down to sleep, while you, woman, will 
paddle alone." And then he lay down to sleep. The 
two long drifted about on the water. And then she be- 
gan to feel ticklish in her feet. Then she looked and 
found a maggot on her feet. And then she looked care- 
fully at him, and saw maggots crawling about all over his 
body. The woman cried, and he awoke. 

And then he said : " It is not good that you have 
awakened me ; you have disturbed me in my sleep." Then 
he got hold of the paddle, took it away from her. He 
transformed the rocks and hollowed out the rocks ; the 
rocks had a hole bored into them. He wedged the 
paddle under her and took hold of the woman. He 
moved it and threw her off with the paddle into the rocks. 
Then he abandoned the woman ; he had been disgraced 
because she disturbed him in his sleep. So then Salmon 
went on all alone. Long he went, and far away he went. 

Now, there he remained quietly ; I know not how many 
years, how long he remained. Now, then he heard two 

60 i 

tcmo'q icqle'yoqt: "IminiEla'mak ; na'qx' itlu'kti. A'nad- 
max amElu'ktan atgu'xwa. Na nExiu'xwan kxwo'dau 
i'nadmax iqxu't. Kxwo'dau a'nadmax wo'qti atgu'xwa." 
Qe'dau gatciu'lxam : "Aga du'xi. Na'-ima ansgE'lga is- 
5 qxu's." Gatciulxam: "Na'qxi pu maMma amsgE x lga. Af- 
nadmax atgsu x xwa ha'-ai." La'ktix gatccxtcmo'q qe'dau 
cxi x tcx, cxElp.'a'lawulal. Qucti'axa icka'lax cda'xdau. 

Aga kxwo'pt gatccu'lxam: "QE'nsgi mtxu'lal? Dan 
^ilal?" K!a x ya qE x nEgi gacgiu'lxam. Aga wi x t!a 

10 gacxElpia'lawulalEmtck; galixacgElu'itcatk. Aga wi'tla 
da'ukwa gacki'm. Aga wi'tla gatccu'lxam : "Da'naska 
mdrxitcx? Na'it!a mtgE'nLxam." 1 Wi 7 t!a kla'ya qs'nEgi 
gacki'm. Cpa'q ts!u x m cki'xax. Wi'tla gatccu'lxam : "QE"- 
nEgi dan imtxE'lk^ilal ?" Wi x t!a k!a x ya qs'nEgi gacki'm. 

15 Aga wi x t!a da x ukwa gacxElpla^awulalEmtck. Wit! a gatc- 
culxam: "Qs'nEgi dan imtxE'lk^ilal ?" Aga kxwo'pt 
gacgiu x lxam : "Hgoa^ilx nintklg^tka." 

Aga kxwo'pt gatccu^xam : "Qa x xba nimtklg^tga ilgoa x - 
lilx?" Aga kxwo'pt gacgiu'lxam : " Yalqdi'x nintklgi'tga." 

20 Aga kxwo'pt gatcculxam : "QE'nEgiba nimtklgi'tga ?" 
Gacgiu'lxam : a K!a x ya! itklalamatba nintklgi'tga." Aga 
kxwo'pt gatccu'lxam : "Dan iaka'xtau tfgoalilx, ilqagi'lak 
tci 8 a'watci 8 ilkala tci s ?" Gacgiulxam : "HqagHak." - 
u Qa x ntcix ni'mtklqxEmit ?" Aga kxwo'pt gacgiu'lxam : 

25 u Da r uax aklmi'n nigaxa'lxum wi x t!ax a x -ixt aklmi'n ak!un 
(t)ci x tix nintklgi'tga." Aga kxwo'pt nixlu'xwait : "Luwa x n 
ga'nuid nilkcgi'tka ilgoa ; lilx. w 

1 MtgE'nLxam is for mtgE'ntlxam. 


old people (talking to each other): "You are a bad 
distributer, and not good. Let us two put a cheek on 
each side. I myself think there should be also an eye 
to each side. And let us put half a vulva on each side." 
Thus did the one say to the other: "Oh, well! I shall 
take both eyes for myself." The other one said to him : 
"You should not take both to yourself. We two must 
divide them, - - one to each." Four times did he hear the 
two thus argue and talk to each other. As it turned 
out, those two were ravens. 

And then he said to them : " What are you talking 
about ? What are you speaking of to each other ?" They 
said nothing at all to him. Now they still kept talking 
to each other, and he listened to them. Now they spoke 
again as before. And once more he said to them : "Well, 
what are you talking to each other about? Tell me too !" 
Again they said nothing at all. They were arguing ex- 
citedly. Again he said to them: "What are you telling 
each other?" Again they said nothing at all. And then 
again they kept talking to each other as before. Again 
he said to them: "What are you telling each other?" 
And then they said to him : " We two have found a person." 

Then he said to them: "Where did you find the per- 
son ?" They answered him : " Far away (from here) we 
found him." And then he said to them: "In what way 
did you come to get him?" They replied to him: "No! 
we found him among some rocks." Then he said to them : 
"What is that same person, a woman or a man?" They 
said to him: "A woman." - "How long is it since you 
have seen her?" And then they said to him: "Let this 
present moon have become exhausted (and add) yet one 
moon and a half, - - (so long is it since) we have found 
her." And then he thought: "Perhaps they have really 
found a person." 


Aga kxwo'pt gatccu'lxam : "A'tema ka'dux amdu'ya, 
amtklukcta'ma." Aga kxwo'pt gatccu'lxam : "Qsngiska 7 
gamdu'yEm ?" Aga kxwo'pt Vx gatci'ux iago'mEntfpa ikxa'- 
lal. Aga kxwo'pt gatccu'lxam : "Qs'ngi gamtxu'lal gam- 
5 du'yEm ?" Aga kxwo'pt gatcxtcmo'q aga gacxixni'ma. Aga 
kxwo'pt gactilga'wulx igu'cax. Aga kxwo'pt ikxa'lal gali- 
cilakwit. Aga kxwo'pt qxatgi x nu'it wflx q!oa x p gacti-ila 7 - 
kwit; ia'xka Vx gatccu'x igu'nat icka'lax. 

Aga kxwo'pt gacgu'naxLx; gacgu'kctam qa'xba gacga- 

10 gE'lkfilba. Aga gactu^a. Na^wit luwa x n qa^adix- gactu'- 

qxui. Aga kxwo'pt gactu^am wi r t!a. Aga gacx' u k!wa x 

wi'tia itq^ia'mt. Aga gacgiu^xam : "La'xt ilgoa'lilx qloa'b 

ag' ah/mEqt' aga luLlElxt." Gatccu'lxam : "QE'nEgi 

p' amtWu'xwa?" Kxwo'pt gali'kim fxat: "KJala p' ant- 

15 kltxa'." Aga kxwo'pt gatccu'lxam : "Akla'lamat ayamt- 

kxa / -imaya. 7 ' A 7 u gacgi x iix. 

Aga kxw6 x pt kE 7 L gacgu x xix itcta r piq. Aga kxw6 7 pt 
gatcackxaMma mang itsak!a x its. Gacgugwo'mit ; gacgu 7 - 
klam ; da x k gatca'cxux. Aga mang itcaga^l gatcackxa 7 - 
20 ima. Aga wftla gack^kl-, ag' ackxaMmat p!a x l' ak!a 7 la- 
mat. Wi'tla gacgu'klam , gacxiluxta'makwotcgix. Wi'- 
t!ax da'k gatca'cxux. Wi x t!a da'ukwa la'ktix. LagwE'nE- 
mix wi'tlax gatcackxa x -ima. Wi'tia gacgugo'mida-ulx, 
gacguktca'nEmx, gacga'-iluklam. 

25 Aga gatcci/lxam : "Aga na'ikabam'amtklni'dama iiqa- 
gttak." Aga kxwo'pt gacgiulxam : "Kla'ya!" Aga 


Then he said to them : "To-morrow you two will go, 
you'll go and look for her." And he asked them : "Well, 
how have you been going all along?" Then in his heart 
he wished for a wind, and it arose. And he asked them : 
"How have you been managing to go all along?" And 
then he heard them as they showed him (how they man- 
aged). They flew up to the sky, but then the wind struck 
against them ; and then almost immediately they came 
near striking down against the ground. (But) he, Salmon, 
endowed the two ravens with magic power. 

And then they looked for her , they went to look for 
her where they had seen her. Now they went on. Straight 
on (they went, and) I know not how many times they 
slept over night. And then they arrived (there) again. 
Then they turned back home towards the house. They 
said to him: "There is a person who is near to dying 
and is thinned out." He said to them: "What could 
you do with her?" Then one of them said: "We might 
carry her on our backs." And then he said to them : 
"I shall lay down a stone on you." They said "Yes" to 

And then they interlocked their wings, and he put down 
on them a rather small (stone). They flew off with it 
and came back with it ; and he loosened it off from them. 
Then he put a somewhat larger (stone) on them. And 
again they carried it with them, and the stone rested 
quietly on them. Again they came back with it, swaying 
their bodies from side to side. Again he loosened off 
the (stone) from them. Again (they did) as before, four 
times in all. The fifth time also he put a (stone) on 
them. Again they flew up with it, carried it about with 
them, and brought it back to him. 

Then he said to them : " Now for my sake you will 
go and get me the woman." And then they answered 

6 4 

kxwo'pt gatccu'lxam: tf Amtkhigwa'lEmama bama na'ika." 
Qe'dau gatccu'lxam icka'lax igu'nat. Qucti'axa ya'xtau 
igu'nat ya'xka gatcaxi'ma a'xtau agagi'lak; tq!e'x aga 
tcu'xt. Aga a' gacxu'x. u Ag' aqa'midam' -agagHak," gac- 
5 giu'lxam. Aga kxwo'pt gactu'ya, gacgugwa'lEmam. Na^- 
wit gactu'ya; naVit gacta'guqxom. K!wa x c galaxa'cxux ; 
galaxlu'xwait : "Ag' ickfnuwoq." Aga kxwo'pt gacgul- 
xam: "Na'qxi klwa'c amxu'xwa; iqEmtga'lEmam.'' 

A'-u gakcu x x. "Qxa'damt amtgEnu'kla ?" gakci/lxam. 
10 Aga kxwo'pt gacgu'lxam: " Indacta'mxiamt aqEmu'kla." 
Aga kxwo'pt gakcu'lxam : "Qfi'nEg' amtgEnu'xwa ?" Gac- 
gu'lxam: a Ag' amxantkxa'-imaya indagiko'uba." Aga 
kxwo'pt a-ikwa't gacgu'xix itcda'piq ; kxwo'ba naxackxa'- 
ima itctapi'qba. Aga kxwo'pt gakcgs'lga. 

15 Aga kxwo'pt gatu'ya; gacku'kl. Na^wit gacku'klam 

itq u li'ba. Na x wit gacgax^ma. K!a r ya dan itcana x lxat ag v 

uL!E x lxt gacgu'ktem. Aga kxwo'pt gatclgE'lg' igu'nad .Ba- 

- ka'tcla. Aga kxwo'pt wa'x gatda'kux ilka'tcla. GWE'HE- 

mix* wa r x gatcla x kux. Aga kxw6 x pt sa x q u gatcalxa x dagwa. 

20 Ag' atlu'kti gala x xux sa x q u . Ilga^alxat galaq!E x lba; 
sa'q u itlu'kt' itca'lq. Axka'xdau itca'xliu atklu'ntklun igu 7 - 
nat a'gikal. "Mda^tla," gatccu'lxam, "dEmi^nua imda'x- 
liu icka'lax ; qe'dau amtxu'xwa mda'itla. Cma^ix amtxu 7 - 
xwa l Ka x k ka'k,' 1 alugwagi'ma idElxam, l Dang' icgigE'lkEl 

25 icka'lax, da'ngi qxa'tgi.'" Qe'dau iqxa'nutck. 

1 Very high pitch. 


him: "No!" Then he said to them: "You will go to 
get her for me." Thus did Salmon speak to the two 
ravens. In truth that Salmon it was who had laid down 
that woman ; now he wanted her. Then they consented. 
"Now we shall go and get you the woman," they said 
to him. And then they went, went to get her. Straight 
on they went and straightway they came to her. She 
was afraid of them and thought: "Now they have killed 
me." But then they said to her: "Do not be afraid; 
we have come for you. 

She consented to their proposal. "Whither will you 
take me?" she asked of them. And then they said to 
her: "We shall carry you to our chief." Then she said 
to them : " What will you do with me (so as to carry me)?" 
They answered her: "You will lay yourself down on our 
back." And then they neatly interlocked their wings; 
there on their wings she lay down. So then they took 
hold of her. 

And then they went on, the two bearing her along. 
Straight on (they went and) brought her home into the 
house. Straightway they put her clown. She had no hair 
(left) at all and they brought her home lean. And then 
Salmon took some oil. Then he poured the oil out over 
her. Five times he poured it out over her and she came 
to completely. 

Now she was beautiful all over. Her hair grew out 
from her and her body was beautiful in every way. The 
name of that same woman was Dove, Salmon's wife. "As 
for you two," he said to the two (ravens), "your name 
(shall be) for all time Raven ; thus shall you be. When- 
ever you shall cry "ka'k ka'k," people will say: The 
two ravens have seen something, no doubt.' " Thus the tale. 



Gayu'ya isklu'kyE. Aga kxwo'pt galixE'ltcmaq isklu'- 
ya'xiba uxwo'qt idE'lxam. Quctia'xa ickla'lkal gaq- 
cu'ktam. Aga kxwo'pt galu'ya isklu'lEyE ya'qxoq kxwo'dau 
icpu'xyatin icya'xan ctmo'kct. Galu'ya hsinmo'kstikc la'-itc 
5 ickla'lkaliamt ; galxE'lxaq. Galu'yam. Ixa'd ia'xleu Sipa 7 - 
glatsin ia r xan isk.'u'lEyE ; ixa r d ia x xleu Sipa x ksalguts ; ik!u r n' 
ixa'd isk!u x lEyE ia'xan Sapa 7 gwinan ; ik!u r n' ixa^ ia^leu 
Sapaga r tk u tgwax ; ak!u x n' a x -ixad itca x xleu aya x xan isk!u r - 
IsyE axk!E r skax StwaVinLxt itsaqlwa^asup ; kxwo x dau 
10 ctmo'kct icpu'xyatin icya'xan itctaba-icxi x lal cta'xta. 

Galu'y' aga ickla'lkalba; galkcuda'mitam ickla'lkal. 
Galu'yam galki/gikEl lgabla x d idE'lxani. Kxwo'ba cki x xax 
ila'lik kxwo x dau ida x uapdauap ctmokct ist!aq!wa x lasup. 
Aga kxwo x pt gaqci'lut ick!a x lkal Sapa x galatsin ixgo'qunk. 
15 Hia'kcEnba gatccgE'lga. Aga kxwo'pt gatccu'damit ick!a x l- 
kal. Aga gacgi x wa ila x lik k!m' ag' ida'uapdauap ; gacti x k- 
taq. Aga kxwo'pt gacgigE'lga ; gactrkdaqxwom. Gacgi 7 - 
waq. Gackci'xckEm ickla'lkal. 

wit!a Lu 7 g u gackcu'x ick!a x kal. Wi x t!a gackci'lut 
20 ilie'kcEnba -, gatccgE'lga Sapa'ksalguts. Gatccu'damit ic- 
k.'a'lkal. Aga r witla gacgi'wa ida'uapdauap ila'lek. Ga- 
cti'ktaq-, galicgE'ltaql. Gacti'ktaqxom. Gacgi'waq; Lq!6 r p 
gacgiu'x iaga'qstaq. Aga 7 wit!ax gaqci'lut icklalkal Sapa x - 
gwinan. Wi r t!a gatccuda'mit icklalkal. Aga wi'tla gac- 
25 ti'ktaq; gacti'ktaqxom ; gacgigE'lga. Gacgi'waq , Lqlo'p 
gacgi'ux i^'tuk. Wi x t!a gackcilut Sapaga r tk u tgwax. Aga 
wi'tla gatccuda'mit. Aga wi'tla gacti'ktaq ila'lik k!ma 
ida'uapdaup. GacgigE x lga. Gacgi'waq; Lq!6 x p gacgi'ux 
ia'tuk. Aga gaqc^lut Stwa'winLx isk!u x lEyE aya'xan waliq 

6 7 

Coyote went on. Now then Coyote heard that way 
yonder people were gathered together. In truth they 
came to get a shinny-ball. So then Coyote's children and 
Antelope's two sons went. They seven went for the 
shinny-ball, went to where people were assembled. They 
arrived (there). The name of one of Coyote's sons was 
Big-Gristle ; (another) one's name was Big-Backbone ; an- 
other one of Coyotes sons (was named) Big-Fin ; another 
one's name was Big- Adipose-Fin ; there was one other, 
a daughter of Coyote and the youngest, whose name was 
Head-Fat she was a good runner. And there were 
Antelope's two sons - - those two were clumsy ones. 

Now they went where the shinny-ball was ; they had 
come in order to run away with it. They arrived and 
saw many people. There were Rabbit and Fox, both of 
them fast runners. And then the shinny-ball was given 
to Big-Gristle, the oldest.. He took it in his hand and 
ran away with the shinny-ball. Then Rabbit and Fox pur- 
sued him and gained on him. And then they seized him 
they had overtaken him. They killed him and took the 
shinny-ball away from him. 

Now they brought the shinny-ball back again. Again 
they put it in the (next) one's hands ; Big-Backbone got 
hold of it. He ran away with the shinny-ball and again 
Fox and Rabbit pursued him. They ran after him and 
he ran away from them. They overtook him and killed 
him, cutting off his head. Now this time the shinny-ball 
was given to Big-Fin. He also ran away with the shinny- 
ball and again the two ran after him, overtook him, and 
seized him. They killed him, cutting his neck. Next they 
gave the (ball) to Big- Adipose-Fin. Now he also ran 
away with it and again Rabbit and Fox ran after him. 


itga'kcEnba. Aga kxwo'pt gakcuda'mit ickla'lkal Aga 
kxwo'pt gacta'ktaq. Aga kxwo'pt galacgE'ltaql Gacgu'a 
gacga'gElga. Gacgu'aq; Lqlo'p gacgi'axux itca'tuk. 

Sa'q" gabda'-it iskiu'lEyE ia'qxoq IgwE'nEmikc ; sa'q u gaq- 
5 fu'dina ; kla'ya galkcgE'lga ickla'lkal Aga kxwo'pt cta'xta 
icpu'xyatin icya'xan gaqcclu't ickla'lkal cta'xta itcta'kcEnba. 
Kxwo'pt gacxE'lEktcu ; ki'nua gackcgE'lga. Aga kxwo'pt 
galugwa'kim : "Ag aqcwa'gwa di'kxa." Aga kxwo'pt 
galki'm: a Ag' aqcu'kla yaxta'ba ; aqcwa'gwa mang i'axi." 
10 Aga kxwo'pt gaqcu'kl mang i'axi. Aga kxwo'pt xa r p 
dagapga'p gahco'x ilia'. Aga kwo'pt galu'gwakim : "Da'uya 
ig' inigE'lga, itgilx." 


Aga qucti'axa gackcuda'mit icpuxia'tin icya'xan ; ickla'l- 
kal gackcuda'mit. Qucti'axa cda'xtau, ictla'miniEn. Aga 

15 kxwo'pt gackcu'kl icpu'xiatin icya'xan. Aga kxwo'pt kla'ya 
gackcu'a ila'lik ida'uapdauap. Gackcu'kct ; gackcgE'lkEl 
ag' ia'Iqdix ckcu'klt ickla'lkal Aga itpo'gomax icda'bagal 
lacgwu'lxt ; cxEtta'dntf ickla'lkal. A-itcxa'p gacxi'luxix 
ila'lik klma ida'uapdauap; ag' ie'Lqdix ctu'it ; ckcu'klt. 

20 Icta'xtax iskiu'lEyE kxwo'dau icpu'xyatin itq u li'ba pla'la 
ctu'xt. Aga kxwo'pt gacglu'ma : 

qxiLq i - t!a - la - pas 

qxoq; saq" niqt - dl - na. 
Aga kxwcVpt wi'tla gacglu'ma: "Do'yaxka nintca'cqxiLq 

6 9 

They seized him and killed him, cutting his neck. Now 
the (ball) was put into the hand of Head-Fat, Coyote's 
daughter, a maiden. And then she ran away with the 
shinny-ball. Then the two ran after her and she ran away 
from them. They pursued her and caught her. They 
killed her, cutting off her neck. 

All the five children of Coyote had died ; they had all 
been killed and had not held on to the shinny-ball. Now 
then those two sons of Antelope were given the shinny- 
ball, (it was put) into the hands of those two. Then they 
dropped it; they did not succeed in holding on to the 
(ball). And then the people said: "Now they will be 
killed here." Then they said: "Now they will be brought 
right there; they will be killed a little farther on." And 
then they were brought a little farther on. Then the fog 
became dark, all misty dark. And then they (all) said : 
"Now here I've caught him, hit him!" 

Now in fact Antelope's two sons ran away with it ; they 
ran away with the shinny-ball. Truly that (ball) was 
worth a chieftain's realm. Now then the two sons of 
Antelope took it along with them, but Rabbit and Fox 
did not pursue them. They looked at them and saw 
them now far off taking the shinny-ball along with them. 
Now they climb up to two summits of the mountains and 
keep throwing the shinny-ball between them. Rabbit and 
Fox gave up (following) ; they had now gone far off and 
had the (ball) with them. 

Those two people Coyote and Antelope - - were 

sitting quietly in the house. Now then the two (sons of 
Antelope) sang out : " Far away we two have left the 
children of Coyote ; killed were they all." And then they 
sang out again: "Far away have we left the two sons 
of Antelope; slain were the two." And then they sang 
out again : " All were they killed, the children of Coyote ; 


icpuxya'tin icya'xan ; sa'q u niqci'dwoq." 1 Aga kxwo'pt 
wi'tla gacglu'ma: "Sa'q u niqldl'na Itlala'pas ya'qxoq ; do'- 
yaxka ninda'JqxiLq." 1 Aga kxwo'pt wi'tla gacglu'ma: 
"Sa'q u niqci'dwoq icpuxya'tin icya'xan ; do'yaxka nintca'- 
5 cqxiLq." 1 Aga kxwo'pt wi'tla gacglu'ma : "Do'yaxka 
nindalqxiLq ItJala'pas ya'qxoq ; sa x q u niqldl'na." l 

Na'wit gactu'ya. Aga kxwo'pt isklu'lEyE gatca'xima 
akla'lamat itca'gail icqxi'ba. Aga kxwo'pt ilkli'lxamat 
gatclxi'nx' ak!a x lamatpa ; a-isda'x gatda'gEmunxa. Kxwo'ba 

10 gayu'txuit isklu'lEyE. Aga kxwo'pt galixlu'itcatk yaxa ya'x 
icpu'xyatin ixa'imat ; cixgia'gwax ici x axan icpu'xyatin. Aga 
kxwo'pt gali'gluma icpu'xyatin ya'xan gwE'nEmix. Aga 
kxwo'pt gayugi'luktcu isklu'lEyE daga'mui ; nu'it gay'umaqt ; 
akla'lamatpa gayakxaMmaxit ; sa x q u galilga'xit ilklilxamat. 

15 Aga kxwo'pt gacdula'dapgEx'id ickla'lkal. Aga kxwo'pt 
galixls'tck icpu'xyatin; gayu'la-it. 

Aga kxwo'pt capca'p galkcu'x ickla'lkal. Aga kxwo'pt 
tcEktcE'k sa x q u ilalqpa galcxs'lux. Aga kxwo'pt gahd'- 
inalx isk.'ulEyE yu'msqtpa. Galxe'nalx ia'gitcpa kxwo'dau 

20 idia'mL.'uxiba kxwo'dau idia'qxuitba. Aga isklu'lsyE yo 7 - 
mEqt ixi'mat. Aga kxwo'pt galki'm icpu'xyatin icya'xan : 
"Qfi'ng' alxu'xwa?" Aga kxwo'pt gahrpa. Aga kxwo'pt 
galki'm: "Qa'xb^ alxu'ya?" Aga kxwo'pt gaiki'm : U A1- 
xu'ya 'guca'xba." Wi't!a galki'm: "Na'qxi p' alxu'ya 

25 'guca'xba." Kxwo'pt a'ga gali'kim fxat: "Alxu'ya wa x - 
tcktib' itga'qpuks, qxa'dagatci na'qx' atcElgE'lga isklu'lEyE." 
Aga kxwo'pt galu'ya wa'tcktib' itga'qpuks icpu'xyatin 
icya'xan. Galu'ya ; galo'qxui hi'nix. Aga kxwo'pt gat- 

30 Gatcilxa'dagwa isklu'lEyE; galixgo'itk. Aga kxwo'pt 
gali'kim : "Qxwotxala' yalqdi'x inogo'ptit." Aga kxwo'pt 
gatchi'wa ; i'wi i'wi galixailudE'lkEmtck ilaqx'a'tba. Kxwo'pt 

1 Same tune. 

far away we two have left them." And then again they 
sang out: "Slain were the two sons of Antelope-, far 
away have we left them." And then again they sang 
out : " Far away we two have left the children of Coyote ; 
killed were they all." 

Straight on the two went. Now (meanwhile) Coyote 
had laid down a big stone in the doorway. And then 
he stuck in spits about the stone, stuck them circlewise 
near it. There Coyote stood. And then he listened while 
he, Antelope, lay down , Antelope knew about his two 
sons. Then one of Antelope's sons sang out five times. 
Coyote fell down senseless and died straightway ; he fell 
over on the stone and all the spits pierced him. And 
then suddenly the shinny-ball was thrown into the house. 
Then Antelope arose and seated himself. 

And then they chipped up the shinny-ball into little 
pieces and rubbed it all over their bodies. Then they 
wiped themselves on Coyote where he lay dead; they 
wiped themselves against his nose and against his ears 
and against his legs. Now Coyote is lying dead. And 
then Antelope and his two sons said: "What shall we 
do?" Then they went out of the house and said : "Where 
shall we go?" And then they said: "Let us go to the 
sky;" (but) on second thoughts they said: "We should 
not go to the sky." So then one of them said: "Let 
us go on the tops of the grass so that Coyote may not 
find us." So then Antelope and his two sons went on 
the tops of the grass. On they went and passed three 
nights. And then they went to sleep. 

Coyote came to and awoke. And then he said: "I've 
slept altogether too long." Then he started to pursue 
them and looked all around to follow them by their tracks. 
Then he thought: "How, where have they gone?" He 


QE'nEgi," galixlu'xwa-it, "qa'xba hi'it?" Na'qxi gatcu'- 
guiga iLa'qxat. Aga kxwo'pt gayu'ya ca'-iwatk!acka 
gatchi'a. Aga kxwo'pt gayu'ya isk!u'lEyE. Gayuya'2. 
Aga kxwo'pt galilxa'ca. Aga kxwo'pt iltcqo'ba gayu'ya; 
5 gatclo'qxEmct iltcqoa'. Aga kxwo'pt fwi gali'xox. Aga 
kxwo'pt gatdgE'lkEl ilgoa'lilx iltcqo'ba. Aga kxwo'pt galix- 
wo'xit; k!wa v c gali'xox. Aga kxwo'pt galixlu'xwa-it : 
"Alglnua'gwa ilgoa'lilx." Aga kxwo'pt dakda'k gatctu'x 
idia'gamatcx ; gatcu'gwiga; XU'LXUL gatctu'x iagitcxu'tpa. 

10 Agalixlu'xwa-it : a Anlwa x gwa ilgoa'iilx." 

Aga kxwo^t i'wi gali'xox; iltcqo'ba ilgoalilx. Aga 
kxwo'pt itxa'maq gatctlilux so'q 11 soq u idiaga'matcx. Aga 
kxwo'pt galixhi'xwa-it : "Lku'n aga ihi'mEqt." Gayu'ya; 
gatstskllu'tk ilgoa'lilx. P!a 7 la lu'xt ilgoa'lilx. Aga kxwo'pt 

15 wi't.'a gatci'gElga ik.'a'lamat. Galixki'xwa-it : "Aga ik!a'- 
lamat anili'lagwa 'laq.'a'qctaqba. Alu'mEqta." Gayu'ya 
isklu'lEyE gatci'gElga ikJa'lamat. Aga kxwo'pt gatcili'- 
lagwa. Aga kxwo'pt gatclgE'ltcim ilk!a'lamat. Gatclu'- 
kctEm ilgoa'lilx ; k.'a'ya lu'mEqt. Aga kxwo'pt galixlu'- 

20 xwa-it : "Qfi'nEgi qe'dau?" Kxwo'pt gatssugi'tsxaba isia- 
gi'k u lan. Gatssu'lxam : "Qs'nEgi qe'dau?" Aga kxwo'pt 
gatsu'lxam: "Aga mtxa'nitk u Litck." 

Aga kxwo'pt gacgiu'lxam : " Ag' aqcxa'mElukli'tckwa. 
Nitu'ya imi'qxoq isk.'u'kyE, nilu'ya ickla'lkaliamt IgwE'nE- 

25 mike-, kxwo'dau icpu'xyatin icya'xan (n)ictu'ya cta'xta 
ctmo'kct. Kxwo'ba niqldi'na imi'qxoq isklu'lsyE. Cta'- 
ima icpu'xyatin icya'xan nickcu'kl ickla'lkal. Aga kxwo'pt 
nicglu'ma, 'Isklu'kyE imi'qxoq niqldi'na.' Qe'dau nicxt- 
ki'm icpu'x u yatin icya'xan. Aga nicdi'mam itq u le'ba. laxa 

30 ma'ya nimdE'muqt; sa'q u ilkl'i'lxamat nilmi'tgat imi'lqpa. 

Aga kxwo'pt ickla'lkal nicdi'mam. Aga kxwo'pt sa'q u 

nikxi'tx icpu'xyatin icia'xan. Lku'p Lku'p nilkctxa' ickla'l- 

Aga kxwo'pt tci'ktdk nilcxi'tx. Aga kxwo'pt nihi'ya ; 

iux-Ju'x- nilgE'mtx la'-itcka. Aga kxwo'pt nilki'm, "Qa'xb* 


could not find their tracks, so he went and pursued them 
in any direction at random. And then on Coyote went. 
He went and went (until) he became thirsty. So he went 
to the water and drank of the water. Then he looked 
closely and caught sight of a person in the water. He 
was scared off and was afraid. Then he thought: "The 
person is going to kill me." So he loosened his arrows 
and got hold of them ; he pulled them out of his quiver. 
Now he thought: a l shall slay the person." 

And then he looked closely; the person was (still) in 
the water. Then he shot every single one of his arrows 
at him and thought: "Perhaps he has died now." He 
went and looked at the person ; the person was there 
just as before. And then again he took a stone. He 
thought: "Now I shall throw the stone at his head. He 
will die." Coyote went and got a stone and then threw 
it at him. He struck him with several stones. He went 
to look at the person ; he was by no means dead. And 
then he thought: "How is this?" Then he defecated 
his two faeces and asked them: "How is this?" He 
said to them: "Now tell me." 

And then they said to him: "We two shall tell you. 
Your children, Coyote, did go, the five went for the 
shinny-ball; also Antelope's two sons did go, those two. 
There your children, Coyote, were killed ; the two sons 
of Antelope alone took the shinny-ball with them. And 
then they cried out, 'Coyote, your children have been 
killed.' Thus said the two sons of Antelope. Now they 
arrived home at the house, but you died ; all the spits 
remained stuck in your body. Now then the shinny-ball 
came, and Antelope and his two sons put it all over them- 
selves. They broke the shinny-ball up into small pieces 
and then rubbed it over themselves. And then they went ; 


alxu'ya?" Aga kxwo'pt nihi'ya wa'tcktiba itgaqie'liqpukc. 
Aga kxwo'pt ya'xtau ma'ika tfmi'pul isklu'lsyE I'wi gam- 

Gali'kim isklu'kyE: "Aga ga'nuit da'ukwa qxuct. 

5 Qa'xba nitu'ya icpu'xyatin ici'axan ?" "Fwad niJu'ya." Aga 

kxwo'pt gayu'ya. Gatcu'guiga idiaga'matcx. Gayuya/2 

tcxa'p gayuya 7 wa x pul. Wi x t!a wi'gwa gayu'ya; wi'tla 

wa'pul gatclu'a isklu^EyE icpu'xyatin icya'xan. Wi't!a 

wa x pul gayu'ya. Galuya r 2 gwa'p wi'mal. Aga kxwo'pt 

10 gaJge'witx-it. Aga kxwo'pt gatdgE'lkEl Jge'witEm itpo x - 

qxuxba. GatclgElksl aga ka'dux. Gatclgs'lga ilge'ninua ; 

gatdHagwa. Gatdulxam: "Kla'ya mcta'mx amxu'xwa-, 

mtsll'non ; im^xleu icpu'x'yatin amxu'xwa." 

Aga kxwo'pt gakwo'tck cpu'q cpu'q. Aga k!a x ya 
15 ibqxklE'cEmax ila^qpa. Aga kxwo'pt gatclu'lxam : "Kla'ya 
pu mcta'mx amcxu'wa. ISfa'ika isklti'kyE. Ag' alugwa- 
gi'ma qe'dau idE'lxam, l Aga da'ula-itcka isk!u x lEyE Vx 
gatch/x icpu'xyatin icya'xan.' Nadida'nuit itka'naximct 
aluxwa'xa; ma'itlax icpu'xyatin. Alugwagi'ma, 'Dauya 
20 icpu'xyatin S E'X gatci'ux isklu'lEyE/" Gali'kim isklu'lEyE : 
"Iguna't icta'mx, itcli'non icta'mx, kxwo'dau idE'lxam 
itka'naximct aluxwa'xa. Na'ika isklu'lsyE kia'ya ncta'mx." 
Qwa'b wi'mal qe'dau galxu'x i'nad wi'mal isklu'lEyE icpu'x- 
yatin icia'xan xatlEna'uwab' 1 ilE'mqa. 

25 Aga kxwo'pt gaigwu'h<m wa'lxaiu itcli'non kxwo'dau 

Now Goldendale Valley, Klickitat Co., Wash. 

For a very similar myth of a non-Chinookan tribe cf. Farrand and Kahn- 
wcilcr : Traditions of the Quinattlt Indians, pp. 102 105. The places of Eagle, 


they stretched you. They said, 'Where shall we go?' 
And then they went on the very tops of the grass. 
Now that is your own reflection, Coyote, that you have 
been looking at all along." 

Coyote said: "Why certainly! Just so, of course. 
Where did Antelope and his two sons go?" - - "Yonder they 
went." And then he went on and took his arrows. He 
went and went, (also) over night; all night he went. 
Again all day he went ; again all night Coyote pursued 
Antelope and his two sons. Again all night he went. He 
went and went and crossed the river. Now then they were 
sleeping. And he caught sight of them sleeping in the moun- 
tains. He saw them in early morning. He got some dust, 
threw it at them, and said to them : "You shall be no chief. 
You are an animal and your name shall be Antelope." 

And then they started to run away, all gray (now). 
They were no longer of golden hue in their bodies. Now 
then he said to them: "You should be no chiefs. lam 
Coyote. And thus shall people say, 'Now these 
Antelope and his two sons - - Coyote did magically trans- 
form.' The Indians shall be chiefs (some of them), but 
you are Antelope. They will say: 'This Antelope did 
Coyote change by magic.'" Coyote said: "Salmon is a 
chief, Eagle is a chief, and (some) people also shall be chiefs. 
I am Coyote, I am no chief." Across the river did they do 
thus - - on the other side of the river (did thus do) Coyote, 
Antelope, and his two sons, in the valley of xatlEna'uwa. * 

Now Eagle and Bluejay and Beaver they three 

Sparrow Hawk, and Chicken Hawk are in the Quinault myth taken by "Bluejay's 
chief," Landotter, and "another man" respectively. Bluejay and Beaver are charac- 
ters in both myths. 

7 6 

i'i'c'ic kxwo'dau iga'nuk fa'-itc fu'nikc kxwo'dau ga'yaloqstk 
kxwo'dau iqxaqxi'nua. Aga kxwo'pt gakhi'kl iltcqo'ba; 
na'2wit gaktu'kl. Aga kxwo'pt gatciu'lxam itcli'non iga'- 
nuk: a Ag' itcqxE'mEm itfi'kcEn ; aga Lq!6 x b itx' iirpaq." 
5 Aga kxwo'pt gayu'ya iga'nuk ; gatci'uqc 5 dadakda'k galxu'x 
ilia'kxatc iga'nuk ; galalimalxi'x'it ilia'kxatc. 

Aga wi r t!a iklu'na ya'xta gayaloqstk. Wit!' a x ga gatc- 
IcEnqlwa'lg'naba illi'paq; wi x t!a gadalimahdVit iitcqo'ba 
idiaxwoxwo'lagodit. Wi x t!ax itcifnon gatclcEnqiwa'lg'naba. 
10 Wi'tla Llla'p gatgi'a idiaxoxwolagodit. Wi't!a ya'xta 
iqxaqxe'nua gatctcEnqlwa^gunaba. Ag' e'wa wflxpa 
galxi'max-itEm ; galxigilaxidix'. Akni'm quct la'gla-itix* 
itcifnon ilio'uxwikc. Walxa'iu galgvvu'LEm ; gaklu'kl qu'ctia 
ikni'm ligla'-itix-. 

15 Aga kxwo'pt galklgE'lkEl iJgagi'lak. Da'xtau ilaxwo- 
xwo'lagodit kxwo'dau ila'kxatc kanauwa 7 dob' uxwa x xt ; 
kxwob' ilgagi'lak lu r xt kxwob' uxwa'xt. Quctia r xa wa 7 lxai' 
a'xtau gaklu'kl. Aga kxwo r pt galgi'ulxam i^i'c^c: "Aga 
tgalman idE'lxaxaxwo'lagodit." Gatci'ulxam itcifnon: "Ag' 

20 amdugwa'lmama itkxwo'xwolagodit kxwo x dau ili^kxatc 
iga'nuk. " Aga kxwo'pt gayu'ya i 8 i'c s ic. Gatcu'lxam aga- 
gi'lak : u Ag' int^tga'lmam qxe'wulx." Aga kxwo'pt ga- 
gi'ulxam : "Kla'ya mna'wulx. Qxe'dau amEnLxa'ma : 
'qxigika'l.' Aga kxwo'pt ada'milxoqtcqwa'ya." 

25 Aga kxwo'pt gaklu'kl; galu'y' itq u lia'mt. Kanauwa' 
ifgwK'nEmikc gaklu'kl na'2wit itko'qlba. Aga kxwo'pt 
gakh-;'lquim -. itlxE'lEm gaktllu't. Qucti'axa na'mEnmox ilgoa'- 
\\]\ ala'lxus. Gakhi'lxam: "Iduna'yax." Quctie'nax wa'l- 
xus, kla'y' auna'-ix. Aga kxwo'pt galxE'kktcu ildu'du 


and Sparrow Hawk and Chicken Hawk speared a seal. 
And then it dragged them along over the water, dragged 
them on and on with it. Then Eagle said to Beaver : 
"Now my hands are sick, so do you cut off the rope." 
So then Beaver went and bit at the (rope). Beaver's 
teeth all came loose, and his teeth fell over into the water. 
, And next another one, that Sparrow Hawk (went) and 
again he took hold of the rope with his claws; this time 
also his claws fell overboard into the water. Next Eagle 
took hold of it with his claws; also his claws sank under 
water. Next that Sparrow Hawk took hold of it with his 
claws. Now by that time they had been thrown on to 
land and come ashore. Truly Eagle and his younger 
brothers had been on board a canoe. They had speared 
a seal and it had dragged them along with it, (as) in truth 
they were in a canoe. 

And then they saw a woman. Those claws of theirs 
and their teeth were all gathered here ; where the woman 
dwelt, there they were gathered. As it turned out, that 
woman was the seal that had dragged them along with 
her. And then they said to Bluejay : "Now go and 
get our claws." Eagle said to him: "Now you will 
go and get my claws and Beaver's teeth." So then Blue- 
jay went and said to the woman: "I have now come 
for the (claws and teeth), O niece." And then she said 
to him: "I am not your niece. Thus shall you speak to 
me : 'O wife ;' and in that case I shall return them to you." 

And then she took them with her and they went to- 
wards the house. All five of them she took with her 
straight on into her house. And then she gave them to 
eat and put food before them. In truth it was all per- 
sons' eye-balls. She said to them: "They are huckle- 
berries." In fact they were eye-balls, not huckleberries. 
And then they sank down tubes in themselves through 


i!6k u cxa'tpa na'wit bcoa'b wilx. Aga kxwo'pt galahffi'lE- 
mux wa'lxus. 

Aga wi'tlax gaktE'lquim; gakiJu'd itklE'm; qucti'ax' 

ifqu'mxum. Aga wi'tlax galxE'lEmux; na'wit gafgE'lba ; 

5 qu'ctiax' itgoa'tilx ita'qxumxum. Gakhi'lxam agagi'lak: 

"Da'udaxid^nExt." 1 Qucti'axa la'xlax gakh/x. Qucti'axa 

qxe'dau axlu'xwan : "Anlu'dina da'ula-itc itka'lukc itc!fn6n. 

itio'uxikc/ Axlu'xwan : "Qxuct anludi'naya." Aga wi r t!ax 

gaklu'W dixt i 7 tq u li. Aga kxwo'pt gagillu't iqtca'mat qucti'ax' 

10 ilkcfi'n, ilgoa'lilx ita'kcEn tfme'mEluct. Aga kxwo'pt xa'u- 

xau gafxu'x ng' 

Aga kxw6 x pt gakh/lxam: u Wi x t!ax ta r xyax da x b' am- 
cu x ya dixt i'tq^i." Qucti r axa idme'mEluctikc itga r q!utcu 
qxuxigi'ixal ; kxw6 x ba gaklu^l. Aga kxw6 x pt galu r pga ; 

15 dagabga'p itxMli't; qucti x axa itqlu^cu tca'uwigaloq ; idme^ 
mEluctikc. Aga kxwo'pt gatdgE x lga Ko^xikc itclfnon ; 
sa 7 q u kxwo 7 L ICXWOL idiapfqxba galfxElux ilio^xikc. Aga 
kxwo'pt I'wi gatctu/x idia x piq ; dalaula x u ga?xu x x ilio^xikc 
rtclTnon. Qucti'ax' axlu'xwan agagi'lak : a AnLudi'naya ; 

20 ahda'-ida itcli'non tfio'uxikc." Aga kxwo'pt galxi'la-it itq u - 
fi'ba dagapga'p iixMli't; idme'niEloctikc itga x q!utcu ga- 
qxu'xikik. Aga kxwo'pt gaqi'ulxam ika x la : " Ag' iJxla'-it ; 
daud 1 itxMli't aga da'k amdu'xwa." Aga kxwo'pt qe'dau 
gayuxuguma'lilx, qucti'axa i^tlHili. Aga kxwo'pt lu'q! 

25 gatctu'x itx u dirt; yok^xa'tpa gadilustsu. Aga sa r q u lu'qx 
gatctu'x ix u t!nili it^Mli't. Pla^la Ixe'la-itix ilio'uxikc i- 
tcH'non ; saq u iltluxia'luimax. 

. an Indian stew made of two roots (adwo'q "wild carrot" and amu'mal 
wild potato") to which dried fish was sometimes added. 


their mouths reaching down straight to the ground. So 
then they (pretended to) eat the eye-balls. 

The she gave them to eat again and put food before 
them. In truth it was brains. And again they ate it 
and it went straight through them - truly a person's 
brains. The woman said to them: "This is an 'idY- 
nExt' l stew," but in fact she was deceiving them. Truly 
thus she thinks : " I shall kill these men, Eagle and his 
younger brothers." She thinks: "Indeed I shall kill 
them." And again she took them along with her to a 
certain (other) house. And then she gave them a comb 
- in fact a hand, a dead person's hand. And they com- 
bed themselves with the hand. 

And then she said to them: "Again to that one house 
yonder you shall go." In truth (where) dead men's bones 
were being burned up as fuel, there she brought them. 
And then they went inside the house. The smoke (went 
up) all murky; truly dead men's bones were smouldering. 
And then Eagle took his younger brothers and complete- 
ly sheltered his younger brothers under his wings. Then 
he turned to look at his wings -, Eagle's younger brothers 
were all covered up out of sight. In truth the woman 
thinks: "I shall kill them. Eagle and his younger bro- 
thers will die." So then they stayed in the house (while) 
the smoke (went up) all murky , dead men's bones were 
being burned as fuel. And then a man was told : "Now 
they have died, so you will remove this smoke." So then 
he moved forward while sitting down in this manner 3 - in 
truth he was Ix u t!i'lili 3 . He swallowed the smoke and it slid 
down into his mouth. Now Ix u t!i'lili had swallowed all the 
smoke. Eagle and his younger brothers were sitting per- 
fectly unharmed; they were all brave heroes. 

2 Indicated by appropriate movement. 

3 This is some species of bird, but my interpreter was unable to identify it. 


Aga kxwo'pt pla'la; kla'ya gahi'mEqt. Aga kxwo'pt 
wi'tla gaqhilxa'mam ; gafu'ya di'xt itq u li. Gakli'lqwim 
itku'lal kxwo'dau idona'yax kxwo'dau gakli'lqwim it s i'nxt. 
Qucti'ax' axtau gakft'lqwim agu'sgus; gakiJu't it0t!u'kt' 
5 itfxlK'm. Aga kxwo'pt gahtbdE'mtck it!u'ktix itclfnon ilio'u- 
xikc. Aga kxwo'pt gaqlulxa'mam : "Hu'gum' amcx- 
cga'ma ; iqxEmctlxa'mam." Aga kxwo'pt gali'kim itclfnon ; 
"A r -i qwo'tk' alEm' ancxcga'm' -, aga na'qxi ncgi'ukEl ib'- 
guma, ag' alEma qwotk' ancu x ya." 

10 Aga kxwo'pt gahi'ya ; galu'yam. Kxwo'pt a x ga galx- 
cka'm ih^guma itclinon ilio^xikc. Ictlo^uyal iqxaq^nua 
gaya'loqstk cdax ka^actmokct ; kxwo'dau iga x nuk idk!a r - 
munak iatxElE'm. Htslfnon ia^xlEm iqxaqe r nua ; k^nau- 
.we dan k!wa r c tcfuxt; ka r nawe dan tciud^nax ixe^ax. 

15 W^tlax daukw' itclfnon, ka^nauwe dan idialx^wulx itclf- 
non ; p!a x la pu atcigslga^a iqwa x qwa ia x xan. Da x uya wi 7 gwa 
aga ga r nuit k!wa r c tci'uxt itclinon kxw6 x dau iqwa x qwa. 
Kxwo'dau ya'xta i^c^'c ifa/-uxix cmanix a^Ema algi x lgwa 
Uu'gumaba akma kxwo'pt iaxt' atctudi r naya idE^xam iata- 

20 la'mEqsqit a^Eni ; alEm'atciugwitci^na idE^xam ; atctu- 
walalma. Qucti'axa sa x q u ilalxe'wulxumax la'-imadikc la 7 - 
itcka Ixa'-uxikc. 

Aga kxwo'pt galuxwa x ckam ili/gumaba. Qucti x axa ya- 
xu'lal ila'lik ya'xacgEnil ilu^uma kxwo'dau iklastHa ya'- 

25 xacgEnil ihi'guma. Qucti'axa galxcka'm nVguma la'-itcka. 
Aga kxwo'pt gatcigp/lga ilu'guma iklastila kxwo'dau ila'lik 
gatci'gElga ilu'guma icia'gitc galilda'-ulx. Qucti'axa icia'- 
gitcpa iki'xax ilu'guma. Aga kxwo'pt L!U gatci'ux itclinon 
ila'ltk; na'wit daLlaxLla'x gacxu'x icia'gitc ilaTik; nigElga'ba 
30 iciagitcia'mt. Aga kxwo'pt gatcigE'lga ilu'guma ya'xta ik!a- 
sti'la ; iJu'ya gali'xox. Aga kxwo'pt galigla'lamtck iklasti'la. 
Aga' witlax L!U' gaqi'ux ikla'stila ; daLpaqLpa'q idia'kcEn 


So then (they sat) unharmed ; they had not died. And 
then again people came to tell them and they went to a 
certain (other) house. A woman gave them to eat nuts 
and huckleberries, and she gave them to eat "idYnxt" 
stew. In truth she who gave them to eat was the Squirrel, 
and she gave them good food. And then Eagle and his 
younger brothers ate well. And then people came to 
tell them: "You will gamble at bones; we have come 
to tell you." Then Eagle said: "Well, yes, we shall 
gamble. Although we do not know how to play bones, 
still we shall go." 

So then they went and arrived (there). And then Eagle 
and his younger brothers gambled at bones. Sparrow 
Hawk and Chicken Hawk, both of them are brave heroes ; 
also Beaver, who eats sticks. Sparrow Hawk is an eater 
of birds ; he strikes fear into everything, kills everything 
and eats it. Thus is also Eagle, and Eagle is strong 
above everybody ; he could easily seize a grizzly-bear's 
son. And in fact nowadays Eagle makes even a grizzly- 
bear afraid. Also that Bluejay, their younger brother, if 
they should win in bones, then that one was to kill the 
people with his battle-ax ; he was to strike the people 
with it and to chase them around. Truly they were all 
strong, they all alone, the brothers. 

So then they gambled at bones. In truth Rabbit was 
a player, a gambler at bones ; also Crab was a gambler 
at bones. In truth they (all) gambled at bones. Now 
then Crab took hold of gambling bones, and Rabbit took 
hold of gambling bones and they were forced up into his 
nostrils ; the gambling bones were really in his nostrils. 
And then Eagle guessed Rabbit ; straightway did Rabbit's 
nostrils tear open and the (bones) flew out of his nostrils. 
And then that Crab took hold of the gambling bones 
and started in to avenge (Rabbit). And then Crab sang. 



galu'xwax; galigE'lgab' tfu'guma; idia'kcEn LE'XLEX galu'- 
xwax. Sa'q u gatci'lgalq ikla'stila ; mtgiu'qumit yalpa'l- 
umit. Kxwo'pt gayu'ya iltcqo'yamt ikla'stila; dEme'nua 
gayu'ya. Da'uya wi'gwa ittcqo'ba gwa'nisim ikla'stila. 
5 Qe'dau L!U' gatci'ux itclfnon. 

Aga kxwo'pt galkilk ilu'gumaba. Aga kxwo'pt i'ic^'c 
gatctu'dina idE x lxam ; galki'ikpEt gatci'ugwitcim yata'la- 
mEqsgit ya'xdau da x b' iki'xax iaga'qctaqba. Aga 7 wi'tlax 
gaqhilxa'mam : " Amcu'xa aqla'lgilxal irfago'ulalxam." 
10 Aga kxwo'pt galu'ya aqlalgilxalia'mt ; gahta'lutkam ; ga- 
qxa'llux aqla'lgilxal qucti'axa na'mEn itklalamat a'mEni. 
Aga kxwo'pt gala'lupqa aqlalgilxal ; axtelt gi'gwalix kwo x - 
dau sa'q u itkla'lamat a'mEni aki'xax. Galxila-it gi'gwalix. 
Aga kxwo'pt gwE'nEm' itkla'lamat gaqta'xpu. 

15 Aga kxwo'pt gali'kim itclfnon, gatdu'lxam tfio'uxikc: 
"QEnEgi mcxhi'xwan ag' ilxla'-it." Aga kxwo'pt gali'kim 
iga'nuk: "Na'ika nkala ; kwa'-ic iltcqo'a'mlgE'lgEla." 
Aga kxw6 x pt gasixm^Lgwa ; aga wi'tlax gasixm^Lgwa ; 
aga wi x t!ax gasixmi x Lgwa ; aga wi'tlax gasixmi x Lgwa. Aga 

20 kxwo'pt iltcqoa' galxu'x wflxpa. Aga kxwo x pt wi'tla gasix- 
mi'i.gwa gwE'nEmix ; ilala gali^ox. Aga kxw6 x ba gahce'- 
la-it; galxqwo't iltcqo'ba. 

Aga kxwo'pt galklgE x lga gwE^Em' ilkla^amat ilak!a x i- 
tsax. Aga kxwo'pt galgi'ulada ikla'lamat ihcqo'ba ; aga 

25 kxwo'pt lpu'2 galimalxi'x-it ikla'lamat. Aga kxwo'pt ga- 
lu'gwakim idElxam : "Igwa^lilx i 8 ic 8 i x c ; aga Iku'p igfxox 
iago'mEnil i 8 i / c e ic; 7) La'xEnix idE'lxam galu'gwakim. Aga' 
wit' I iklu'na galgikla'da iltcqo'ba. Aga 7 witla lpu'2 ga- 
qritcmuq. Aga x wit!' iklu'na i r xt galgi'ulada iklalamat; 

30 lpii'2 gaqfltcmoq ; aga lu'n. Aga' wit!' iklu'na iklalamat 


Also Crab was guessed and his hands were all cracked; 
the gambling bones flew out and his hands suffered big 
tears. Crab was burned all over, and you can see that 
he is red. Then Crab went to the water, went to stay 
there for all time. Nowadays Crab is always in the water. 
In this manner did Eagle guess him. 

And so they won at gambling bones, and Bluejay killed 
the people. Whenever they won he struck the people 
with his battle-ax, which is here on his head. Now people 
again came to tell them : "You strangers will go to the 
sweat-house." And then they went towards the sweat-house 
and came to put themselves into it. The sweat-house 
had been built for them, in truth, entirely out of stones. 
So then they went inside of the sweat-house. It was heated 
down below and it was made entirely out of stones. They 
stayed down below and then the (sweat-house) was covered 
with five stones. 

And then Eagle spoke and said to his younger brothers : 
"What do you think? Now we have died." Then Bea- 
ver said: "I am] a man; soon you shall see water." And 
then he turned a somersault; and again he turned a 
somersault ; and again he turned a somersault ; and again 
he turned a somersault. Now then some water had come 
to be on the ground. And then again he turned a somer- 
sault, five times in all ; a lake had come to be. So there 
they stayed and bathed themselves in the water. 

And then they took five small stones. Then they threw 
a stone into the water and the stone fell in with a splash : 
"Ipu2." And then the people said: "Poor, poor Bluejay! 
Now Bluejay's heart has burst." (Thus) said the people 
outside. And again they threw another (stone) into the 
water, and again it was heard splashing: "Ipu2." Then 
again they threw one other stone in ; it was heard splash- 
ing : "Ipil2." Now three (had been thrown in). And 

8 4 

gatgiula'da ittcqo'ba; aga wi'tla ' Ipu x 2 gaqi'ltcmoq. tta- 
gwE'nEma gatgia'limalx iltcqo'ba lpu'2. 

Aga galu'gwakim : a Ag' i'umEqt itdinon." Galu'gwa- 
kim idE'lxam": "Aga sa'q u ihda'-it ia'-itcka itcli'non itio'- 
5 uxikc. Aga sa'q u Ikuplki/p igu'xwax ilagwo'mEnilmax." 
Aga kxwo'pt da x k gaqtu'x tklalamat da'xput aqlalgilxal. 
Wi'tia da x k gaqi'ux iklalamat -, wi'tla da x k gaqiu'x ; wi x t!a 
da'k gaqi'ux ila'lakt ; wi'tia ilagwE'nEma da'k gaqi'ux. 
Aga kxwo'pt i'ic^c gayu'lait icqxi'ba 5 gatcigE'lga yata x - 
10 lamqsgit. Sa x q u L!a x k gaqu'x aqxa'budit ikla'lamat ila- 
gwE'nEma. Aga x witla yu'xt i 8 ic 8 i x c icqxi'ba. Aga kxwo'pt 
gayugwo'b' iYc^c ; gatctudi'na wit!' idE'lxam. Aga 
kxwo'pt kanauwa' galu'pa ; galagE'lba aqla'lgilxal. Kla'ya 

15 Aga 7 wit!a kxwo'pt gaqlulxa'mam : "IqxEmcLxa'mam 
a'him' alxcga'ma waqilukck." 1 tt A 7 i; antcu'y' alEma," ga- 
li'kim itc!fnon. Aga kxwo'pt gah/ya. Aga kxwo'pt gatc- 
lulxam itcii'non ilio'uxikc : "Can a y lEm' amtxu'xwa!" 
Gali'kim iga'nuk : "Na'ika anxu'xwa." "A'u," galfkim 

20 itclfnon. Aga kxwo'pt gayu'ya iga'nuk itkla^unakiamt. 
Aga kxwo^t itk!a x munak qu x LquL gadi 7 xElux iawa x nba 
iga'nuk. Aga kxwo'pt galixa x -ima gasixE x ltsgi iski^txoa. 
Aga ya x xta iga r nuk gasixE^tsgi ; gasxs'ltsgi kanactmo^ct 
iga'nuk k!m' a x g' isk^ntxca. Aga kxw6 x pt ya 7 x gaqigE 7 lga 

25 icka x n n^mEn iikla^amat linqlw^yayut yatcfnba. Aga 
kxwo'pt gaqiulatla'-ulx icka x n ilkla^amat linq!we x yayut ya- 
tsla'imtsla-imba. Aga kxwo'pt galigEluktcuo^om iawa r nba 
iga'nuk icka'n. la^xi gatssu'bsna icka 7 n ; gwa 7 p gwop gali- 
xi'maxitam icka'n. Pla^l' ixi'mat iga'nuk. K!a r ya gayu r - 

30 rnEqt; galixk'tck. Aga .yaxt' iski x ntxoa galixa'-ima, gasi- 
xE'ltski. Aga kxwo'pt iku'ma tfkla'lamat iinqlwe'yayut 
idiatsla'-imtsla-imba gaqiulata'-ulx ; galigs'lEktcu iku'ma 

1 A term used to refer to any contest designed to test physical power or 


again they threw another stone into the water, and again 
it was heard splashing: "lpu"2." The fifth (stone) they 
threw down into the water with a splash: "Ipiia." 

And they said: "Now Eagle has died." The people 
said: "Now they, Eagle and his younger brothers, have 
all died. Now all their hearts have burst." And then 
they took off the stones which were covering the sweat- 
house. Again they took off a stone , again they took 
one off; again they took off the fourth ; again they took 
off the fifth. Now Bluejay had seated himself in the 
doorway and had taken his battle-ax in hand. (With) the 
fifth stone the door was entirely uncovered, and still was 
Bluejay sitting in the doorway. And then Bluejay rushed 
out and again killed the people. Then they all went out 
of the sweat-house. They were not dead at all. 

And then again people came to tell them: "We have 
come to tell you that we should all gamble at 'waqi'lukck. '" 
"Yes, we shall go," said Eagle. So then they went and 
Eagle said to his younger brothers: "Who of you will 
do it?" Beaver said : "I shall do it." - - "Yes," said Eagle. 
And then Beaver went to the woods; and Beaver stuck 
sticks on to himself all over his belly. Now then the 
Black Bear lay down, lay with belly up. And that Beaver 
lay down with belly up; both Beaver and Black Bear lay 
down with belly up. And then a cedar tree was taken 
with pebbles all clinging to its butt end. Then the cedar, 
the pebbles clinging to its roots, was slung up into the 
air. The cedar came falling down on Beavers' belly. 
Far off bounded the cedar ; the cedar fell down broken 
to splinters. Beaver was lying quite unharmed. He was 
not dead at all, and arose. Now that Black Bear lay 
down, lay with belly up. And then a cottonwood tree 
with pebbles clinging to its roots was slung up into the 

endurance. The one that stood the most pain won the game. 


iski'ntxoa. S E'X gatci'ux itclfnon, idialxe'wulx gatcdi'lux 
itclfnon iku'ma ; yagwa'lapik galfxox iku'ma. Lgwa'p 
fgwo'p ia'wan; tslu'nusmax gatssu'bEna ia'lq iskin'txoa. 
Gayu'mEqt iski'ntxoa. Gattci'lk itclfnon ilio'uxikc. Aga' 
5 witla kxwo'pt gatctu'dina i s i r c 8 ic idElxam. 

Aga wi't.'a gaqlulxa^am : a IqxEmcLxa'mam amcktu- 
gwalmama wa'liq itgaqlutsu^xlEm itktuklwa'itsax." Aga 
kxwo'pt galu'ya; na 7 2wit galu'ya. GalgfgElkEl quct^axa 
dsnu'x iqxwo x qxw6max gwE x nEma. Aga kxwo x pt Vx ga- 

10 tcFux itc.Tnon iqxwo^xwomax giuk!wa x itsax gali 7 x6x. P!a x la 
gatcigE x lga i s i / c s ic iqxwo^xwo iak!a 7 its. GatcigE^ga p!a r l' 
itclfnon ia x xta fxt. Kanauwa/ gwE x nEma galgigslga la x - 
itcka a'xt fxt. Aga kxwo'pt galgi'ukl itq u lia'mt ; galgiu 7 - 
klam. Na x 2wit itq^fba galgixfma. Aga kxw6 7 pt gali- 

15 xElga'yu itq u li x ba iqxwo^xwomax. Aga kxwo'pt galu- 
gwakfm idE'lxam: "Da'n bam' imcgi'Luk?" Gaqlu'lxam : 
"Imcgftkam wftla kxwo'ba qa'xb' imcgi'gElga." Aga 
kxwo'pt gali'kim itclfnon : " Mca'ika mcxatxu'lal amcgi'La." 
Aga kxwo'pt galgigElga iqxo'qxomax ; wi'tia galgfukl; 

20 wi x t!a galgi'utkam. Aga kxwo'pt wi'tia galu'yam. Aga 
kxwo'pt wftla i 8 i x c 3 ic gatctudi'n' idE'lxam. Aga wi r t!ax 
galki^k laMtcka. 

Aga kxwo'pt wi'tia gaqhilxa'mam : " Wi'tlax alxcga'ma , 
alxmu'ya ili'paq lukli't iltcqo'ba." Aga kxwo'pt gatclu'l- 
25 xam itcli'non ilio'uxikc : "Can amcxu'xa iti'paqba?" Aga 
kxwo'pt gali'kim i 8 i'c 8 ic: "Na'ika anxu'xa nka'la." Quc- 
ti'axa agu'sgus axtau ili'paq algucgi'wogwox. Aga kxwo'pt 
i'axta i^'c'ic kxwo'ba gacxu'x ili'paqba ka'nactmokct agu's- 


air and the cottonwood tree fell down on Black Bear. 
Eagle had exercised his magic influence upon it, Eagle 
had put strength into the cottonwood tree, and the cot- 
tonwood became heavy. (Black Bear's) belly burst into 
pieces and the body of Black Bear bounded off in frag- 
ments. Black Bear was dead. Eagle and his younger 
brothers won, and then Bluejay again killed the people. 

And again people came to tell them: "We have come 
to tell you that you should go and get a maiden's tiny 
little dogs." So then they went, straight on they went. 
They saw what proved indeed to be five grizzly bears. 
And then Eagle exercised his magic power upon the 
grizzly bears, so that they became quite small. Bluejay 
quietly took hold of a small grizzly bear. Eagle quietly 
took hold of that (other) one. All five of them took hold 
of the (grizzly bears), each one taking one (grizzly bear). 
And then they took them with them towards the house 
and came home with them. Straightway they put them 
down in the house, and then the grizzly bears started in 
fighting in the house among themselves. And then the 
people said: "For what reason have you brought them ?" 
They were told : " Go and put them back again in that 
place in which you got them." And then Eagle said : 
"You people were saying, 'Bring them.'" And then they 
took hold of the grizzly bears, took them back again, 
and went to put them down again. Then they arrived 
back again and Bluejay again killed the people. So they 
had won once more. 

And then again people came to tell them: "Let us 
gamble again.. We shall wrestle on a rope stretched out 
across the water." And then Eagle said to his younger 
brothers: "Who of you will wrestle on the rope?" And 
then Bluejay said: "I shall do it, I am a man." Truly 
that was Squirrel who was going backwards and forwards 


gus. Aga kxwo'pt gatcugwi'lx i'i'c'ic agu'sgus iatala'm- 
qsgit E'nEgi. Galu'maqt agu'sgus; galuxu'ni. IdE'lxam 
uxwe'la-itix ; tk!f qcuxt; su'xwitk. Aga kxwo'pt gaqxa'- 
gElkEl uxu'nit u'mqt agu'sgus. Qucti'axa gatcugwi'lx i^Vic ; 
5 qucti'axa gatcwo'q. Aga kxwo'pt galikta'ptck iWic. 
Aga wi x t!a gatctudi'na idElxam. 

Aga wi'tla gaqlulxa'mam itclfnon ilio'uxikc iltlo'xyalu- 
wimax. Aga kxwo'pt galki'm : " A 7 -i ; antcu'ya." Galu'ya. 
Aga kxwo'pt gaqlu'lxam : "Alxmu'ya." Aga kxwo'pt 

10 gali'kim itdi'non : "Na'ika itcli'non nda'ika antxmu'ya." 
Qucti'ax' anti'x'wa a'xtau gacx w mu'ya itcli'non. Aga 
kxwo'pt gacxgE'lga ; Lxoa'p Lxoap gacku'xwix itcta'piqx ; na'- 
wid wi'lxpa Lxoa'p Lxoa'p gacgdi'loxix itcta'piqx. Gacx- 
gE'lga itcta'kcEn a'mEni Lxoa'p Lxoa'p. Aga kxwo'pt 

15 gacdi'lwilxt igu'cax. 

Aga kxwo'pt gatclu'lxam ilio'uxikc itdinon : "Cma'nix 
alilk u tcwo'ya na'ik' itclq itcli'non na'wit ilatsu'mitpa iltcqoa' 
kxwo'ba Ifi'b amcgi'txa ; cmani a'xka alilk u tcwo'y'a anti'xwa 
itca'lq na'wit amcgi'txa Ixte'ltpa." Gayu'lsktcu itcli'non 
20 ia'lq ; na'wit ilatsu'mit iltcqoa' IE'P galgi'ux itclinon ia'lq. 
A'xtlax anti'xwa gayu'lsktcu itca'lq ; na'wit Ixte'lt iltcqoa' 
IE'P galgi'ux. 

la'xta 8 i'c 8 ic iltcqoa' tclu'gwiptckt aga la'uxlaux isi'axus ; 
idElxa'mba aga ila'-itix qi'uxt. Kwo'dau ga'yaloqstk ia'xta 
25 itq u li'ba yu'xt; aga Iqoa'b ya'xut. Kwo'dau ia'xtax iqxa- 
qe'nua aga' yuxt itq u li'ba itlu'xyal ; aga dagapga'b isi'axus 
yuxt. Kwo'dau iaxtax iga'nuk ag' itkla'munak dixi'lax. 
Yaxa' yax ila'lxt itcli'non aga gacti'lwulxt igu'cax. Aga 
cxgE'lgat Lxoa'p Lxoa'b icta'lq anti'xwa kxwo'dau itcli'non. 


on the rope. So then both that Bluejay and Squirrel 
wrestled there on the rope. Bluejay struck Squirrel with 
his battle-ax; Squirrel died and drifted down stream. The 
people were seated while the two had them look on , the 
(people) looked. And then Squirrel was seen drifting 
down dead. Truly Bluejay had struck her and truly he 
had killed her. And then Bluejay returned to land and 
killed the people again. 

And again people came to tell Eagle and his younger 
brothers, all brave heroes. And then they said: "Yes, 
we shall go." They went and then they were told : "We 
shall wrestle." Then Eagle said: "I Eagle and another 
shall wrestle." Truly that was Buzzard who was wrest- 
ling with Eagle. And then the two took hold of each 
other, interlocking their wings. Straightway on the ground 
they interlocked their wings and caught hold of each 
other by clinching each others' claws. And then up they 
went to the sky. 

Now then Eagle said to his younger brothers : "If my, 
Eagle's, body should fall down, straightway shall you dip 
it there in cold water; if her, Buzzard's, body should fall 
down, straightway shall you put it into warm water." 
Eagle's body fell, and straightway they dipped Eagle's 
body in cold water. Also her, Buzzard's, body fell, and 
straightway they dipped it in warm water. 

That Bluejay is carrying water and his eyes have be- 
come blinded; now he has been made a slave. And that 
Chicken Hawk is sitting in the house and one of his eyes 
has burst. And that Sparrow Hawk, the hero, is now 
sitting in the house ; now he sits with his eyes bedimmed. 
And that Beaver is now eating sticks. But Eagle, their 
elder brother, and (Buzzard) had now mounted up to the 
sky; now Buzzard and Eagle are holding on to each 
other by interlocking their bodies. They have reached 

9 o 

Cti'lwllxt igu'cax; aga da'-im' itq!a'tcu icta'lq. Qe'dau 

Kxwopt a'ga galiglu'ma itdi'non : 

Qa'x - ya do'x' i - tcu' - x w ix 

ga' - ya - 16'qstk i - 

tcu' - x*ix, a'g' i - na'n-ga - gwa' wopl - q!6a' - mat. 1 
Aga wi't!a galiglu'ma itdi'non ; gatciu'pgEna ; wi'tla daukwa 
5 gatcigi'luma. Aga kxwo'pt gaqi'ltcmaq ga'yaloqstk itq ll li'- 
ba ; aga Lqoa'b ya'xut. Aga wi't!a gatcigi'luma gayaxila'da 3 
it.'o'xyal; gatciu'lxam itc!f non : "Qa'xya dox' itcu'x w lx ga- 
yaxila'd' itcu'x w lx, ag' ina'ngagwa' w6plq!6a'mat." 3 Qe'dau 
galiglu'ma itcli'non. Aga gaqi'ltcmaq ga'yaloqstk: "gk'l 
10 glfi'l" 4 iago'mEnilpa. Aga wi'tia iqxaqe'nua gaqigi'luma : 
"Qa'xya dox' itcO'^x iqxaqe'nu' itcu'xwlx, ag' ina'ngagwa' 
woplq.'oa'mat." 3 Aga kxwo'pt galixgu'itk, gatcilxa'dagwa. 
Wi't!a da'ukwa iqxaqe'nua gali'xox : gaqi'ltcmoq : "gls'l 

15 Aga kxwo'pt ik!m6 x kan gatccu'x ga'yaloqstk kxwo'dau 
iqxaqe'nua. Aga kxwo'pt qe'dau gacxu'x Lxoa'p Lxoa'b 
i x tq u li. Aga kxwo'pt gactHwilxt igu'cax, gacgi'unaxLam 
icta'lxt. Aga kxwo'pt gactu'ya; na'2wit a'ga gacgi'gElkEl 
tel-h iguca'xpa. Aga kxwo'pt q!oa'b aga gackcu'xam. 

20 Kxwo'pt a'ga gacga'gElga ; Lqlo'p gacgi'axux itca'tuk 
anti'xwa ga'yaloqstk iqxaqe'nua icio'uxix itclinon. Gacgi'u- 
fada itcaxa'qctaq. Gayugwi'lEktcu kxwob' gi'gwal uxwe'- 
la-itix idr/lxam. Na'wit iltcqo'ba txte'lt IE'P gaqi'ux 
itcaxa'qctaq - ixlfi'ltpa. 


Kxwopt lawa'2 dakda'g gackdi'xux itgaxaxwo'lagodit ; 

Probably a mythical name of anti'xwa, buzzard. 

This is another species of hawk, whose identification is uncertain ; it is des- 
ribed as a small hawk with sharp wing bone. 

up to the sky and their bodies are nothing but bones. 
Thus did the two wrestle. 

And then Eagle cried out: "Where now is my brother, 
Sparrow Hawk, my brother? Now I have been overcome 
by Buzzard." And again Eagle cried out and called upon 
him ; again as before he cried out to him. And then 
Sparrow Hawk was heard in the house ; now one of his 
eyes was burst. Then again (Eagle) cried out to Gaya- 
xila'da, 2 the hero. Eagle said to him: "Where now 
is my brother, Gayaxila'da, my brother? Now I have 
been overcome by Buzzard." In this way did Eagle call out. 
And Chicken Hawk was heard saying " gte'l glfiT 4 in his 
heart. Then again Chicken Hawk was called out to : 
"Where now is my brother, Chicken Hawk, my brother? 
Now I have been overcome by Buzzard." And then he 
awoke and came to himself. Also Chicken Hawk did as 
before; he was heard saying: "gb/l glE'l." 4 

And then Sparrow Hawk and Chicken Hawk became 
frenzied and tore thus right through the house. Then the 
two rose up to the sky and went to look for their elder 
brother. And then they went on and straightway caught 
sight of him as a tiny dark speck in the sky. Then they 
came up close to the two (combatants) and they seized 
her ; Sparrow Hawk and Chicken Hawk, the two younger 
brothers of Eagle, cut off the neck of Buzzard and threw 
down her head. It fell down there below where the 
people were dwelling. Straightway her head was dipped 
in warm water. 

Then slowly the two unloosened her claws from him, 
(for) she had pierced through and caught hold of his 

3 Same tune. * High pitch. 


gigE'lgat Ixoa'b iago x mEntf. Na^wit gacgu x x*v6qwiq, ; gaq- 
da'limahc. Aga kxwo x pt gacgi'uki wi x t!a wflxiamt ; gac^ 
gi'gslga idia x xoba; gacgi'uklam wflxpa. Aga kxwo x pt 
nixElxa x damidagwa ; gatdgE x lg' ilka'tcla itclfnon. Aga 
5 kxwo'pt wa 7 x gali'xux. Aga kxwo'pt gwE^Emix wa'x 
gati'xux ilka'tcla. Sa x q u gatcilxa'dagwa ia'iq. laxa a r x 
anti'xwa . gal^maqt na'wit ; iaxa'-ix itdinon kla'ya gayu 7 - 
mEqt. Qe'dau gacxmi/ya itclfnon kxwoMau anti x xwa. 

Aga kxw6 7 pt gal^kim iga x nuk : " Na'itla da^inu' anu x ya 

10 ihcqo x ba, kxwob' itkja^unak adnxElmuxuma." We ga- 

irkim : "Nait!' a r ga dika daba x 2 'nxi^xwa-, ag' alugwa- 

gi x ma, l Da x uyax ia x xta ^iVic,' idE^lxam, ( aga dika 7 2 ga- 

irxox." 1 Aga ya x xta gairkim ga 7 yal6qstk : "Aga na'it!a 

daba x 4 anxu x xwa itk!a x munakba ; alugwagrma, l la x xta 

15 ga'yaloqstk tk!i x 'ki'xax.'" Ia x xta gali'kim iqxaqe'nua : 

a Na x it!a ca x iwatk!ack' anxu x xwa, qaxba x 2 'nxu x xwa; na x it!ax 

alugwagi x ma idE x lxam, 'Iqxaqe x nua it!6 x xyal qaxba x dan 

ihslfnon atduwa x gwa; ka x nauwe dan lu x q!w atdu x xwa.'" 

Aga ya x xt' itc!i x n6n gali x kim: "Aga na x it!a 

20 fxli x wix anxu x xwa; k!a2y' aqxangElgla x ya, aic qa x ma 

aqEngE x lgEla. Alugwagi x ma idE ; lxam, "Itc!i x n6n igidi x - 

mam, da x 2uyax iu x gwat itc!i x non, qxadaga x td itc!i x non p' a- 

tcixcga x ma ia x xan iqwo x qwp ; k!wa x c tci x uxt. Idiatxe x wulx 

itc!l x non; daukwo x wit!a k!wa x c tci x uxt itda x nk ; p' atdgE x lga 

25 wi'tla ya x xka itdfnon ; aic pu tcqa x k tcqak atciuxwa itc!a x ng 

iap!a x skwal, asa x qsaq p' alaxu x xwa. Qe x dau p' atcu x xwa 

itclfnon.'" Qe x daii gali x xox iqxa x nutck. 


heart. Straightway they threw the (claws) down and they 
fell into the water. And then they carried him back with 
them to the ground ; they took hold of him by his arms 
and arrived with him on the ground. And then he brought 
himself to. Eagle took some grease and then poured it 
over himself. Five times he poured the grease over him- 
self and he recovered entirely. But she, Buzzard, died 
straightway, while Eagle did not die at all. Thus did Eagle 
and Buzzard wrestle. 

And then Beaver said: "For my part I shall go to 
stay always in the water, and there I shall eat wood." 
Bluejay said: "Now I for my part shall be here in this 
place, and the people will say, 'This is that Bluejay 
and he did (his deeds) hereabouts.'" And that Sparrow 
Hawk said: "Now I for my part will be in this place 
in the woods and they will say, 'That Sparrow Hawk is 
looking on.' " That Chicken Hawk said : "I for my part will 
be anywhere at all, all over shall I be. As to me the 
people will say, 'Chicken Hawk, the hero, kills birds 
everywhere; everything he swallows." 5 

And that Eagle said : "Now I for my part shall be 
in the mountains for ever and ever. I shall not be seen 
at all, only once in a great, great while ,will any one see 
me. The people will say, l Eagle has come ; here is 
Eagle flying about, in order that Eagle may take from 
the grizzly bear his son - - he fills him with dread. Strong 
is Eagle. So also he fills a deer with dread and also 
him could Eagle seize. He could just chew at a deer's 
hide and it would become buck-skin. Thus could Eagle 
do with it.' r In this way took place the tale. 



Kwo'dau wi't!ax galugwa'lalamtck tcagE'lqlix. Ka'nau- 
wi dan galigla'lamtck ; ia'xtlax isklu'lfiyE galigla'lamtck 
kxwo'dau isklu'lfiyE aya'xan itca'xliu Stwo'winlx wa'liq 
galagla'lamtck. La'-im' ilka'tcla galagE'lba itc6'k u cxat. 
5 Aga kxwo'pt gaqi'ulxam isklu'lEyE : "Ami'xan agla'lam." 
Aga kxwo'pt gali'kim: "Da x n iagE'lpx?" Aga kxwo'pt 
gaqiu'lxam: "Hka'tcla lagE'lpx." Aga kxwo'pt gali'kim 
isklu'lEyE: "Itgage'wam alaxu x xwa na'ik' akxa'n." Aga 
kxwo'pt galixElk^tk, ayakla^amat ngi wa x nux iguna r d 

10 aya'nux. Ilka'titck gatdalutk ; galixElki'tk isklu'lEyE idia- 

Aga kxw6 7 pt galigla^amtck wit!' fxat. Gaqiu^xam : 
"Imi'xan isk!u 7 lEyE igla'lam." Aga kxw6 x pt gairkim : 
a Da x n igElpx?" Galugwakim : a ttga'wilqt IfgElpx." Ga- 

15 li'kim isklulfiyE : "Qxa'daga tccudi^Ii." Aga kxwo'pt 
ka'nauwe dan galigla^amtck. Aga kxw6 x pt ia x xta gali- 
gla'lamtck itqlwol ; kwo r dau axt' ak!u r stxulal galagla^amtck : 

I >/^IJ J N J N J S ; J / fffjf: 

"K!a' - la ga - no'- xwax a' -ca wa - gi'- xan ga'-qEn-du - la' - pax." 
Aga kxwo'pt gaqu'lxam: "ALu x g ami'xan, alamxElEk- 
tcwa'ya." Aga kxwo'pt gala'klm: "Kla'ya! doukw' a x ga 
20 klala ganu'xwax, gaqEndu'lapax." Qucti'ax' aklu'stxulal 
itca'xliu akla'lakia. 

Ag' a'xtax a x dwoq a r xta galagla'lamtck. Gala^im qe r dau : 

i x ;u //>;> if j ;;i>/ t 

"Stai - ma - p!a' gi - ski - p!i' - ast stai - ma - p!a' gi - ski - p!i' - ast ga - 

qnu - la' - pax." 

A root referred to as "wild potato 1 ' and said to be similar to the amu'mal 
though of a finer grade and grain. 


And again the (people) sang in winter. Everybody 
sang ; also that Coyote sang and Coyote's daughter, whose 
name was Salmon-Head-Fat, a maiden, sang. Nothing 
but grease was flowing out of her mouth. And then 
Coyote was told: "Your daughter is singing." Then 
he said: "What is flowing from her?" And then they 
told him: "Grease is flowing from her." Then Coyote 
said: "My daughter will be a medicine-woman." And 
then he smoked - - his pipe was made out of a stomach, 
a salmon's stomach. Dried salmon-flesh he filled into the 
(pipe) and Coyote, the medicine-man, smoked. 

And then yet another one sang. (Coyote) was told : 
"Your son, Coyote, is singing." Then he said: "What 
is flowing out of him?" They said: "Blood is flowing 
from him." Coyote said: "He is merely lying." Now 
then everybody was singing. Now that Itqlwo'l 1 was 
singing and that Aklu'stxulal 2 was singing : "On my back 
I carry my daughter; we two are dug up." And then 
she was told : " Give (us) your daughter, you will let her 
fall." But then she said: "No! just in that way am I 
accustomed to carry her on my back ; we two are dug 
up." Truly Aklu'stxulal was her name, Akla'lakia. 

Now that A'dwoq 3 was singing. Thus she said : "Only 
by my tail, only by my tail am I dug up." And just in 
that way would one dig her up to-day ; one would not 
dig up all, but only half of the "wild carrot." Now that 
Amu'lal sang, that Aq!6'lawa-itk, and also that Butter-cup 
sang. Now that Grizzly Bear sang. Thus he sang : 

2 A root referred to as "wild onion;" it is similar to the ak'.a'lakia but smaller 
in size. 3 Known as "wild carrot." 

9 6 

Aga da'ukw' aqxwo'laba pu da'uya wi'gwa ; na'qxi pu 

sa'q u citi'xka aqxwo'lab' a'dwoq. Ag' a'xta amu'lal ga- 

lagla'lamtck, aq!6'lawa-itk a'xta, akxa'nakwoLk a'xtia 

nagla'lamtck. Aga ya'xta nigla'lamtck iqwo'qwo. Qe'dau 


1 ' 

5 galigla'lamtck: 

"Ho ho ho'! ho ho ho ho'!" 

Kxwo'pt gali'kim iqwo'qwo : "Ha^! 1 Can wa-a'u il- 
gnu'x pu k.'E'cklEc aniu x xwa ilaqxa^ctaq." Aga gatctu- 
gwHx idE'lxam iqwo^wo. Aga kxwo^t galki^ : fc Can 
wa'-au algiu^wa iqwo^wo?" Kxwo^t a r ga gali^im ia- 

10 kla'its ikala: "Na'ika wa-a x u aniu'xwa." Aga kxwo'pt 
ia'xka gayu'txuit ikala. Kxwo'pt gali'kim ika'la : "Qxa"- 
matgi wa x gw' aqdu^alama, 'KlEcklEc itqxa^ctagokc.'" 
Kxw6 x pt gatcii/lxam : "Nalka wa-a x u ia^ux. Kwa x l 
qanEgi x ntxa ! kwal klE'cklEc itx' itcqxa^ctaq! Kwa x l gaya- 

15 mElda'wilxEmx imiwa'nba. Gamu'mEqtx iqwo^wo kwa x l- 
dix." Gatsi'klElutk. Kxw6 x pt gatciu'lxam : " A x wi, nacqi" 
pu atxwa x gwa ; atgatxugwa x nimtcga idE^xam digu^cix." 
Wi x t!ax galigla'glamtck igaVulx. Gal^kim qe x dau : 

Qa'x - ba nxad - li - ma - lal wa' - pictx it - ga - bul - max nxa'd - li - 


ma -lal wa- pictx" etc. 

Aga kxwo x pt gali'kim iga'wulx : "Can wa-a x u ilgsnu'x anl- 

20 tstlxa'tgwaya cawala'ptin." Aga kxwo'pt gayu'txuit ika'la. 
Aga kxwo'pt gatciulxam iqlalalac : "Qa'matgi wa'gwa 
aqdulalama, 'Itpfctmax itga'bulmax, ganuxwagwo'mitx 
idElxam.'" Aga kxwo'pt gatciu'lxam : "Na'ika wa-a'u ia'- 
mux. Kwal cni'txatk, kwal Entq u ca / ! Kwaldix daL.'' a'nduxwa 

25 itgF/kcEn, a-itgo'b ami'lxus alaxu'xwa ; iga'wulx amu'mEqta." 
Aga wi r t!ax at!a x ntsa galagla'lamtck. Qucti'axa ugwa'la- 

1 In loud whisper. 


"Ho ho ho'! ho ho ho ho'!" 1 Then said Grizzly 
Bear: "Ha'^.! 1 Whoever shall have challenged me, his 
head shall I eat up." And Grizzly Bear struck the people. 
And then they said: "Who will challenge Grizzly Bear?" 
So then a man, small of size, said: "I will challenge 
him." And then he arose and the man said: "Some- 
where it is sung all day long, 'Eat up heads.'" Then 
he said to (Grizzly Bear): "I have challenged you. Be 
quick and do something to me ! Be quick and eat up 
my head ! Quickly shall I run up into your belly and 
you, Grizzly Bear, will quickly die." (Grizzly Bear) 
looked at him; then said to him: "O younger brother, 
we should not kill each other. Perhaps the people will 
laugh at us." 

Also Rattlesnake sang. Thus he said : " Where I 
shoot my arrows, there is the sunflower's shade." And 
then Rattlesnake said : " Whoever has challenged me, 
him shall I put cheat-grass into." So then a man stood 
up and then he, Raccoon, said to him: "Somewhere it 
is sung all day long, 'The shade of the sunflowers, 
(there) I shall destroy the people.'" And then he said 
to him: "I have challenged you. Be quick and put the 
(cheat-grass) into me ! Be quick and bite me ! Quickly 
shall I warm my hands and your eye-balls will become 
all white. You, Rattlesnake, will die." 

Now also Crow sang. In truth they were (all) singing, 


9 8 

lam ; qucti'axa bdu'xwan : " Aga L!' alixu'xwa'-axdixa." Quc- 
ti'axa ikxa'lal Igi'gElximu* ; L!a' Igiuxu'lalix. Quc(t) tci'c 
iki'xax. Ka'nauwi dan galigla'lamtck, a'xk' ag' atla'ntsa 
galagla'lamtck. Aga kxwo'pt ikxa'lal gayu'ya. Aga 
5 kxwo'pt gactugwfLti kxwo'dau ikxalal. Aga kxwo'pt 
galu'ya at!a r ntsa; itcaqla'bEnx gagigElga. Aga kxwo'pt 
gakdu'mitcki uxoqle'walal. Cpa'q gayu'ya ikxa'lal; nu'it 
Jxliu galu'xwax uxoqle'walal. Aga kxwo'pt gagigE x lga 
at!a r ntsa yaga'il igu'nat. Aga kxwo'pt gayaxE'lEmux a- 

10 tla'ntsa. Aga kxwo'pt gagagElkfil atcli'qtcliq ia'xilax igu'nat 
atla'ntsa. Aga kxwo'pt gagi'axcgam -, gagiugwo'mida-ulx. 
Aga kxwo'pt gala'kim atla'ntsa : "Na'itlax wo'pkal !" 
GagigE'lga; gaga'-ilagwa at!a'ntsa kxwo'dau ilga'wulqt 
saq u dalal gala'xux. Da'uya wi'gwa dala'l atla'ntsa itca'x- 

15 leu. laxa a'xta atc!fqtc!iq datgu'p gala'xux itcaxa'qctaq. 
Da r uya wi 7 gwa itca r xleu atclfqtcliq, datgu r b itcaxa^ctaq. 


Gatgi" idElxam, gayu x y' isk!u x lEyE. Aga kxwo'pt ga- 
luxwadi^na; ia x xtax iskli/lEyE gatclucga^agwa, ila x -itix ga- 
tci x ux, qucti x axa wfnpo uxwadi'naxpa gatcigE^ga. Kxwo^au 
20 wi x t!ax ilkla^kac gatclucga^nagwa, gatdgE x lga , qucti r ax' 
ikxa^al ia x xtau isklu^Eys ila^itix gatdu 7 x. Aga kxw6 7 pt 
p!a x la galu'xwax iqxa'dinaxiamt. 

Aga kxwo x pt gadagla'-it aknim, galuxok!wa x yu idE'lxam. 
IsklulEyE i^laMtix gadigla x -it ; p!a x l p!al gali'xux ialq, quc- 
25 ti'axa wi'npu ia'xtau. Kxwo'dau apla'lali 1 gada x gla-it pla'l 
p!al itca'xleu apla'lali ; da'uya wi'gwa itsakla'its ak!a x daqxi 
itsa'xleu aka'xtau. Aga kxwo'pt gatgi'am. Aga kxwo'pt 
gada'giduk akni'miamt. Gaqi x gElga isklu'kyE i^'la-itix, 

Said by Pete MC Guff to mean "shiner, a small freshwater fish of the minnow 


and truly they were thinking : " Now it will become 
warm." Truly they were calling the West Wind and 
trying to make warm weather, (for) indeed, they were 
feeling cold. Everybody was singing and now she, Crow, 
sang. Now then the wind was blowing ; it rained and 
the West Wind blew. And then Crow went out and 
took her fish-bag and then found fish. The wind was 
blowing hard and the fish were forced clear up to shore. 
And then Crow caught a big salmon, and then Crow ate 
it. Then Bald Eagle caught sight of Crow as she was 
eating the salmon. And then (Bald Eagle) took it away 
from her and flew up away with it. Then Crow said : 
"Let me have a fish-gill!" (Bald Eagle) took one and 
struck Crow with it, and she became all covered with black 
blood. To this day she is black and her name is Crow. 
But that Bald Eagle became white about her head. To 
this day her name is Bald Eagle ; she is all white in her head. 


The people went and Coyote went. And then they 
fought with one another. That Coyote captured some 
one and made him a slave ; in truth he had caught a 
flea where the (people) were fighting. And again he cap- 
tured a child and took him ; in truth that was the West 
Wind, whom Coyote made a slave. And then the (peo- 
ple) stopped fighting. 

And then they sat in the canoes, and the people start- 
ed out for home. They sat down on Coyote's slave, 
(so that) his body became mashed to pieces ; in truth that 
was the flea. They also sat down on Apla'lali 1 (so that 
she became) mashed to pieces, she whose name is Ap!a x lali ; 
nowadays she is small and Chub is that same one's name. 

kind." Both shiner and chub belong to the genus Leuciscus. 


pla'l plat ia'lq. Aga kxwo'pt galu'gwakim idE'lxam : 
"Da'uyax isklu'lEyE i'la-itix." Aga kxwo'pt gatci'uqtck 
itq u li'ba, kanactmo'kct gatcco'qtck ici'la-itix itq u li'ba; ga- 

5 Aga kxwo'pt gatcigE'lksl isklu'lEyE ie'la-itix ixgoqs'nk 
aga sa x q u lilwulxt isi'axus idiamiJo'ximax, dalaula'u gali 7 - 
xux ia'lq. Aga kxwo'pt gali'kim isklu'kyE : "latcgE'mEm 
igi'xux itcila'-itix." Aga kxwo'pt idF/lxam gayaxa'wik u utck 
isklu'lEyE: tt Ayu'mEqta." Aga kxwo'pt ka'tcag wa'pul 
10 galikhi'tk ila'-itix. Isklu'lsyE dadakda'g galu'xwax idi- 
a'q u h Galixgu'-itk isklu'lEyE; k!ay' i^'la-itix. Gayu'yam 
isklu'lEyE; k!ay' i^'la-itix. Aga kxwo'pt gatciu'naxL is- 
klu'lEyE; sa'q u ba galigucgi'walEmtck ; na'qxi gatcigs'lga. 

Aga kxwo'pt gatsugi'tsxaba isio'utxix. Aga kxwo'pt 

15 gatsu'lxam : " Mtxa'nitk u utck da'n ia'xtau." Aga kxwo'pt 

gacgiu'lxam : "Ag' a'lma ma'yax amgi'ma, l Da'ukwa 

nxi'Luxwan.' Na'qxi La'xtau ilkla'ckac, ikxa'lal ia'xtau." 

Gacgiu'lxam ici^'gik u lan, gacxi'lk u litck ; gwa'2nisim cxiluk- 

li'lal icio'utxix cta'xka. Aga kxwo'pt gacgiu'lxam : " Cma'- 

20 ni tq!^'x amiu'xwa kxwo'pt amxigEltkli'xEma." Aga kxwo'pt 

gacilda'-ulx ; daga'mui gagiula'da a'ixat; aklu'na na-ilda'- 

ulx iawa'nba pla'la. Gacgiu'lxam: "AmExtkli'xEma itpo- 

qo'xba, kxwo'b' amigs'lgaya ia'xtau imi'la-itix. Cma'nix 

ihka' aha'-ida dala'l wi'lx alixa'txa itpoqo'xba. Aga kxwo'pt 

25 amxigitk!i'xEma, kwo'b' amigi'tga imila'-itix, alimxa'tsk u da." 

Aga kxwo'pt gatcigE'lksl iskiu'lsyE wi'lx itpoqo'xba. 

1 It is not at all clear what is meant by this statement. 


And then they arrived home and got out of the canoes. 
Coyote's slave was taken hold of, he whose body was 
mashed to pieces. And then the people said: "This 
one is Coyote's slave." Then he took him in into the 
house both of his slaves he took into the house 

and set him down. 

And then Coyote saw that his older slave was all 
swollen in his eyes and in his ears and that his body had 
become all covered over (with swellings). So then Coyote 
said: "My slave has become sick;" and then Coyote told 
the people: "He will die." Now then in the middle of 
the night the slave breathed and Coyote's house became 
loosened. Coyote awoke ; his slave was not to be seen. 
Coyote went to (where he had left him) ; his slave was 
not to be seen. And then Coyote looked for him, went 
about everywhere, (but) did not find him. 

And then he defecated out his two younger sisters. 
He said to them : " Do you two tell me what has become 
of that one." And then they said to him : " Now you 
yourself will say, l just so did I think/ That is not a 
child, that is the West Wind." His two faeces spoke (thus) 
to him and told him (what to do) ; always were they two, 
his younger sisters, wont to tell him. And then they 
said to him: "If you wish to get him, then you must 
set a trap for him." And then the two jumped up into 
him ; the one threw him down senseless, (while) the other 
one jumped up into his belly quietly. The two said to 
him: "You will set a trap in the mountains and there 
you will catch that slave of yours. When snow will fall, 
black 1 will be the land in the mountains; and then you 
will lay a trap for him and there you will catch your 
slave ; he will be caught by your trap." 

And then Coyote saw the land in the mountains and 
then set a trap for him. He was caught in (Coyote's) 


Aga kxwo'pt galixigE'ltkliq. Galixu'tsk u t. Aga kxwo'pt 
ka'dux gayuya itpoqo'xumaxba isk!u'lEyE ; gatsiuk u ctam. 
Aga gatcigE'lkEl yu'xt k!a'u iki'xax ili'pcba. Aga kxwo'pt 
ga'tcigF/lga isk.'u'lEyE, gatciu'gulaqlq ; gatciii'k u l itq u lia'mt 
5 ia'la-itix. Aga wi'tia da'ukwa gali'xox ik!a 7 ckac; sa x q u 
galttwilxt ia'Jq. Aga wi'tla gatcigE'lkEl. Aga wi 7 t!a ga- 
li'kim isklu'lsyE; "Luwa x n ayu'mEqta." Wi r t!a xa'bixix. 
Aga wi'tla nigE x ltaqlx. Qe x dau la'ktix galigE'ltaqlx. Quc- 
ti'axa lagwE'nEmix gatcigE 7 lga ikxa'lal isklu'hyE. Aga 
10 wi'tla nigE^taqlx. 

Aga kxw6 7 pt gacgiu'lxam icio'utxix : "Kl^y' ag' ami- 
gElga'ya iktie x na ikxa x lal ya^xtau. Aga kxwo x pt ag' igi'm- 
gEltaqht gwa^ntsim. Cma^ix pu nimiMwoq pu k!ay' 
ikxa x lal ; k!ma kla/y' imiVoq, gwa^nislm ikxalal. Cma 7 ni 
15 pu alidi 7 a ikxa x lal, aga kxwo^t alugwagrma idE^xam, 
'Isklu'lEyE gatciu^amEgwa ikxa^al!' Qe x dau alugwag^ma 
idE'lxam. Qxa x dagatci gw^nisim ikxa x lal, qxa 7 ntcipt idE x l- 

xam aluxwa'xa da'uyaba wflx." Qe'dau iqxa x nutck. 


Gacxmu'ya ikxa'lal ika'q (wa'lawala wi'n). Aga kxwo'pt 

20 wa'x gatclu'x ikxa'lal tfka x tc!a gacxgE'lgabEt. Aga kxwo'pt 

ia'xtau ika'q ika'ba gatciulgwi'amit. Gaqxiqla'-it ika x q, ga- 

qiula'da. Aga wi't!a gacxgs'lga ; gatci'ulada ikxa'lal ikaq. 

Aga wi x t!a gacxgElga ; aga wi'tlax ikxa'lal wa'x gatdu'x 

itka'tcla; gaqiu'lad' ika'q. Wi't!a gacxmu'ya ; wi'tia ga- 

25 qiu'lada ika'q. Wi'tia gacxmu'ya ; wi'tia gaqi'ulada ika'q. 

io 3 

trap. Now then next morning Coyote went into the 
mountains, went to look for him. Now he saw him sit- 
ting; he is bound fast at his feet. And then Coyote 
seized him and recognized him-, he took his slave with 
him to the house. And again it happened to the boy 
as before; his body swelled all up. And again (Coyote) 
saw (how) he (was). And again Coyote said: "Perhaps 
he will die." Again it was night. And again he escaped. 
In this way he escaped four times. Truly Coyote caught 
the West Wind for the fifth time. And again he escaped. 
And then his two younger sisters said to him : " Now 
you will not catch that West Wind. This time he has 
escaped from you for all time. If you had killed him, 
there would be no west wind ; but you did not kill him, 
(so) there will always be a west wind. Whenever a west 
wind will come, then the people will say, 'Coyote made 
a mistake about the W r est Wind.' Thus will say the 
people. So that there will always be a west wind, as 
long as people will be in this land." Thus is the tale. 


The West Wind and the East Wind (Wallawalla wind) 
wrestled with each other. And then the West Wind 
poured out grease when the two took hold of each other. 
Now then that one, the East Wind, caused ice to be 
spread out. The East Wind was thrown down, he was 
laid low. Then the two again took hold of each other ; 
the West Wind threw down the East Wind. Then the 
two again took hold of each other, now the West Wind 
again poured out grease ; the East Wind was thrown 
down. Again the two wrestled with each other, again 
the East Wind was thrown down. Again the two wrestled 
with each other, again the East Wind was thrown down. 

Gaqiu'lxam ika'q : "Kla'y* idmilxe'wulx ika'q. Qe'dau 
alugwagi'ma idr/lxam, 'Gacxmu'ya ikxa'lal ika'q.' DE- 
ml'2nua na'ika itklxe'wulx i'nxux." Galu'gwakim idE'lxam: 
a DEmi'2nua idiafxe'wulx ikxa'lal, ika'q kla'y' idialxe'wulx." 
5 Qe'dau iqxa'nutck; gaqi'ux itqleyo'qtikc. Kla'ya can 
da'uya wi'gwa. 


Aga kxwo'pt isklu'lEyE Ixela'-itix aya'kikal kxwo'dau 
ia x qoq. Aga kxwo^t gal^kim isklu'lEyE : "Aga da r uya 
na x ika kwaic ands^uqta. Cma x nix andE^uqta na 7 wit 

10 akxa'n atca x tcgama itci^lpEt 1 alidrmama, qa r dac naika da/wi 
itcE'lgulit qe r dau ya^guilit itci x lpEt naika 7 dawi." Aga 
kxwo'pt gayi/mEqt isk!u x lEyE. Aga kxwo^t gaqi^tkam 
isklu'lEyE wflxpa. 

Aga kxwo'pt gayu'yam. Aga kxwo'pt na'wid galu- 

15 xwfhixwa-it : "Igidfmam ya'xka ika'la." Aga kxwo'pt 
gaqa'-ilut wa'liq isklu'lsyE aya'xan iciwa'nic 3 isklu'lEyE 
i^'lpEt. Aga kxwo'pt galu'gwakim : "la'ima nigixtki'm 
isklu'lEyE, l Andfi'muqta ; alidi'mam' ika'la, amcga'-ilud' 
akxa'n.'" Agaqa'-ilut agagi'lak; ctula'-ida, luwa'n gwE'- 

2o nsmix gactu'qui. 

Aga kxwo'pt galu'gwakim: "Qfi'nEgiska! klman alq- 

di'wi isklu'lEyE." Aga kxwo'pt galu'gwakim: "Qa'xba 

nimcki'tk amcgiu'kctama." Aga kxwo'pt gaqiu'kctam 

qa'xba gaqi'utk. Nixlu'xwa-it isklu'lEyE: "Aga iqnu'gu- 

25 la q^q, qa'xba niqxs'ntgaba niqnu'kctbama." Nikta' 'sk!u'- 

1 My interpreter, Peter M c Guff, explained the term "trading friend" thus: 

N\ hen one has a friend in another country (i. e. among another tribe), he comes 

see you or you go and see him. Both are glad to meet each other; one gives 


The East Wind was addressed (by the West Wind) : 
"Thou art not strong, O East Wind! Thus shall the 
people say, 'The West Wind and the East Wind wrest- 
led with each other.' For all time to come have I be- 
come strong." The people said: "The West Wind is 
strong for all time to come, the East Wind is not strong." 
Thus is the tale and was made (by) ancient men. Now- 
adays there are not such. 


Now Coyote, his wife, and his children were living to- 
gether. And then Coyote said : " Now I here shall soon 
die. When I shall have died, straigtway my 'trading 
friend', 1 looking exactly like me, will come and marry my 
daughter - - thus will my 'trading friend' look, like me." 
And then Coyote died ; so then they buried Coyote in 
the earth. 

And then (Coyote) arrived, and straightway the people 
thought : " He (who) has come is the man (that Coyote 
spoke of)." So then the maiden, Coyote's daughter, 
was given to the stranger, 3 Coyote's "trading friend." 
And then the people said: "Coyote himself said, 'I 
shall die. A man will come and you shall give him my 
daughter.'" So the woman was given to him. The two 
lived together, slept together about five nights. 

And then the people said: "How is this! But he is 
just like Coyote!" And they said: "Where you people 
have buried him, (there) do you go and look for him." 
And then they went and looked for him where he had 
been buried. Coyote thought : " Now they have recog- 

the other a horse or anything valuble, the other gives something in return. Such 
are each other's ie'lpEt. 

2 Ciwa'nic : "stranger" in Yakima. Used regularly for Nez Perce. 


InyE; nixa'-ima qa'xba iuqi'xtba; galixo'qcit. Aga kxwo'pt 
gali'kim isklu'lEyE: "lamcuqlwa'lxwalxt." Aga kxwo'pt 
isklu'lEyE gali'kim: "Gwa'nisim qe'dau amcxu'xwa idE'l- 
xam ilEmca'-utxix. Naik' a'ga da'uyax qe'dau i'nxux ; 
5 akxa'n inu'cgam, inu'xtga da'uya wi'gwa. Aga gwa'nisim 
qe'dau aluxwa x xa 


Galu'mEqt aya'gikal isklu'lEyE kxwo'dau ctmo'kct icia'xan 
gactu'mEqt. Kxwo'dau ia'xta itclfnon galu'mEqt aya'gikal 
kxwo'dau ctmo^ct ici^xan itclfnon gactu x mEqt. Kxwo x pt 

10 a r ga galfkim isklu^EyE : "Naqx' itli^kti-ix inxlu^wan 
naik' isk!u x lEyE qxa x damt nictu 7 ya axgika 7 ! itcxa^." Aga 
kxwo'pt gatciulxam itclfnon : " NxE x lqlat qxa x damt nigu x ya 
amfgikal. Cma x nix tq!e r x muxt atxu r ya atgcugwa^mama 
naik' axgfkal k!ma malk' amfgikal k!ma imixa 7 n kxwo 7 - 

15 dau na'ik' itcxa'n. NxE x lqlat qa'xba cki'xax." 

Aga kxwo'pt gactu'ya ka'nactmokct isklu'lEyE k!ma 
itclfnon; gackcu'gwalEmam icta'gikal. Na r 2wit gactu^a-, 
gactifyam iaga'ilba wi'mal. K!a 7 ya wflx, sa'q 11 iltcqoa" 
la'-ima. Aga kxwo x pt gatcigE x lg' idu'du itclinon. Aga 

20 kxwo'pt gatciHu'tk idu x du itclfnon. Aga kxwo'pt gatciu'l- 
xam isklulEyE: "Itlifkti asEmxlu'tka isklu'kyE ; na'qxi 
amsEnklftka, iwat ss'mxElutk fnadix. AlEma amugi'gEla 
idE'lxam." Aga kxwo'pt gasixElu'tk isklulEyE fnadixiamt. 
GatciUu'tk idu'du, galigla'lamtck itclfnon. 

25 Aga kxwo'pt gatciiflxam itclfnon: "QE'nEgi dan imi- 

This refers to the belief that the howl of the coyote foretells the approach 
of death. 

Coyote is thus the first to commit incest. The incestuous conduct of some 
people is traceable to him. 

nized me, since they have gone to look for me where I 
have been buried." Coyote ran off and laid himself down 
where he had crawled out, and slept. And then Coyote 
said: "I give you people the death omen." 1 And then 
Coyote said: "Always shall you people do thus (to) your 
younger sisters. Now I here have done thus ; I have 
married my daughter, have stolen her this day. Now 
always shall people thus do." 2 


Coyote's wife died and also his two sons died. And 
also Eagle's wife died and Eagle's two sons died. Now 
then Coyote said: "It is not well, I Coyote am thinking, 
whither my wife and my son 3 have gone." And then 
Eagle said to him: "I know whither your wife has gone. 
If you wish to have her, let us two go to bring both of 
them back my wife and your wife, also your son and 
my son. I know where the two of them are." 

And then both of them, Coyote and Eagle, did go ; 
they went to fetch their wives. Straight on and on they 
went and arrived at a great river. There was no land 
in sight, water alone was all there was. And then Eagle 
took a flute. And then Eagle blew into the flute and 
said to Coyote: "It is good, O Coyote, that you should 
look; you shall not look at me, look across yonder. You 
will behold the (ghost) people." And then Coyote looked 
over to the other side. He blew into the flute, Eagle 

And then Eagle said to him : "Did you see anything 

3 We have just been told that Coyote and Eagle had each lost two sons. 
Itsxa'n "my son" (instead of ickxa'n "my two sons") is inconsistent with this 
statement, but it has been thought advisable to leave Louis Simpson's inconsisten- 
cies uncorrected. 


i'nadix?" - K!a'ya dan imgE'lks!." Gatciu'lxam 
itclfnon: "Ga'nuit kla'ya pu amlgE'lgEla ilgoa'lilx ma'ika 
isklu'lEyE. Aga'nuit uxwala'-it idE'lxam." Gatciu'lxam : 
"Nxhi'xwan fga isk.'u'lsyE na'cqxi idialxe'wulx, aga'nuit 
5 na'ika itc!f non itklxe'wulx. Ag' ilxdi'mam. Tnadix, isk!u x - 
lEyE, i'nadix ami'gikal, gala'dEmqt; naVit gala'ti i'nadix 
kxwo'dau imixa x n kxwo^au naik' itclfnon axgi x kal kxwo 7 - 
dau itcxa x n, qxa^agatci k!a x ya can pu k!6 7 b algitx^kla 
uxwala'-id' idE^xam. A x ksta sE^xslutk ; iniltutk idu x du ; 
10 k!a r ya can imtgE^kEl ma^k' isklu^EyE. Aga kxw6 7 ba 
txu'it. Qa'dac itlu^tix amxluxwa^ida l isk!u x lEyE, l Ag' 
itxdi x mam.' Aga qa x dac k!E 7 b icm^xus amsu'xwa; aga 
ayamgElga'ya, q u L a^amxslux' aga." 

Gatciu'lxam itclfnon: a Qa x dam(t) na 7 2qxi assmxElutka 

15 k!wa x cka ; atxE'mEqta, tcx' atxi/ya." Aga kxw6 7 pt gatci- 

gfi'lga. Aga kxwo'pt gactu'txtiit. Aga kxwo'pt tca'x 

gali'xox itclfnon k!wa'b iltcqoa 7 i'nadix. Aga kxwo'pt 

gasi'xElutk isklifkyE, tftcqo'ba gacxu'x ; gacdalilakwit 

ihcqoa" itcta'psb' itcdoqwftba. Gactutxui'tam wflxpa. 

20 Aga gaqiula'da isklulEyE. "Na'q* it!u x ktix ma'ika isk!u 7 - 

lEyE 'ga x pu tcx' i'txya. Yamtxu'lal, l Naqx' asEmxElu'tka ; 

ha r -ay atxutxwi'dama wi'lxba kxwo'dau assmxElu'tka.' 

Qe'dau yamtxu'lal." 

Gatciulxam : "Qa'dac bft amxu'xwa isklu'lEyE. Ag' 

25 itxdi'mam. Ag' amxEluitca'tgEma. Kwaic amugi'gEl' idE x l- 

xam kwaic amagE^gEla ami'gikal k!ma imixa'n ; da'ukwa 

na'ika itc!f non axgi'kal. Kwaic amlgElgEla." Aga kxwo'pt 

xa'p gali'xuxix. Kxwo'pt a x ga galu'xwaq idE ; lxam quc- 

ti'axa idme'mEluctikc. Aga kxwo'pt akLmi'n gala-ilga- 

30 tcu'-ix, nu x it qa'tki dawa'x galixo'xix. Aga kxwo'pt galu r - 

Terhaps this means : "Probably you think that ." Qadac it'.u'ktix = probably. 

on the other side?" - "I saw nothing at all." Eagle said 
to him: "Indeed you, O Coyote, would not see any per- 
son, but truly people are dwelling (there)." He said to 
him : u I think perchance Coyote is not strong, but truly 
I, Eagle, am strong. Now we two have come here. On 
the other side, O Coyote, on the other side is your wife, 
she who has died. She has come to right across from 
here, also your son and my, Eagle's, wife and son, so 
that no one would take us two across to where the people 
are dwelling. Now look ! I have blown into the flute ; 
you Coyote did not see anyone. Now there we are. It 
is just good that you Coyote will think, 1 l Now we have 
arrived.' Now just close your eyes ; then I shall take 
hold of you and you will hang on to me." 

Eagle said to him : " You shall not look in any direc- 
tion ; (if you do), we two shall die, we shall be drowned." 
And then he took hold of him. And then the two of 
them stood up. Now then Eagle stepped across to 
the other side of the water. And then Coyote looked 
and they both fell into the water ; they struck the water 
at their feet and legs. They came to a stand on the 
ground and Coyote was thrown off. (Eagle) said to him : 
"It is not well, you Coyote, that we two should now be 
drowned. I said to you, 'You shall not look ; we must 
come to a stand on the land before you look.' Thus I 
said to you." 

He said to him : "Just you remain quiet, Coyote. 
Now we two have arrived. Now you shall listen. Soon 
you will see the people, soon you will see your wife and 
your son ; likewise I, Eagle, (shall see) my wife. Soon 
you will see them." And then it became dark. Just then ! 
people came together, in truth the dead. And then the 
moon came down to the ground, straightway it became 
somewhat light. And then a certain person came forward 


gErnalx ifgoa'lilx. Aga kxwo'pt gatgags'lga akLmi'n. 
Aga kxwo'pt lu'qx galku'x tfgoa'tilx akivini'n. 

Aga kxwo'pt galixE'ltcmaq isklu'lEyE aya'gikal. Aga 
kxwo'pt galki'm itgoa'lilx : "Da'uwax a'gikal 1 isklu'lEyE; 

5 da'uax itclfnon aya'gikal," gaiki'm ilgoa'lilx. Aga kxwo'pt 
gacxlu'itcatk kanactmo'kct aga gackcu'gslaqlq icta'gikal. 
Galixtu'xwa-it isklu'lsyE : "Quct da'bax axgi x kal aki'xax, 
itclfnon wi x t!a aya'gikal/ Kxwo'pt nixlu'xwa-it isklu'lEyE: 
a Da / ulax iJgoa^ilx antuwa'gwa kwa'ic * aga itclfnon bft 

10 gayu x la-it. 

Aga kxwo x pt gactu x qui ; wi x t!a gactu'qui ; wi x t!ax ga- 
ctu'qui. Kxwopt a x ga gatckfwoq ilgoa x lilx isk!u x lEyE ; 
a-ica'x 11 gatclu'x. Aga kxwo r pt nixEnLi x tcu. Aga kxwo'pt 
gatciu x lxam itclfnon : "Enkcta'm." Kxwo x pt gayu x ya 

15 itclfnon. Aga kxwo'pt gatciu'kctam ; gatcigE'lksl aga 
dsng' ixlu'idEt inu'tcx 11 isklu'lEyE ; klwa'c galixi'xox. Aga 
kxwo'pt gatciu'lxam itclfnon: "Itl^ktix imuwa'q axka x 
daua itca x xleu Nikciamtca^ 3 ; alu^Eqta pu ilgoalilx ; imu- 
wa r g aga kla/ya pu wi x t!ax aldi^ama dika x daba ilgoa^ilx 



Aga kxwo x pt xa'b galfxuxix; galu'xwaq idE^xam idme'- 
mEluctikc quct (d)ax da'ua-itc. Gada 7 ckupq idE'lxam, nu- 
xwo'qxom iaxta kxwo'ba uxwo'qt. Quct alu'mEqta, na'wit 
kxwob' akfy' ala'lutk. Aga kxwo'pt gala-ixEnLftcu is- 
klu'lEyE aka'xtau gatcuwo'q. Aga kxwo'pt gayu x la-it is- 
klu'lEyE dab' akLmi'n a-ilga'tcxix. Kxwo'pt gatssu'bEna 
isklu^EyE, kxwo'ba gayula'-itam. Aga kxwo'pt gatcagE'lg* 
akLmi'n. Aga kxwo'pt lu'qx gatcu'xwa. Qa'tgi gayula 7 - 
itam isklulEyE a-itsxa'p. Aga kxwo'pt galu'gwakim 
) idr/lxam: "Lxloida't ilgoa / iilx. 7J Tqa'uadikc qa x daga tq!e r - 

For aya'gikal. In rapid speech aya is often contracted to a. 
Nikciamtca'c is now supposed to be the person represented by the markings 
in the moon. The name Nikciamtca'c occurs also in a Kathlamet myth (see Boas, 

1 1 1 

and got hold of the moon ; and then the person swallowed 
the moon. 

Now then Coyote heard (speak of) his wife. And then 
the person said: "This here is Coyote's wife-, this here 
is Eagle's wife," said the person. Now then both of them 
listened and they recognized their wives. Coyote thought : 
"Truly just here is my wife, also Eagle's wife." Then 
Coyote thought : " I shall kill this person here soon ;" 
but Eagle remained quiet. 

And then the two of them slept over night ; they passed 
another night ; they passed still another night. And then 
Coyote killed the person ; he gradually skinned him. And 
then he put (his skin) down over himself and said to Eagle : 
"Come look at me!" So Eagle went and then came to 
look at him. He saw now that Coyote had something 
strange on himself and became afraid of him. And then 
Eagle said to him : " It is well that you have slain her whose 
name is Nikciamtca'c. 2 She would kill people ; you have 
slain her, so people's spirits would no longer come here 
to this place." 

And then it became dark ; the people assembled to- 
gether, truly those (were) the dead. The people entered 
and they arrived to assemble ; that (is) where they are as- 
sembled. Truly (if) any one died, straightway his spirit 
went there. And then Coyote put down over himself her 
whom he had killed. Now then Coyote sat down here 
(where) the moon is descending to the ground. Then Coyote 
jumped, there he landed. And then he got hold of the moon 
and swallowed it. Coyote landed somewhat too short. And 
then the people said: "It is another person." Some of 

Kathlamet Texts (Bureau of American Ethnology, Bui. 26, pp. 20 23), though 
n an entirely different connection. 

I 12 

yoqt galu'gwakim: "Qucti'axa isklu'lEyE ya'xtau ; quc- 
ti'axa ga'ngadix gatcuwo'q." 

Aga kxwo'pt gatcagE'lga itcli'non aya'gikal. Aga 
kxwo'pt na-ixu'tk. Kxwo'dau ia'xan gatcigE'lga ; galixu'tk 
5 wi'tla. Kxwo'dau gatcagr/lga isklu'lEys aya'gikal ; wi'tla 
na-ixu x tk ; kxwo^au ia x xan isklu^Eys wi x t!ax nixu x tk. Ga- 
tca'xpu itclfnon waska r n ; kxwo^' aya x gikal kxwo'dau ia^an 
kxwo'dau isklu^EyE aya x gikal kxwo^au isklu^EyE ia x xan. 
Aga kxwo r pt gatci/mquit akLmi^ isk!u x lEyE, gatcu^ada. 

10 Aga kxwo r pt gactu x ya aga gacxklwa 7 . Gatcu x ctxwa itc!f- 
non waska x n. Gactu 7 qui ; wi x t!ax gactu x qui ; wi x t!ax gac- 
tu x qui ; wi r t!ax gactii x qui. 

Aga kxwo'pt gatcuxwa^cmaq idE^xam isklu^EyE ; da- 
wo'wowowowo uxwipla^awulal idE^xam, uxwik!a / yawulal 

15 idE'lxam hihihihihi qx^gEmtkixiamt yagika^ba. Hala / ktbo / 
wigwa wi 7 t!ax gacti^qui. Aga kxw6 x pt gactu x ya; wi x t!a 
tcpa x g aga idE^xam uxwiplalawulal ; qucti r axa iskli/lfiyE 
a'xtau aya x gikal kxwoMau itclfnon aya'gikal kxwo^au 
itcli'non ia'xan isklu'lEyE wi't.'a ia'xan. Aga kxwo'pt 

20 lagwF/nEtna wi'gwa gatciu'lxam isk!u x lEyE : " Aga na x ika 
andu'ctxwa a x xdau wa'skan na'ik* aga isklu'lEyE-, naqx' 
itlu'ktix, ma'ika mcta'mx" itclfnon. Na'ika isklu'lsyE 
na'ik' amu'ctxwa." Kxwopt gali'kim itdfnon : "K!a x ya! 
naik' a'ga qwotk' a x ga na'ika nu'ctxt." Kxwopt gatciu r l- 

25 xam isklulEyE: "Aga na'ika isklu'lEyE anu'ctxwa." Aga 
kxwo'pt gali'kim itclfnon: "Kla'ya!" K!wa x c gali'xux 
itclfnon; galixhfx wa-it: " Atca'xElaqlqa." 

Aga da x ba ctagika 7 -uba uxwipla'lawulal, uxwakla'yawu- 
lal hihihihihi. Kxwopt a'ga da'k gatctu'x itclfnon idia- 

30 ctxu'lal. Aga kxwo'pt gaqdflut isklulEyE. Aga kxwo'pt 
gatctu'ctx isklu'kyE. Aga kxwo'pt gatciu'lxam itcli'non, 
gali'kim: "Qa'dac na'qxi ia'x' amxu'xwa ; ka'natxmo'kct 
atxu'ya." Aga qloa'p aga'Lax alqidi'wi. Aga kxwo'pt 

1 In other words, it was near daylight. 

the old men said: "Truly that is Coyote; truly he killed 
her before." 

And then Eagle took hold of his wife and hid her. 
And he took hold of his son ; he hid him also. And 
Coyote took hold of his wife-, he hid also her. And 
Coyote hid also his son. Eagle closed the box-, there 
(were) his wife and his son and Coyote's wife and Coyote's 
son. And then Coyote spit out the moon, he threw her 
away. Now then the two of them went and started 
homewards. Eagle carried the box on his back. They 
passed the night ; they passed another night ; they passed 
another night; they passed another night. 

And then Coyote heard the people ; the people are 
talking among themselves, the people are laughing among 
themselves behind his back. On the fourth day they 
passed another night. And then they went on. Now 
the people were again talking excitedly among them- 
selves ; truly that was Coyote's wife and Eagle's wife and 
Eagle's son. And then on the fifth day Coyote said to 
him: "Now I will carry that box on my back, I, Coyote. 
It is not well (that you should carry it), you are a chief, 
Eagle. I, Coyote, I shall carry it on my back." Then 
Eagle said: "No! I, never mind, I am carrying it on 
my back." Then Coyote said to him: "Now I, Coyote, 
shall carry it on my back." And then Eagle said : "No !" 
Eagle was afraid ; he thought : " He will open the (box)." 

Now here, back of the two of them they are talking 
among themselves, they are laughing among themselves. 
And then Eagle freed himself of his burden. And then 
it was given to Coyote ; so then Coyote carried it on his 
back. And then Eagle said to him, he said : "Just don't 
you go far ahead ; both of us will go." Now (it seemed) 
just as if the sun (were) near. 1 And then he said to 


1 14 

gatciu'lxam: K Ag' anxkiftcxaya, dik' a'g' anxklftcxaya." 
Aga kxwo'pt gatciu'lxam isklu'kyE: "Kla'ya! mcta'mx 
mang i'axi mxux." Aga kxwo'pt ya'xi gali'xox itclfnon. 

Aga kxwo'pt da'k gatctu'x isklu'lEyE. Aga kxwo'pt. 
5 La'k gatcu'xwa wa'skan. Aga kxwo'pt gatca'gElkEl is-- 
k!u x lEyE aya'gikal kxwo'dau ia'xan gatci'gElkEl kxwo'dau 
itc!fnon aya'gikal kxwo'dau ia'xan. Aga kxwo'pt i'wi 
L!a'k gatcu'xwa wa'skan isklu'lEyE. Aga kxwo^t galu- 
gwo'ba waskania'mt isklulsyE aya x gikal kxwo'dau itclfnon 
10 aya'gikal, kanactmo'kct gacxu'x ; gatccgE'lkEl isklu'lsyE. 
Kxwopt gactugw6 r ba ; ke r nua galixakxa x -im' aqxa x budit ; 
L.'a'k gatcula'd' aqxa'budit; ia'xi galixi'max'itEm isklu'- 

Kxwopt a x ga gali^tcax iskli/lsyE kxwoMau galfkim 

15 itclfnon, gatciiflxam itclfnon: "Na x it!a inxiiu^wan tq!e x x 
amfgikal kxwo'dau imixa'n kxwo'dau na'ika itc.'f non axgf- 
kal kxwoMau itcxa x n. Dau' aga x Lax ag' iml^mamogwa ; 
k!a x ya wi't!ax pu qa'ntcix amlgE'lgElaya. DEmf2hua 
ilxla^it a'ga. Daifax aga 7 Lax alxugu x ya p' ag' a^Ema 

20 atctelxa^agwa, kanauwa 7 p' ag' a^Em' alxu'ya icgagflak 
k!ma ickla^kac , ag' iml^mamogwa. Cma^ix p' ah/mEqt' 
ilgoa x lilx dEml2nua al^mEqta. Da x uya wfgwa ma 7 ika 
qfdau imfuxix isklu^EyE. Laxta x u-aitc a^Em' alEkl^klama 1 
alxk!wa x ya p' alsma kanauwa 7 , Aga kxwo^t pu gwa 7 - 

25 nislm qe'dau aluxwa x xa Nadida r nuit k!m' a x ga kxwo^t im- 
hfmamogwa. Cma 7 nix pu alu^Eqta ilgoa^ilx k!ma/lalidix 
ga'uaxEmdix p x alxatklwo'ya-idEma, k!m' a x ga imdu'ma- 
mc)gwa. K!a'ya wi x t!a da'ukwa alxo'xwa ilgoa'lilx ; alu'- 
mEqta pu dEmfnua ; kla'ya p' aqlgElgsla. Qi'dau imfuxix 

30 isklu'kyE. Qe'dau alugwagi'ma idE'lxam, 'Gactu'ya is- 

1 AlEklu'ldama is equivalent to a-lx-k-1-u-kl-am-a. One would rather have 
expect.d atklukta'ma (= a-tx-k-), we two shall arrive with them." 

him: "Now I shall defecate, right here I shall defecate." 
But then Coyote said to him : a No ! you are a chief, 
go a little farther." So then Eagle went farther on. 

And then Coyote relieved himself of the (burden) and 
opened the box. And then Coyote saw his wife, and he 
saw his son and Eagle's wife and son. Now then Co- 
yote slowly opened the box ; and Coyote's wife escaped 
from the box, also Eagle's wife, both of them got out ; 
Coyote saw the two. So the two escaped ; in vain he 
seated himself upon the lid ; he threw the lid away ; 
Coyote fell some distance away. 

Then Coyote cried and Eagle spoke ; Eagle said to 
him: "I for my part was thinking that you wanted your 
wife and your son, and I, Eagle, my wife and my son. 
Now this day you have made a mistake in regard to 
them ; you shall never see them again. Now they have 
died for all time. (After) we should all have passed 
through this day, they would have returned to life and 
we would all of us go (together, we,) the two women and 
the two boys; but you made a mistake in regard to them. 
If any person dies, he will die for all time. This day 
you, Coyote, have brought it about thus. We should 
have brought those people 2 with us, we should all have 
gone homewards. And then Indians would always be 
doing thus, but then you made a mistake in regard to 
them. Whenever a person died, he would have come 
back home for the fall (and) the spring, but you made 
a mistake in regard to them. Never again will a per- 
son do thus ; he is to die for all time and will not 
(again) be seen. Thus, Coyote, have you brought it 
about. Thus people will say, 'Coyote and Eagle went, 

2 That is, our wives and sons. 


k!ma itclfnon gackcugwa'temam icta'gikal. Aga 
kxwo'pt isklu'lEyE gatchi'mamogwa ; isklu'hyE qe'dau ga- 
li'xox, iakla'mEla gali'xElox.'" Qe'dau iqxa'nutck. 


Gactu'ya wadeVade k!ma itclfnon; kxwo'ba gackcgE 7 !- 
5 kEl icgagi'lak. Kxwo'pt ke'nua gatciu'lxam itclfnon wa- 
de' wade : "Na'qx' amu'ya;" a'-i gatciux. Mang i'axi 
gactu'ya. Aga kxwo'pt nikta 7 wadeVade, icgagilak nic- 
gE'ltatck. Kxwopt a'exat gatcagElga wade'wade ; LlaV 
gatcula'da agagi'lak. Aga kxwo'pt gacxE'ltcmoq wi'lx 
10 silu'skwax. Quctia r xa iktie'na gayaba'xEm 1 aya'gikal gatca- 
gE x lga wadeVade. Aga kxwo'pt gatccu x wa. Aga kxw6 r pt 
cpa'q gaqiltcmo'q ayak!a'tcatcaba, qatgi La^i gaqi'ltcmoq ; 
wflx gali'xEla; saq u iklma'kan gatci'ux gayaba'xEm. 

Aga kxwo x pt gacgigE x lkEl aga tccw6 x t. Aga kxwo^t 

15 k!wa r c galfxox wadeVade. Aga kxwo r pt gatcdilta x guix 

itk!a x lamadi^mt ipa 8 a / l kxwo r ba , gactilka^gix. Aga 

kxwo x pt gatcto'qcam tklalamatpa gayaba^Em ; galuxwa x la- 

lalEmtck itkla^amat. Aga kxw6 7 pt gayugwo x ba wade x - 

wade; gatciu'kct. GatcigE x lkEl dalaula'u isfaxus, tkla^amat 

20 tcdu'qct. Aga kxw6 7 pt galixlu^wa-it wadeVade : u KE- 

la x -ix p' aqiugwilxsma ia'gEtcpa." Aga kxwo'pt gatcigE x lga 

wadeVade ikla'munak da'pt ia'Lqt. Aga kxwo'pt gali- 

glu'ya iawa x ; naVit galigEmu'txuit. 

Lawa x gatciugwHx ; wi'tla gatciugwi'lx ; wi'tla gatciu- 

25 gwilx ; wftla gatciugwilx ; wi'tla gatciugwflx. Aga kxwo'pt 

gayu'msqt gayaba'xEm. Aga kxwo'pt gatciulxam itc!f- 

n( A >n: u Ag' ini'uwoq ; ma'itla klwa'c mka'xax. Aga mti x 

'tkcta'm aga yu'mEqt." Aga kxwo'pt gayu'ya itclfnon-, 

1 A mythical monster said to look like an alligator (!). 

went to fetch their wives. And then Coyote made a 
mistake in regard to them. Thus Coyote did, badly he 
did.'" Thus the myth. 


Weasel and Eagle went along; there they saw two 
women. Then Eagle told Weasel, to no purpose (as it 
turned out): "Don't go (to them)-," he assented (to him). 
They went on a little farther, and then Weasel ran off, 
ran after the two women. Then Weasel seized one of 
the women and knocked the woman over. And then the 
two heard the earth tremble. In truth, Eagle had seized 
the wife of a certain Gayaba'xEm. 1 And then he pur- 
sued them and made a terrible noise with his rattles, 
something like La2i it sounded ; the earth shook ; all an- 
gered was Gayaba'xEm. 

Now then the two saw that he was pursuing them. 
And then Weasel became afraid, and they went back to- 
wards the rocks, where there was a cave ; they entered 
into it. And then Gayaba'xEtn came and bit at the rocks ; 
the rocks kept shaking. And then Weasel went out and 
looked at him. He saw how his eyes were shining, and 
how he was biting the rocks. And then Weasel thought : 
"When standing at his side, one could strike him on his 
nose." So then Weasel took hold of a stick this long. 2 
And then he slowly went up to him, straightway stood 
close to him. 

Slowly he struck him ; again he struck him ; again he 
struck him; again he struck him; again he struck him. 
And then Gayaba'xEm died. Now then he said to Eagle : 
"I have killed him now; you for your part are still afraid. 
Now come ! come here and look at him. He is dead now." 

2 Indicated by gesture. 


gatsi'ktelutk aga ga'nuit iu'mEqt gayaba'xEtn ; aga gatci'- 
uwoq wade'wade. Aga kxwo'pt gacgi'ucxux sa'q u iapla's- 
kwal iaqla'qctaq aya'klatcatca ; saq u dadakda'k gacgi'ux 
wade" wade k!ma itclfnon. 

5 Aga kxwo'pt L.'a'k gactu'ya. Aga kxwo'pt galixEnLi'- 
tcu itclfnon gayaba'xEm iapla'skwal. Aga kxwo'pt gaqi'l- 
tcmoq qatgi uaf-i ayakla'tcatcaba. Aga kxwo x pt gali'kim 
wade' wade : "Ganuitca 7 ma x ika mcta^x aga wi x t!a ma x ik' 
ag' ImxEnLi'tcu. Na x ika ag' inxEnLi x tcu wade x wade." 

10 Qi x dau gatciu^xam wadeVade. Aga kxw6 x pt gatciulxam 
wade'wade : "Cma^i naq' amfnEluda ayamuwa x gwa i- 
tc.'fnon." Aga kxwo x pt gatciu'lxam : "Ag' ayamElu x da * 
galixli/xwa-it itclfnon: a Ga x nuid axu'lal 1 iakla'msla wade 7 - 
wade. Aga ma x ika ag' imxE'nLitcu wade x wade." Aga 

15 kxw6 x pt gatci'lut aga nixEnLi x tcu wade x wade. 

Aga kxw6 r pt gactu'ya; qe r gEmtq gayu x ya wadeVade, 
gayi/ya itclfnon ia^ma. AgalixEnLi'tcu wadeVade gaya- 
ba'xEm iapla'skwal. Aga kxwo'pt La/2l2 gaqiltcmoq 
wade r wade. Qucti x axa galixElu^tcatk itclfnon kxwoba/2 

20 qiltcE'mElit wadeVade. Aga kxwo x pt nixE 7 luitcatk aga 
ca'xsl qiltcE'mElit. Aga wftla nixE^luitcatk itc!fnon, ya x - 
uxix nixEgilu'itcatk. Aga kxwo'pt nixhi'xwa-it itclfnon: 
"Naqx' it!u x ktix ilgoa'lilx itcifxix idia'giutgwax." Aga 
kxwo'pt Vx gatcfux ya'-uxix. Na'wit gayulsktcu wf Ixba 

25 wade'wade. Kxwo'pt da'k gatci'xux. Aga kxwo'pt ga- 
qiu'lxam wade'wade : "Kla'ya ma'ika Lqla'p da'uya wade'- 
wade-, da'ng' ixlu x ida(d) da'uya idialxe'wulx gayaba'xEm." 
Kxwo'pt da x k gatcfxux. Aga kxwo'pt gatci'uctx itcif non 
ieke'xte ip!a x skwal. 

Aga kxwo'pt gactu'y' io'uxix. Kxwopt a'ga galixlu 7 - 
xwa-it wade'wade: u Naqx' itlu'ktix itclfnon wi x t!a itci'nx- 

1 Incorrect for ixu'lal? 


So then Eagle went; he looked at him, and indeed, Gaya- 
ba'xEm was dead; now Weasel had slain him. And then 
they cut him up ; everything (they cut off) : his skin, his 
head, his rattle; everything Weasel and Eagle cut loose. 

And then the two started off and went on. Now then 
Eagle put the skin of Gayaba'xEm over his head ; so then 
he made a noise with his rattle something like La'-i. And 
then Weasel said : " Well ! you are a chief and again do 
you now put it over your head. Now I, Weasel, (shall) 
put it over my head." Thus Weasel said to him. And 
then W'easel said to him: "If you do not give it to me, 
I shall kill you, Eagle." So then (Eagle) said to him : 
"Now I shall give it to you." Eagle thought: "Truly 
Weasel says that he is bad." (To Weasel he said:) 
"Now do you, Weasel, put it over your head!" And then 
he gave it to him, and Weasel put it over his head. 

Now then the two went on ; Weasel went behind, Eagle 
went on alone. Now, Weasel had the skin of Gayaba'- 
xEm over his head. And then Weasel made a noise : 
La / 2l2. Truly Eagle listened, there yonder Weasel was 
making a noise. And then he listened and (Weasel) was 
making a noise above. And again Eagle listened, listened 
to his younger brother. And then Eagle thought : " It 
is not well that my poor brother be a person (?)." So 
then he exercised his supernatural power upon his younger 
brother. Straightway Weasel fell down to the ground. 
Then (Eagle) loosened the (skin) from him, and then Weasel 
was spoken to: "You are not fit for this, Weasel; this 
strong Gayaba'xEm is something different (from what is 
fit for you)." Then he loosened it from him. And then 
Eagle carried that same skin on his back. 

Now then he and his younger brother went on. Then 
indeed Weasel thought: "It is not well that Eagle took 
it back again from me. Now I shall kill him." And 


tckEm ; ag' aniuwa'gwa." Aga kxwo'pt gayu'ya wade'wa- 
de ; ia'xiba gayu'fa-it. Aga kxwo'pt gatcu'gwiga idiaga'- 
matcx wade'wade; gayu'ia-it i'nadix wfxat. Aga kxwo'pt 
idia'maq gaqdi'lux itclfnon. Kfnua ia'maq gatci'lux; 
5 na'qxi ia'maq gatci'lux. Gayu'ya p!a x la itclfnon. Aga 
wi'tla gatctugwalEmam idiaga'matcx wade'wade. Aga 
wi x t!a galigEmla'-itam. Aga wi'tla idia'maq gatcdi'lux falxt ; 
wi x t!a k!a x ya ia'maq gatcilux. Qe x dau gacxu'x itclfnon 
k!ma wade'wade. Qe'dau iqxa'nutck. 1 

(Told by Pete M'Guff). 

10 LgwE'nEmikc fxo'uxikc wika'q Ixela'-itix ksla'-ix fxtpa 
wflx. Aga kxwo'pt galfkim ixgo'qEnkt : "Aga a'wimax 
ag' ayamcgl^qtqa, ank!i x naxLa qa x xb' uxwo x qt idE^xam. 
Qa'dac cma x nix itci^'gomEnil ayamcgatgwo'ma gwE^Ema- 
bat ilgwo'max; cma'ni k!a x ya qxu x ct amcxiLuxwa^ida, 

15 l Aga qxa'tki nigrxatx.'" "A'-u," galgfuxwox. 

L!a r k gayu x ya. Y^ait, gayagu'qxom aq!e x y6qt daxu'ab 

itka r q u l. Koba x gayu x pqax xa^x gaksfklslutkax-, ielqdfx 

ga'n ctu'xt. Aga kxwo'pt gagiulxamx: "Ala x ikla'ckac! 2 

da'n quct miwa'lal?" "Hi inkfnaxt qa'xb' uxwo'qt ids'l- 

20 xam/ - a A x -u," gagiu'xwax, "ya'xib' uxwo'qt;" gagixnfma- 

1 This is all that Louis Simpson knew of the myth, but it is by no means all 
of it. It was said to be more particularly a Clackamas myth, and to consist of a 
long chain of incidents located in the Willamette region. It corresponds doubtless, 
in a general way, to the Kathlamet "Myth of the Mink" (see Boas, Kathlamet 
Texts, pp. 103 117), the mink and panther of that myth corresponding to the 
weasel and eagle respectively of the Wishram version. A fragmentary account of 


then Weasel went on ; he sat down far away. And then 
Weasel took his arrows and sat down across from the 
trail. And then they were shot at Eagle. In vain he 
tried to wound him, he did not wound him ; Eagle went 
on unharmed. Then again Weasel went to fetch his 
arrows and again went and sat down close to him. Now 
again he shot at his elder brother; again he did not 
wound him. Thus did Eagle and Weasel. Thus the 
myth. 1 


The five East-Wind brothers were dwelling far away in 
a certain land. And then the oldest one said: "Now, 
O younger brothers ! now I shall leave you, I shall seek 
to find where the people are assembled together. Mind 
you, if I am alive, I shall come back to you within five 
days ; if not, truly you shall think to yourselves, 'Now 
something has happened to him.'" "Yes," they said to him. 

He started out on his journey. He goes and goes ; 
he came to an old woman whose house was smoking. 
Therein he entered ; she turned her head and looked at 
him ; for a long time the two remain silent. And then 
she said to him: "O boy! 3 What, pray, are you jour- 
neying for?" "W 7 ell, I am seeking to find where the 
people are assembled together." "Yes," she said to 
him, "yonder they are assembled together;" she directed 

the myth, obtained in broken English from another informant, contained the incident 
of a violent rain following upon the divulging by Weasel of the name of a cer- 
tain place, confided to him, after much coaxing on his part, by the unwilling 
Eagle. The exact correspondent of this incident is to be found in the Kathlamet 
myth referred to, pp. 112, 113. 
2 In surprise. 


xix u'lpqtyamt aga'lax. "Qa'dac ayamulxa'ma k!a'ya 
qa'dag' uxwo'qt; sa'q u ag' idE'lxam Ikdulxu'mt ki'tuiwa'q- 
cumax ko'uxikc, Itcgu'qt Igla'lam. Cma'nix yax' imxiu'- 
xwan, l Anu'mEqt' aga,' yaxa mi'a. Qa'dac mxElqte't 
5 k!a x y' imigo'mEntf. Aga qxa'daga dnu' 1 ina'tkadix dac- 
gu'pqt idElxam. Qfdau iaf-im iqxa x q u t di'ka* "A'-u," 
gatcu'xwa, "hi da'xka qa'daga ndwa'lal." 

Tcxa x b i6g6 x it gwE'nEmix; k!a r y' idrmam ilio'uxikcba. 

Ha'mokct gali'kim : "Ag' aniunaxla'ma ilxa'lxt. QE'IIE- 
10 giska yuk!wa x lal6qt? Palala'i ig f uxwo'qt." - - "A 7 -u," . gat- 

gi'uxox ilio'uxikc. Ya x xt!a da x ukwa gatdu'lxam ilio'uxikc : 

" GwE'nEmaba'd ilgwo'mEx antklwa'lalaqwida." Da x ukwa 

ya x xt!a gayagu x qx6m aql^yoqt; da x ukw' axa-ilukii^al. 

GwE'nEm' ilgwo'mEx yuklwalaloqt. "QE'nEgiska!" gali'- 
15 kim ilalu'n, a palala x -i uxwo^t. Na r it!' ag' antcu^axlama." 

Ya x xt!a da x ukwa yuklwa^aloqt ; kxwo^a quct ia r xt!a yagu'- 

gomt aqle'yoqt-, da'ukwa gixnfmanix. 

Ilala x kt gairkim : "Na^tlax ag'anlu^axtama." Da^ikwa 

gatciu'lxam ila'-uxix : " Cma^i gwE^nEmix antgu x ya quct 

20 k!a x y' Endrmamx." Tcxa x p tcxap gwE'nEmix ; k!a r ya ma r nix 

iki'ax. Aga kxwo x pt galixE'lthwitck ixkls^kax. Gayi/ya 

ia'xtla; ia^it; lq!a'p gatci'ux isklulsyE. 

u Ala x ikla'ckac! qxa'damt mu'it?" gali'kim isklu'lsyE. 
"Hi nki'naxl qa'xb' uxwo'qt." - - "Ga'nuitca Ikala 3 Iklu'n 
pu txa'ik' atxu'ya. Da'ukwa na'ika iqxa'q u t iniu'naxL." 

1 Aga qxa'daga dnu is difficult to translate adequately; qxa'daga ("for nothing, 
of no consequence") here implies the matter-of-courseness, as it 'were, of the de- 
struction of the people: "they just go right in, and are destroyed without further ado." 


him towards the setting sun. "I shall just tell you that 
they are not assembled together for nothing. Now, the 
Thunder brothers have consumed all the people, they are 
singing their supernatural dance-song. If indeed you 
think to yourself, 'Now I am going to die/ then go ! You 
will just find out that you are no longer alive. Now, 
surely indeed 1 the people go in one way. 3 Such alone is 
the assemblage here." "Yes," he said to her, "just for 
that indeed am I journeying." 

He camped over night five times ; he did not come 
home to his brothers. The second (brother) said : " Now 
I shall go and look for our elder brother. How is it 
that he is absent? Perhaps many people have assembled 
together." "Yes," said his younger brothers to him. He 
too said thus to his younger brothers : " I shall be away 
from home for about five days." He too, just as before, 
came to the old woman just as before she tells him about 
the assemblage. He is away from home five days. "How 
is it!" said the third; "they are assembled in great num- 
bers. Now I for my part shall go and look for the two." 
He too, just as before, was absent ; truly he too comes 
there to the old woman; just as before she directs him. 

The fourth said : " I for my part shall go now and 
look for them." Just as before he said to his younger 
brother: "If I shall have camped over night five times, 
then I shall not come home." Five nights passed; he 
does not appear. And then the youngest got ready. 
He too went ; he goes and goes (until) he met Coyote. 

"O boy! whither are you going?" said Coyote. "Well, I 
am seeking to find where they are assembled together." 
" Well, friend ! we two might very well go together. I 

2 That is, they do not return. 

3 The use of Ika'la (cf. masc. ika'la, "man") as "friend" is said to be a Wishram 
colloquialism, not recognized in other Upper Chinook dialects. 


"QE'nEgi dnu ma'ika iaxa qwa'tk' atxu'ya." Aga kxwo'pt 
gactu'ya; cta^it i'xtpa kEla'-ix wi'xat ; ctugogo'mt idE'lxam. 
Aga kxwo'pt gatctuxwfmtck idE'lxam isk!u'lEyE higma' ngi. 
A'-i gaqcu'x. Gahccka'm wa'2pul. Gaqcu'lk ; iaxa'la 
5 da'kdak isklu'lEyE nu'it kla'ya dan idiakli'tit. 

Ka'dux wi x t!a gactu'ix ; gactu'yamx fxtpo wi 7 t!a wHx ; 
ade x 2 qucti'axa dnu da'uy' uxwo'qt. Gaqiu'lxam isk!u x - 
lEyE: "QE'nEgi mxlu'xwan da'n EnEgi qE x nEg' atxi^gwa?" 
- a A x -u hi da x nEgi itcq!wa x lacEp Ika 7 la qxada x tci sa x q u am- 
10 xEmgftga." Gacktuxwi'mtck idE'lxam : "Ca'n antkta x ya? ni 
Ga'n galu x xwax ialqdfx ; gaqlgE'lga ilgoa'h'lx qxa'tg' ila- 
k!a x its tfadu'mt qucti'ax' ikna'an. Gackta x x laq ! Gacta- 
xix; ya 7 2ima isk!u x lEyE; gacdilda^coxwix iaq!i x xpa; 
xix ; ia^im' isklt^kyE ; kl^y* ikna 7 an gaqi- 
15 gElgElx, dagapga x b ilg^ninua ; qucti r axa kxwo^a tciVat. 
Gal^gwakim idE^xam : "Quct ilxulgu'xwit." 

Lamo'kct gactilda'tcuxwix ; ctigElga^ulxix ; wi'tla da^u- 
kwa ia x -im' isk!ulEyE. Halu'n wi't!a iaMma. Hala'kt wi't!a 
da'-ukwa. LagwE r nEma gacdilda^cuxwix ; gacdigElga^ul- 
20 xix; ag' ama'kctikc gaqa'g-ElgElx. Aga kxwo'pt tsl^m 
nu'xwax idE'lxam; tqa'uadikc galu'gwagimx "Isklu'lsyE," 
tqa'uadikc galugwagi'mx "KJa'ya! kna'an." Aga cxda't 
dagapga'b tfge'ninua; gactawiga'pgEmx idE'lxam. Kxwo'ba 
gaqixda x kwax isklu'hyE; act gacdulxu'xwitx. 

25 T!u kla'ya da x n aga wi x t!a gactu x -ix k!un' i x xt wflxam. 

1 Literally, "Who we two shall run?" 


also am seeking to find the assemblage." - "Just as you 
like ! Let us then go together." And then they two went. 
They go and go on a certain trail far away , they come 
to people. And then Coyote challenged the people (to 
play) at gambling-bones. They agreed (to gamble with) 
the two. They gambled all night long. The two were 
beaten ; his friend was deprived of everything, Coyote now 
had no clothes at all. 

Next morning the two went on again ; again they ar- 
rived in a certain land. Behold ! truly indeed (people) 
were assembled together (at) this (place). Coyote was 
spoken to: "How think you, with what shall we two 
join in (in this assemblage)?"- - "Oh, well! I am somewhat 
of a fast runner, friend, so that you will bet everything." 
They two challenged the people: "Who will run with 
me?" 1 For a long time the (people) were silent. Acer- 
tain person was taken, rather small and tall, in truth, 
Magpie. He and (Coyote) ran there and back. Both 
started out to run fast ; Coyote alone (was seen). They two 
ran down into a hollow ; they ran up from out of it. Coyote 
alone (was seen) ; Magpie was not seen, (only) a cloud 
of dust (was seen) ; there truly he was following upon him. 
The people said: "It seems that we have been beaten." 

The two ran down into a second (hollow) ; they run 
up out of it. Again, as before, Coyote alone (was seen). 
The third time again he was alone. The fourth time again 
as before. The fifth time the two ran down into a (hol- 
low) ; they ran up out of it ; now both of them were 
seen. And then the people got to disputing ; some of them 
said "Coyote," some said "No! Magpie." Now the two 
are coming in a cloud of dust; they ran into the people. 
There Coyote was passed by ; he and (his friend) lost. 

Having absolutely nothing, the two now went on to a 
certain other village. "Well," said Coyote, "I shall try 


"Hi," galigi'mx isk!u x lEyE, a wo'wotk!' a'nxuxwa, ihi'gum* 
anxcga x ma." Aga kxwo x pt galigimx wikxa x q: "K!ma 
dansk' a x g' alitxmu x tka ?" - - u K!a x ya *ka x la," gatciu'lxamx, 
tf a x lEma itp!a x -isk' 6qdEnlu x da. wl Quctia x xa ya x xdau atc- 
5 tu x xw' 2 itp!a x -iskwa iku'mamax idiaklwa'xa, qa'ua daptsa 7 - 
xEmax, qa'ua daga'cEmax, qa'ua datbE'lEmax gatcu'xwa. 
Q!wa x Lk gatctu'x idakli'nuLmax itpla'-iskwa. GatcLlu'la- 
mitx; 3 xa'bixix k!a x ya tlama'-oac Iktu'xt. Palala'i gac- 
xmu'tkax itp!a x -iskwa ; gacgrtkwax. 

10 Ka'dux Lla'k gacdugi'daqlqax idE'lxam. Gactu'-ix fxt 
wflxam cta'it. Aga kxwo'pt isklu'lEyE gali'kim : " Hi 
a x ga na r it!a ba^ anxu r xwa ; iwa x d anu x y' atpxia^t aga^ax." 
"A'-u," gatci'ux, "na x it!a aga dn j 4 iwa x d nu'it u'lpqtyamd 
aga'fax." Kxwoba 7 ba^x gacxlu^. 

15 Ya/2id wikxa x q ; gatco^ikEl idakla^ts i x tq u K 
Kxwoba 7 gayu x pgax ; a r 2xt aq!e 7 y6qt. Gagiu^xamx : 
quct miwa^al ikla^kac?" "Hi qada x ga ngucgKwal, i 
ni'unaxl." Gagiu x lxam : "la^ima-ix iaxta 7 ba kxw6 x ba wa- 
tcE x lx kxwob' 6gwala / lam kEnEwa x qcumax Ix6 x uxikc." 

20 "Da x xka ndwa x lal," gali x kim. Lla x k gaya x y' iwa x tga. 

Gayu x pqax watcE x lxba; a x ga tcu^ictix. GayulaMtx tc!a x m- 
dix; gatssuk!wi x tkax uxwolu x -imax idE x lxam, Ipal lpa x l ita x lq, 
so x u sou sou sou sou uxwip!a x lawulal. Lixa x t gafgiugum- 
tcxu x ga : " Da x n quct qE x nEgi miwa x lal ?" " A x -i nxEltcE x - 
25 mElit ugwala x lam di x ka uxw6 x qt." - - " A x -u," gali x kim ixa x t, 
a da x uyax yax igla x lam ;" gaqe x lqd' ixa x t. "He laxla x x 

1 Itp!a'-isk' oqdEnlu'da is equivalent to itp'.a'-iskw(a) aqdEnlu'da. 

2 Literally, "Come-to-find-out that-one he-will-make-them." 


again ; I shall gamble bones." And then the East-Wind 
said : "But what, pray, are we going to bet with?" - "No, 
friend," he said to him, "I shall be given blankets." As 
it turned out, that (Coyote) made the blankets out of 
the leaves of cottonwood-trees, some greenish, some 
yellowish, some reddish he made ; he patched together 
blankets with colored decorations. He deceived them in 
regard to the (blankets); since it was dark, they did not 
see them clearly. Many blankets did the two stake ; 
they won. 

Next morning they started off and left the people be- 
hind. They went on ; they go and go (up to) a certain 
village. And then Coyote said: "Well, now I for my 
part shall depart ; yonder I shall go towards the rising 
sim." - "Yes," he said to him, "and I for my part, indeed, 
am going yonder towards the setting sun," There they 
parted from each other. 

The East-Wind goes and goes ; he saw a small house 
smoking. Therein he entered ; an old woman was sitting 
(there). She said to. him : "What, pray, are you, boy, 
journeying for?" - "Well, I am going about without par- 
ticular purpose, I am seeking to find the assemblage." 
She said to him : " All by itself in that place, there 
is an underground lodge, there the Thunder brothers are 
singing." "To them I am journeying," he said. He 
started off and went in that direction. 
: He entered the underground lodge; it was evening 
now. He sat down close to the wall ; he looked at the 
strange-looking people with bodies all reddish ; they were 
talking to one another in whispers. One of them asked 
him: "What, pray, are you journeying for?" "Indeed, I 
hear that they are singing here, that they are assembled 

3 GatcLlu'lamitx is equivalent to gatctHu'lamitx. 

4 Dn' is equivalent to dnu, "indeed." 


tcmuxt; da'uyax yax ixa'd igla'lam." la'xtia gali'kim : 
"Kla'ya! dau'yax yax igla'lam." Kxwopt qfdau galxEn- 

Gatctu'lxamx : "Kw&'lt kult mcgla'lamtck." Aga ga'n 

5 iatqdi'x bdlaMtix. WaV gayutxui'tx ixa't : "AM 'kla'ckac 

aga qwo'tk' angla^ama." Galigla^amtck ixuqxu 7 nkt ; gwE r - 

nEm' idla'lamax gatctu'x. LogwE'nEmaba gatctu'x da- 

tcE'x-h nu'it watcE'lx. GayulaMtx. Gayutxui't lamokct; 

gali'gimx: "Qwotka" yaxa na^t!' angla'lama." Galigla'- 

10 lamtck; na'wid datcE'x-h alatcE^x. LagwE'nEma gatctu'x ; 

anu'it xu^b itcqa x lit; plala/ galixu^wox. 

gayu'txuit. Galigla^amtck ; mank cpa r k 
LogwE'nEma gatctu'x ; anu'it xu r p xu'p xu'p xu x p gatcil- 
ga'lgulitu'mtckix. Qa x n gali'xwox ; sgitli'q kla'ya galu- 
15 xwa'xax itxMli't. GalsxElu'tkax ; ya/2xt kxwo'ba. Qatgi 
sa'u sa'u sa x u galxElpIa'lawulalEmtck : "Qxu'ct ya'xa 
Ixlu'-idEt dau'lax ilgoalilx Iga'tqwom luwa'n qa'xba bama." 
Gatdu'lxam : a Ska kult ku'lt Emcxdla'lamtck ; qatgi qi- 
kEla'ix gamcxdlala'mnintck ; daLla' galxi'dlalit." 

20 WaV gayu'txuitx itala'kt. Galiglalamtck ; na'wid aga 
gatcilga'lgulitu'mtckix. LagvvE'nEma gatctu'x ; sa'q u watu'l 
gala'xux ala'tcElx. Ga'n gali'xox. Galxfla-it ialqdl^x; 
daiJa'c gala'xux wa'tul. Galsxlu'tkax ; ya'axt ikla'ckac. 
Wi'tla sa'u sa'u sa'u galxElpIa'lawulalEmtck. Gatclul- 

25 xamx: a Kwa'lt kslt i'ax' aga tcic i'nxux ; qekElaMx daLla' 
gamcxdla'lamnih 7 ' 

1 Wa'x has reference properly to the burning of fire, with which the Thunder 
brothers are associated. He rises slowly to his song like a fire starting in to 


together." "Yes," said one, "this one here sings;" a 

certain one was pointed to. "Well, he is lying to you-, 
this one here sings." That one too said: "No! thi$ one 
here sings." And thus they kept putting it off on one another. 

He said to them: "Hurry up and sing!" Now for a 
long time they sit silent. One of them stood up slowly, 1 
(saying): "Yes, boy, now indeed I shall sing." The 
eldest sang ; five songs he sang. When he sang the fifth 
song, straightway the underground lodge became nice and 
warm. He sat down. The second one stood up ; he 
said : "Now, indeed, I also shall sing." He sang ; straight- 
way their underground lodge warmed up. He sang the 
fifth song ; immediately steam streamed up , he ceased. 

The third one stood up. He sang ; it got to be rather 
hot. He sang the fifth song ; immediately it got to be 
burning here and there, smoke streaming up in different 
places. He became silent; after a little while the smoke 
disappeared. They looked ; he is still sitting there. They 
talked to one another, somewhat like whispering: "It 
seems, indeed, that this person is different (from those that 
came before) ; he has come I don't know where from." 
He said to them: "Why, hurry up! start in singing! 
(One feels) rather comfortable (when) you keep singing ; 
we were all sitting around nice and warm." 

Quickly 3 the fourth one arose. He sang; straightway 
now it began to burn here and there. He sang the fifth 
song; their underground lodge was all fire. He became 
silent. They sat for a long time ; the fire died away. 
They looked ; the boy is still sitting. Again they talked 
to one another in whispers. He said to them: "Hurry 
up ! now, indeed, I have become cold ; (it was) comfortably 
warm (when) you were singing." 

burn. It is not probable that the literal meaning of wax is here lost sight of. 
2 Here wa'x denotes the opposite of "slowly rising," because of the short vowel. 



Gayutxwft ixk!E x skax *ag W E x nEma-, aic galikla x tgEmx ; 
watirt gala-igF/lbax yo x k u cxat. Galigla'lamtck, galigla x - 
lamtck, galigla x lamtck. LagwE x nEma gatctu'x ; sa x q u watul 
ga x laxux. Qa x n gali'xux. Giga x gatca x lgalq -, gafogumla'- 
5 itx ialqdl r 2x; daLla'c galaxu'xwax. GalsiklElu'tkax; ya 7 2xt 
kxwo'ba. Galki'm: "Da'nEgi hdu'-idEt ilgoa'iilx -," sa'u 
sau JxElpIa'lawulal. Gatch/lxam : "Kwa'lt kult ia'xa 
mcxdlalamtck." Galki'm : "Aga kxwo'pt incglalamtck." 

"A'-u," gatclu'x, "na'itlax angla'ma." A'-i galgi'ux. 

10 Gayutxiii'tx ; na'wid datcfc-h wika'q. Galgi'm : "Atq' 
antcuba'-iwa." - - "K!a'ya!" gatciulxam, a bi r d imcxfla-id." 
Gayu'txuit aqa'buditba. Lamo'kct gatctu'x idla'lamax ; 
cpa'g wika'q gayu'yix watcE'lxba. lLahi'n gatctu'x ; mank 
cpa'k gayu'yix. lLala'kt gatctu'x ; aga kla/ya pia'la gal- 

15 xila-it. Aga gatxLlVananEmtck ; anui'd ika'ba galixu x - 
xwax, itanali / q u liq u gayugwanxa'xitx. LogwE'nEma gatctu'x 
idia x lalamax ; sa x q u ika 7 ba daq!apq!a 7 p gal^xox. Kxwoba/ 
gatclflbo kEnEwo^cumax Ixou^xikc. 

Qatgiaxa^ax dadakda r k gatcu x xwa watcE x lx ixk!E x s- 

20 kax -, gali x xpa. Qu x ctiaxa qe x dau lktudi x nax idE x lxam , 

hi'yamEnil lagi x tk!i kxwoba/xtaba l qlola x -imalit ; kxwoba x 

tclElga x lElq ; kxwoba x lie x lExtikc Ma x -it. Gatcu x gwigax 

ilaq!u x tcu ; k!u x gatctu x xwax ; gayugwak!a x lakwax gwE x nE- 

mix ; sa x q u gatclElxada x yugwa ya x xt' ilalgwi x lit. Pu ya x xtau 

25 sa x q u gatdudi x na ka x nEmgwE x nEma kEnEwo x qcumax da x uya 

wi x gwa pu k!a x ya kEnEwo x qcumax. K!anik!ani x 2. KVdux 

alEm' aga x iax alaxu x xwa yaxtadi x wi gali x xux galxo x qbEt 

kEnEwo'qcumax kxwo x dau ikxa x q. 

1 Kxwoba'xtaba is equivalent to kxwoba' ya'xtaba. 

The fifth and youngest arose. He just took a breath, 
and fire darted out of his mouth. He sang, he sang, he 
sang. He sang the fifth song- everything became afire. 
He became silent. It burned continually, they sat by the 
(fire) for a long time ; it died out. They looked at him , 
he is still sitting there. They said: "The person is some- 
thing different ;" they were talking to one another in 
whispers. He said to them : " Hurry up ! start in singing 
now!" They said: "We have sung enough." 

u Yes," he said to them, "I too shall sing." They con- 
sented to what he said. He arose ; straightway an east 
wind (blew) nice and cool. They said : "We shall each 
of us go out for a short while." - "No !" he said to them, 
"sit quiet." He stood at the door. He sang the second 
song ; an east wind blew strongly in the underground 
lodge. He sang the third (song) ; it blew stronger. He 
sang the fourth (song) ; now they did not remain quietly 
seated. Now they started to shift in their seats ; straight- 
way ice formed and icicles projected. He sang his fifth 
song ; everything became congealed into ice. There the 
Thunder brothers froze. 

Somehow or other the youngest broke through the un- 
derground lodge ; he escaped from him. Truly thus they 
used to kill people ; (whenever) onlookers arrived, they 
used to seat them there in that place ; there they always 
burned ; there his elder brothers had died. He took their 
bones and heaped them together ; he stepped over them 
five times ; they all came back to life in their proper 
likeness. If he had killed all five of the Thunder (broth- 
ers), there would be no thunder to-day. Story story. 
May the weather to-morrow be as it was when the Thun- 
der (brothers) and the East-Wind came together. 



Gatcu'cgam itcli'non isklu'lEyE aya'xan. Aga kxwo'pt 
gactu'ia-it tslu'nus ie'lqdix'. Aga kxwo'pt itca'wanb' \\- 
kla'ckac gafa'lla-it. Aga kxwo'pt gaklu'xtum ilkla'ckac 
ilka'la ia'xan itcli'non. Aga kxwo'pt gali'xqlo' itcli'non. 
5 A'xt itq^i'b' aya'gikal itcli'non. Aga kxwo'pt galaxlu'- 
xwa-it: "Ag 1 anxk!wa x y' ag' anigElda'qlqa itclfnon." Aga 
kxwo'pt gala'kt' agagilak. Nakta 7 2. Kxwopt qw6 7 L 
gaklu'x ilkla'ckac wi'xatba itclfnon ilia'xan. Na'kta na 7 2- 
wit; nakta'-a-itam idio'qlba isklu'lEyE aya'xan. 

10 Aga kxwo'pt ya x xta itclfnon gayu'yam itcto'qlba ; kla'y* 
agagi'lak. Aga kxwo'pt gali'kta wixatba' itdfnon ; gatcu /J 
agagi'lak aya'gikal ; ni'kta wixatba^. Aga kxwo'pt gatc- 
IgE'lkEl, 1 qu'L iki'xax wi'xatpa ya'xan itcli'non; aya'xan 
isklu'lEyE qu'L gagi'ux itca'xan. Aga kxwo'pt Iga'p ga- 

15 tcigE'lga; da'k gatci'ux. Aga kxwo'pt gatci'ukl ikla'ckac 
ya'xan itq u lia'mt. Aga kxwo'pt nEgu' gatci'ux. Aga 
kxwo'pt gayu'mt ikla'ckac; gali'xox idialxe'wulx ; yaga'il 
ika'la gali'xux. 

Yaxa g a'x isklu'lEyE aya'xan galu'ya. Na'wit wa'limx 

20 gala'xux. GaklgE'lg' itka'la itclinon a'gikal; ya'xliu ika'la 

itcIo'ligEn gatcu'cgam. Aga kxwo'pt gatcu'lxam isklu'lEyE 

aya'xan : tt Qfi'nEgiska qxa'tgi muduksa'x a'ca, na'qxi tci 

kxwob' itmi'xan nimlgi'taqlq ?" Aga kxwo'pt gagiu'lxam 

wi'tcam : "Palala" imikla'mEla isklu'lEyE; da'nbama qxe'- 

25 dau mxu'lal? Cma'nix p' ilkxa'n pu na'qxi ninlgi'taqlq." 

Aga kxwo'pt gali'xux idiaxEmatla'iutck isklu'lEyE ya'qcix 

aya'xan itca'gikal. Aga kxwo'pt gayugwida'lEqlqxEmct 

sa'2q u idE'lxam; idiaxEmatla'iutck yaqlwa'lasup gali'xux. 

1 This should be gatci^E'lkEl ; probably the narrator had the word iik'.a'ckac 
("child") in mind. 



Eagle married Coyote's daughter. And then they two 
dwelt for some time. And then a child was seated in 
her womb and she gave birth to a male child, Eagle's 
son. Now then Eagle went out hunting. Eagle's wife 
is sitting in the house. And then she thought to herself: 
"Now I will return homewards and leave Eagle behind." 
So then the woman ran away. She ran and ran. Then 
she hung the child, Eagle's child, up along the trail. 
Straightway she ran on, ran until she arrived at Coyote's 
house, (she being) his daughter. 

And then that one, Eagle, arrived in his and (his 
wife's) house. The woman had disappeared. And then 
Eagle ran along the trail ; he followed the woman, his 
wife ; he ran along the trail. And then he saw the (child) ; 
Eagle's son is hanging up along the trail ; Coyote's daugh- 
ter had hung up her son. Now then he slowly took hold 
of him and released him. And then he took the boy, 
his son, with him to the house. And then he kept him 
to himself. Now then the boy grew up and became strong, 
a big man he became. 

Now she, Coyote's daughter, had gone on. Soon she 
became a married woman. Eagle's wife took a husband ; 
the man (who) married her was named Fish-Hawk. Now 
then Coyote said to his daughter : " How is it, daughter, 
that you are somewhat sucked? Did you not leave be- 
hind your child there ?" And then she said to her father : 
" You are very wicked, Coyote ; wherefore do you speak 
thus ? If I had had a child, I should not have abandoned 
him." Now then Coyote's son-in-law, his daughter's hus- 
band, became a racer, and always left behind (in running) 
all the people- a racer, a fast runner, he became. 


Aga gali'xux itcli'non ia'xan iaga'if ika'la. Aga kxwo'pt 
gali'kim yake'xtau itcli'non ia'xan : "Ag' alxu'ya Ixa'itlikc 
algiukcta'ma isklu'lsyE ya'qcix." Aga kxwo'pt gatgi" 
idE'lxam dati'fx gatctu'kl itclfnon ia'xan. Aga gahi'yam 
5 qa'xb' isklulEyE yu x xt. GadixLa'gwa wflxam, gaduxwa'- 
Lagwa itq^i'max. Gaqi'ukl ila'lik idiaxEmat!a x iutck. Twi 
galu'xwax idElxam. Aga kxwo'pt gatcu'lxam isklu'lsyE 
aya'xan: "Qs'nEgisk' aca la'xi' itkala ilcta'mx 11 a*qidi x wi 
ma'ika imngwilit?" Kxwopt gagiulxam aya'xan : " Kxwo'pt 
10 aga, ga x n mxux! QE x nEgi qe'dau mxu'lal na x ik' ilkxa'n 
la'xia ilcta'mx 11 ?" Aga kxwo'pt pla'la galu'xwax idE'lxam ; 
aga gatkqu'i. KVdux- alEma ackta'y' acxumtla'iwitcgwa 
isklu'lEyE ya'qcix* ila'lik. 

Aga kxwo'pt gayutcu'ktix-. Galu'gwakim: "Aga ac- 
15 kta'ya acxumtla'iwitcgwa isklu'kyE ya'qcix- k!ma ila'lik. " 
f isklulsyE gali'kim (loud and beating his hips): 

"Sa-paY wi-le'-luk wi- le'-luk sa'-pa wi- le'-luk wi-le'-luk!" 

Aga kxwo'pt gackt' a'ga isklu'lsyE ia'qcix k!m' ag' ila'lik. 
Aga kxwo'pt gactugwl'Lti. Aga kxwo'pt L!EP L!E'P gali'- 

20 xux itc!o'ligEn. Kinua' gali'kta; dapo'm gayu'kktcu ; 
S E'X gatci'ux itcli'non. Gayugita'qlq ila'lik. Aga kxwo'pt 
galugwaki'lk itcli'non idia'lxam. 

Adati'lx idE'lxam gatctu'klam itc!i'non. Aga kxwo'pt 
gatkqxu'i itcli'non idia'lxam. KVdux*. Aga kxwo'pt 

25 galuxwaklwa'yu. Aga kxwo'pt gatctu'lxam itcli'non idia'l- 
xam : u Sa'q u Lqlup Lqlu'p amtktu'xwa aga'matcx k!ma 
ala'xit da'ua wa'pul , igu'liu amdu'xwa Lq!up Lqlu'p, da'u- 

Sapa- or Sipa- is sometimes used as a "high-sounding," apparently titular, 
prefix to the names of mythological characters. Compare the names of Coyote's 


Now Eagle's son became a full-grown man. And then 
the same, Eagle's son, said : " Now let us go, let us 
also go and look at Coyote's son-in-law." So then the 
people went (whom) Eagle's son took along with him in 
great numbers. Now they arrived where Coyote was 
dwelling. They marched around the village, passed the 
houses. Jack Rabbit, a racer, had been taken along. 
The people looked about slowly. And then Coyote said 
to his daughter : " How is it, daughter, that yon man 
looking like a chief resembles you?" Then his daughter 
said to him: "Enough now, be quiet! How can you 
say thus, that yon chief is my son?" And then the people 
stopped (marching) and camped for the night. Next 
morning Coyote's son-in-law and Jack Rabbit are to run, 
are to race against each other. 

And then daylight came. The people said : " Now 
the two of them, Coyote's son-in-law and Jack Rabbit, 
are to run, are to race against each other." And Coyote 
said: "Sir 1 Jack Rabbit, Jack Rabbit! Sir Jack Rabbit, 
Jack Rabbit!" Now then the two ran, Coyote's son-in- 
law and Jack Rabbit. And then it rained and Fish-Hawk 
became wetted through. He tried to run, but in vain ; 
he fell right down, (for) Eagle exercised his supernatural 
power upon him. Jack Rabbit left him far behind. So 
then Eagle's people won out. 

Many were the people that Eagle had brought with 
him. And then Eagle's people camped over night. It 
was morning. And then they all started to go home, and 
Eagle said to his people: "You shall cut to pieces all 
(their) arrows and bows to-night. - -You, Mouse, will cut 
them to pieces ; - - you too likewise, Rat, will cut the arrows 

four sons, p. 66. It is noteworthy that Jack Rabbit's name is here provided with 
the archaic wi-pronominal prefix, instead of the ordinary i-. 


kwa ma'itlax ala'kss Lqlu'p Lq!up amdu'xwa itga'matcx 
aLa'xit." Qe'dau gatccu'lxam itcli'non. 

Aga kxwo'pt xa'p gali'xoxwix. Aga kxwo'pt gatciu'l- 

xam igu'liu : "Aga ckcta'm isklu'lEyE ia'qcix- k!ma aya'xan 

5 qa'xba gacxu'qclit." Aga kxwo'pt gali'kt' igu'liu ; gatccukc- 

tam ; a'ga gatccgE x lkEl. NaVit gali'kta ; wi'tlax galix- 

da'gwa; na'wit itc.Tnonba nikta'-a-itam. "Ag' incgE'lksl 

ya'xiba cto'qiu." Ya'xk' itdfnon gali'kim : "Ag' antcu- 

wo'gwa na'ika." Aga kxwo'pt gayu'ya. Na'wit gayu'ya ; 

10 galicgo'qxom. 

Aga kxwo'pt gatcigE'lga ; e'wi gatci'ux iaqxa'qctaq. 
Aga kxwo'pt Lq!6'p gatci'ux ia'tuk, daLqio'p na'wit. Aga 
kxwo'pt gatcagE'lg' a'xtlax wa'yaq ; I'wi gatcu'xwa itca- 
qxa'qctaq. Aga kxwo'pt Lqlo'p gatci'ux itca'tuk daLqio'p 

15 na'wit. Aga kxwo'pt gatcu'lxam itcli'non : "Ma'ika yakia'- 
mEla-ix- gamE'ntxa ; kxwo'b' ia'muwaq. GamE'niAik nkla'c- 
kac. Aga kxwo'pt qxwo'L gams'ntxa wi-ixa'tba. Na'cqxi 
gamEngEmatxa'ulutkwaitck. Kxwo'ba wi'-ixatba gamEn- 
La'da. Palala" imik!a'mEla. w Aga gatccuwo'q. Aga 

20 kxwo'pt gatcuxiga'mit itctaqxa'qctagokc ; gatccxi'ma; ga- 
tcck!i'tkiq ; aga cta'umEqt. 

Aga kxwo'pt kVdux galuxwi'txwitck ag' aluxwoklwa'- 
yuwa itcli'non idia'lxam. Aga kxwo'pt isldi/lsyE ya'xtax 
gatcu'lxam aya'xan : "Aga mxgu'itk a'ca ; ag' alixklwa'ya 

25 itcli'non ia'xan icta'mx." Aga kxwo'pt galuxwi'txwitck. 
Aga kxwo'pt gadixLa'gwa-ix- itcli'non idia'lxam. Aga 
kxwo'pt isk!u'lEyE gatcu'lxam aya'xan: "Aga mxk'tck, 
si'klElutk ma'it!a itcli'non ia'xan." Wi'tla gadixLa'gwa-ix\ 
GwE'nEmix- gadixLa'gwa-ix\ Aga kxwo'pt gatgi" idE'lxam. 

30 Aga kxwo'pt gatccu'qxutck isklu'lEyE aya'xan ia'qcix'. 
Kanauwa'2 gacxla'lalEmtck. Aga kxwo'pt L.'a'g gatccu'x. 


and bows to pieces." Thus Eagle spoke to the two of 

And then it became dark. Now then he said to Mouse : 
"Now go and look for Coyote's son-in-law and his daugh- 
ter, where they are accustomed to sleep." And then 
Mouse ran off, he went to look for them, then caught 
sight of them. Straightway he ran and came back again ; 
straightway he came running to Eagle, (and said :) tt Now 
I have seen the two, they are sleeping yonder." He, 
Eagle, said: "I am going to kill them now." And then 
he went off. Straight on he went (until) he got to 
the two. 

And then he caught hold of (Fish-Hawk) and turned 
his head about. And then he cut his neck, cut it right 
through. Then he caught hold of his mother too, and 
turned her head about. And then he cut her neck, cut 
it right through. Now then Eagle said to her: "You 
acted badly towards me, that is why I have killed you. 
You carried me when I was a child, and then hung me 
up on the trail. You did not take pity on me, (but) there 
on the trail you threw me away. You are very wicked." 
Now he had killed the two. And then he stuck their 
heads on to their (bodies) ; he laid them down and covered 
them over. Now they two are dead. 

And then in the morning Eagle's people got ready, and 
were all about to go home. And then that Coyote said 
to his daughter : "Now wake up, daughter! Now Eagle's 
son, the chief, is about to go home." And then Eagle's 
people got ready to go, and passed around him. Now 
then Coyote said to his daughter : " Now arise, do you 
too look at Eagle's son !" Again they passed around 
him. And then the people went off. Now then Co- 
yote (tried to) wake up his daughter and his son-in-law. 
They kept shaking and shaking. And then he saw 


Aga kxwo'pt gatccgs'lkEl Lq!up Lqlu'p itcta'tuk aga 

Aga kxwo'pt gali'kim isk!u'lEyE : "Ga'ngadix- inxi'- 

Luxwan na'qxi qxa'daga nigi'ti itcli'non ia'xan. Qxa'tgi 

5 da'nEgi gagitxa' dalaVx p' a'xka itca'xan qxa'dagatci 

itcu'woq itca^an. Aga da x uya wi x gwa inxElEqfa/xit." Aga 

kxwo'pt gali'kim isklu'lEyE: "Tea! ag' amtgu'gwiga idE- 

mdaga'matcx ifcmdala'xit ag' alxdi'naya." Kxi'nua ga- 

qxu'gwiga itga 7 matcx kxw6 7 dau ala r xit. K!a x ya dan ala x xit 

10 icgalE'pqtit ; kla^ya dan itga^atcx itga x piq ; k!a/ya dan 

idalaptla'lamax idaxa^iLqdit. 1 Sa^ 11 gatcxE^Emux x 

igu'liu kxwo'dau ala'kEs. Qe'dau itkla'nl. 


Ga/ngadix galgiu^xam ik!a x ckac : " Ag' alxu x ya i 
nEkc." Yakla'mEl' ik!a x ckac. Aga kxwo'pt galki'm : ft Ag' 

15 amcgii/kta ilkE'nEkc." Aga kxw6 x pt gatklu^xam : U A'- 
lEma kxwo^' amcx^gidwoqlxa." Aga kxwo / pt gwop go x p 
gatgi 7 ' idE'lxam wi'malpa. Galuya'2 ; galu^am ilkE x nEkcba. 
Aga kxwo'pt Lq!u 7 p Lqlup galklu^x. Aga kxw6 x pt galk^m : 
"Cma'nix a'lEma ikla'ckac aligi'ma, 'Mcka'xax tci?' 

20 amcgiu'xwa 'u 7 .'" 2 


Aga kxwo'pt galxwo'tck ; na'wit galxwo'a-itEm ; na'wit 
o'p galu'ya. K!a x ya dan ilgoa'lilx gi'gat ; sa'q 11 i'nadix'. 
Aga kxwo'pt ya'xt' ik!a x ckac galttdm : "Ag' alxklwa'- 
yuwa."- - a UV galgi'ux ilks'nEkc. Kinua x 2 galikli'naxLtck ; 
25 k!ay ilgoa'lilx. Aga kxwo'pt gali'xklwa ya'xt!a ; gatc- 
lu'wa qxe'gEmtgix- ya'xtla ; nikta'ia-itam aga k!a'y' idfil- 
xam. Aga kxwo'pt gali'ktcax ik!a x ckac. Aga kxwo'pt 

1 Both this and the preceding word mean "their arrow-heads" without apparent 
difference in meaning. 


that their necks were cut through, and that they were 
dead now. 

And then Coyote said: "Before now I was thinking 
that Eagle's son had not come for nothing. Perhaps she 
has somehow done something (wrong) to her son, so that 
her son killed her. Now to-day I have found out." And 
then Coyote said (to his people) : " Well ! Now do you 
get your arrows and your bows and we shall fight." The 
arrows and the bows were gotten, but to no purpose. 
None of the bows had its bowstring, none of the arrows 
had its feathers, none of them had their arrow-points. 
Mouse and Rat had eaten them all up at night. Thus 
the myth. 


Some time long ago the (people) said to the boy : 
"Now let us go for reeds." The boy was (considered) 
bad. So then they said: "Now you people shall take 
him along (when you go for) reeds." And then they 
said to them: "You shall abandon him there." So then 
the people all went across the river. They went on and 
arrived where the reeds were. And then they cut off 
the reeds and said (to them): "If the boy says, 'Are 
you people still there?' you shall answer him, 1 UV" 

And then they all ran off; straight home they ran, 
went right across the river. No person at all (was left) on 
this side ; they were all on the other side. And then that 
boy said: "Now let us all go home!" - - "U," said the 
reeds to him. He looked about long, but in vain ; there 
was nobody. And then he too started to go home, he 
too went following behind them ; he ran until he arrived 
(at the river), but there were no people to be seen. So 

2 Rather high pitch. 


galixE'ltcmoq : "L! L! L!" Aga kxwo'pt e'wi gali'xux isi'a- 
xuspa; gasi'xElutk. Gatchi'nalx ilie'loqctq. Aga kxwo'pt 
ts!a'2nus gatca'gElksl wa'tul waltki'ba. Aga kxwo'pt 
yaka'xtau gatcagE'lga watu'l. Aga kxwo'pt galixElki'ht. 

5 Aga wi'tla gatcagE'lksl amu'tan; wi 7 t!a tslu'nus aki'xax. 
Na'wit gatcagE x lga. Aga wi'tla gayu'ya ik!wa x yatba; ga- 
tcagE'lkEl gwE'nEma waqxa't. 1 Aga kxwo'pt galixtu'xwa-it : 
"Agwoli'layax akkii'c igangslu'tk waqxa't kxwo'dau wa'tuf 
iga'ngslutk akkli'c ; kxwo'dau akcki'x' iga'ngslutk amu'tan." 
10 Aga kxwo'pt gatssu'x isE'nqxoq ikla'ckac kxwo'dau idla'x u - 
tat ila'n' EnEgi gatctu'x. Gayuxugwi'tkiq itkna'anukc. 
Aga kxwo'pt gadixu'tck u t. Kxwo'pt ismA'sEn gatssu'x 
EnEg' ikna'an iapla'skwal. Lqla'b gasixs'ldi ; wi'tla gali- 
xo'qcit wi't.'a gasi'xtkiq. 

15 Aga kxwo'pt nixEnk!a'nqxut ; gatcutla'b' a-ix't akla'daqxi. 
A'nad lu'qx gatcu'xwa; a'nad na-ix*lu'tk. Wit!a kVdux 
lu'qx gatcu'xwa a'nat. Aga wi't.'a nixEnkla'ngutam. Gato 
cutla'ba mo'kct ; a'-ix't lu'qx gatcu'xwa ; a'-ix*t gala-ix'lu'tk. 
Wi't.'a kVdux a'-ix't lu'qx gatcuxwa. Aga wi'tla ka'dux 

20 nixEnkla'ngutam. Gatccutla'ba lu'n ickla'daqxi ; lu'qx ga- 
tcu'xwa a'-ix-t ak!u'n ci't!ix- ; wi'tla ka'dux a'-ix't aklu'n 
ci'tlix- lu'qx gatcu'xwa. Aga wi'tla galixEnkla'ngutam ; 
gatccutla'ba la'kt ickla'daqxi. Mo'kct lu'qx gatccu'x 
mo'kct gaci'xslutk ; k'a'dux lu'qx gatccu'x sa'q u aga mo'kct. 

25 Aga wi'tla nixEnkla'ngutam ilagwE'nEmix- , aga galixEn- 
kla'nqxut ikla'ckac lagwE'nEmix'. Aga yaga'il ika'la 

Aga kxwo'pt i'2wi gatssu'x isi'&nqxoq; qucti'axa pa'2l 
atslE'ptslEp 2 a'lgixt aqx u ta'nba. GatcutxEmi't wi'lxba. Aga 

1 Known generally as "wappatoo." 

then the boy cried. And then he heard (something 
sound): "L! L! L!" And then he turned his eyes and 
looked ; he dried his tears. Now then he caught sight of 
a wee bit of fire in a shell. And then that same (boy) 
took the fire and built up a fire. 

And further he caught sight of some string ; also of 
that there is only a little. Straightway he took it. And 
further he went to the cache and saw five "Indian pota- 
toes." 1 And then he thought: "My poor paternal grand- 
mother has saved for me the 'Indian potatoes,' and my 
paternal grandmother has saved for me the fire ; and my 
maternal grandmother has saved for me the string." And 
then the boy made a fish-line and he made a trap out 
of the string. He set his trap for magpies and then 
trapped them. Then he made a magpie-skin blanket out 
of magpie's skin. He put it nicely about himself; also 
(when) he went to sleep, he wrapped himself nicely in it. 

And then he fished with hook and line and caught one 
sucker. Half of it he consumed, half he saved for him- 
self. Next morning he consumed also the other half. 
Then he went to fish again and caught two (suckers) ; 
one he consumed, and one he saved for himself. Next 
morning again he consumed the other one. Now next 
morning he went to fish again and caught three suckers. 
One and a half he consumed ; next morming again he con- 
sumed the other one and a half. Then again he went to fish 
and caught four suckers. Two he consumed, two he saved 
for himself. Next morning he consumed two all up. Now 
again he went to fish for the fifth time ; the boy had now 
fished five times. He had now become a full-grown man. 

And then he turned to look at his fish-line ; behold ! 
ground roasted fish 2 was contained [brimful] in a hollow 

2 Ats'.E'pts'.Ep was a mixture of dried fish and pieces of flesh mashed up fine 
and kept in fish-oil. 


kxwo'pt galigla'lamtck ikla'ckac. Aga kxwo'pt ka'nauw' 
edE'lxam tk!i' gatgi'ux. Aga kxwo'pt galu'gwakim : "Qs'- 
nE'g' igi'xux?" Qucti'axa klwan k.'wa'n gali'xux gatcut!a'- 
baba atste'ptslEp. Qe'dau galigla'lamtck : l 


5 "A-tse' a-tse' ga - sEn - gat - k!a - gwa'x gas-kte-na -klwa'st." 
Qucti'axa gaga'-iluqxwim itc.'E^yan 3 aya'xan wa'liq. 

Aga kxwo'pt gayu'qxui ik!a x ckac la'ktix- lagwE^Emix'ba 
gayu'qxui. Aga kxwo'pt galixgoMtk ; ilgagi'lak ctoqxi'u. 
Palala"' iltlu^ti ilgagHak; ala'nalxat itca'lqdax kxwo'dau 

10 ihska'gEmax na'wid daptma'x iLa x xuba kxwo'dau iqwi'a- 
qwiamax iflu'xt iLa x kcEnba pa^max; kxw6 x dau i'tcpli sa r q u 
idakli'nuimax 4 gigwa^adamt gatci/guikEl ; kxwo x dau gatcf- 
gE'lkEl iltcwo'qcu ItcEktgi^xux- ka^actmokct aya 7 gikal. 
Qucti x axa a r xtau itclE'xyan aya r xan gagaMloqxwim kxwo^ 

15 dau pa/1 itguna x t kxwoMau ilna^un kxw6 x dau watsi/iha 
kxwo^au aga r kwal, ka x nauwe dan pa/1 gagiu^lam. A x ga 

Aga gaktu x x ittxlE'm agagi x lak ; aga kVdux ya x xtau 
gayutcu'ktix. Aga gacdu^a-it p!a x la wi x gwa , aga gactu x - 

20 la-it ya x lqdix'. Aga kxw6 7 pt galix6 x xwix' ga^axEmdix*. 
Aga kxw6 7 pt galuxwiqla^it idE^xam. Aga kxw6 x pt ga- 
ctu'ya gwo'p aya x k!ic kxwo'dau aya'ckix* na'wit idio'qlba. 
Aga kxwo'pt galixhi'xwa-it : " Itcta'giutgwax icqle'yoqt. 
Da'ukwa na'ika gackEngEmatxa'ulutkwaitck a'kklic kxwo 7 - 

25 dau akckiV." Aga kxwo'pt gatccE'luqxwim ; gatctcElu 7 ! 
itguna't icq!e x yoqt kxwo'dau ihia'gun gatdtcslu't. Aga 
kxwo'pt gacxk!wa x icqle'yoqt; gwo'p gactu'ya. 

He sang while waving the blanket over his shoulders. The song is repeated 
several times. 

The Merman (see pp. 41-43) was the guardian of the fish-supply. Compare 
Chinook its'.xia'n ("gambler's protector"). 


vessel. He stood it up on the ground. And then the 
boy sang. Now then all the people were looking on at 
him, and then they said: "What has happened to him?" 
Truly, he became glad because he had caught ground fish. 
Thus he sang: 1 "Atse', atse'! my feathered cloak waves 
freely over me." In truth, it was ItdE'xyan's 3 virgin daughter 
that had given him to eat. 

Now then the boy had slept four nights ; he slept through 
the fifth night. And then he awoke ; a woman was 
sleeping with him. Very beautiful was the woman. Her 
hair was long, and she had bracelets reaching right up 
to here on her arms, 3 and rings were on her fingers in great 
number ; and he saw a house all covered with painted 
designs inside ; and he saw a mountain-sheep blanket 
covered over both of them, him and his wife. Truly, 
that woman was ItdE'xyan's daughter, (and) she had given 
him to eat; and plenty of "Chinook" salmon and sturgeon 
and blue-back salmon and eels, plenty of everything, she 
had brought. Now he married her. 

Now the woman made food, and it became daylight 
that morning. Then the two remained together quietly 
all day, and they remained together for a long time. And 
then spring came. And then the people found out (that 
he lived with her). So then his paternal grandmother 
and his maternal grandmother went across the river straight 
to his house. And then he thought to himself: "The 
two old women are poor. Thus also on me did my pater- 
nal grandmother and my maternal grandmother take pity." 
So then he gave the two of them to eat ; he gave the old 
women salmon, and he gave them sturgeon. And then the 
two old women started home; they went across the river. 

3 Indicated by gesture. 

4 This word is used indifferently of painted and basket designs. 


Yafqdi'x- kxwo'ba gacxu'x. Aga kxwo'pt idwo'tca ga- 
lu'xwax; galu'gwakim : U A2 itgu'nat fga'blad ik!a'ckacba 
kxwo'dau ilna'gun la'blat kxwo'dau aga'kwal kxwo'dau 
watsu'iha." Ag' tftga' ts!u'nus ts!u'nus. K!a'ya dan itlx- 
IE'ITI idElxa'mba; wa'lu ktu'xt idE'lxam. Aga kxwo'pt 
galu'gwakim idE^lxam : "Alxa^tlikc alxi/ya ikla^kaciamt." 
Aga kxw6 r pt wi 7 t!a gwo^ gactu'ya cta x niwad aya^lic 
aya'ckix*. Aga kxwo'pt q!oa x b itq u li x ba. Aga kxwo'pt 
gatgi 7 ' idE^xam gwo x p adatrtx ikla^kaciamt. 

10 Aga kxwo^t l x wi galfxux ikla^kac ; gas^xEJutk ; ga- 
tcu x guikEl palala 7 ! idE^xam gwo x p tg! 7 t iknfmba. Aga 
kxwo'pt galixlu'xwa-it : "Naqx' itli/ktix- da'ukwa na x ika 
galxangE^Ewoqlq." Kxw6 7 pt aga gateaux ika r q ; tcpa'g 
ika x q gali'xux kxw6 x dau iltga 7 galxu'x. Sa x q u galuxwa 7 - 

15 La-it iltcqo'ba ; tcxa r gatgi 7 ' idE'lxani. Yakla'mEla-ix- 1 ga- 
lixli/xwa-it ik!a x ckac : "Da'ukwa na x ika galgE x ntx ; gal- 
xangE'lEwoqlq." Aga wi x t!a gwo'p gatgi'a itk!u x na-itc. 
Aga wi x t!a da'ukwa gatdu'x; ika'q idialxe'wulx gayu'ya 
k!m' ag' iltga x galxu'x. Aga wi'tla galuxwa'La-it ; mo'kctix- 

20 galuxwa'La-it idElxam. Aga cta'im' icqe'yoqt gahd'la-it. 
Qxe'dau itk!a x m. 


Gayuya" sklulEyE; na'wit gayu'yam itcla'nkb' idio'qt. 

Aga kxwo'pt cta 7 2xt. Aga kxwo'pt gali'kim isklu'lsyE : 

'Ag' anxklwa'ya." A'-u gatci'ux itc.'a'nk. Aga kxwo'pt 

25 gatcagE'lg' aq!e'wiqxe ; a-iLq!oa'2b 3 gatci'ux ige'wok 

ia'lqba. Aga kxwo'pt gaqxi'lud isklu'kyE. Kxwo'dau 

That is, without pity, with sinister thoughts. 

s myth is perhaps only an incident in a longer tale of Coyote as unsuc- 
l imitator of the host. Compare Farrand, Traditions of the Quinault Indians, 
pp. 8591, especially pp. 87, 88. 


For a long time they were there. And then the story 
got about, and (the people) said : " Oh ! there is much 
salmon and plenty of sturgeon and eels and blue-back 
salmon at the boy's." Now snow (had begun to fall) 
gently, gently. There was no food among the people ; 
the people were hungry. And then the people said : 
"Let us too go to the boy." Now then his paternal grand- 
mother and his maternal grandmother again went across 
the river first. And then (they got) close to the house. 
And then a great many people went across the river to 
the boy. 

Now then the boy turned his head and looked ; he saw 
the people crossing in a canoe in great numbers. And 
then he thought to himself: "It was not well thus (when) 
they abandoned me." Then, indeed, he caused an east 
wind to arise ; a strong east wind arose and there was 
snow. All died in the water, the people were drowned. 
Badly 1 the boy thought to himself: "Thus they did to 
me, they abandoned me." And again others went across 
the river. And them also he treated as before ; a strong 
wind blew, and snow arose. And again they died ; twice 
the people died. And only the two old women remained. 
Thus the myth. 


Coyote went on and on ; straightway he arrived at Deer's 
house. And then the two of them sat and sat. And 
then Coyote said: "Now I shall go home." "Yes," said 
Deer to him. And then he took a knife and just cut 
off a piece of meat from his body. And then it was 
given to Coyote. And he also stuck in a piece of wood 

3 a-i- denotes the ease with which the cutting was done ; the over-long a 
in Lqioa'ab implies the continuous slice-like character of the cut. 


icia'gEtcb' ikla'munaq galixElu'qlkwatck. Aga kxwo'pt 
gatigE'lb' tfia'gawulqt; pa'2* atli'wat. Aga kxwo'pt isk!u'- 
lEyE* gaqlHut. Aga kxwo'pt itq u lia'mt galixklwa'. 

Aga wit!a'2 gayu'y' isklu'lEyE-, na'wit aga wit!' itcla'nkba. 

5 Aga wi'tla Lqlu'p gatci'ux ige'wok ia'lqba ; wi't!a gaqi'lut 

ige'wok isklulEyE. Kxwo'dau wi't!a icia'gEtcb' ikla'munaq 

galixElu'qJkwatck ; galigE x lb' tfiaga'wulqt ; pa r 2l atli'wat. 

Aga wi'tla isklu'lEyE gaqlilut. Aga kxwo'pt gatciu'lxam 

itcla'nk isklu'lEyE: "Cma'ni pu waT agmu'xwa p' amdi'a 

10 naika'ba." A'-u gali'xux isklu'lsyE. Aga kxwo'pt gali'kim 

isklu'lEyE ia'xtlax: "Itlu'ktix amdi'a na'ikaba ma'itlax." 

A'-u gatci'ux: "Ag' anu'ya na'itia isklulyEb' idmi'ql-," 

qe'dau gatciu^xam. 

Aga kxwo'pt gayu'y' itc!a x nk iskiu'lyab' idio'qt ya x xt!a ; 
15 na'wit gayu^am. Aga kxw6 x ba p!a 7 la gayi/la-it itc!a 7 nk. 
Aga kxwo^t galixk/xwa-it isk!u x lEyE: "Aga ya x xt!ax 
ige'wok anilu'd' itda'nk tslu'nus." Aga kxwo'pt gatca- 
gE x lg' a 7 gikal gatcaxi'matcu wi x lxba. Aga kxw6 7 pt Lq!u x p 
gatcu'xwa; kxwo'pt gacaxElqi x Lx agagilak. Kxwopt gats- 
20 su'bsn' itda'nk; kxwo'pt gatci'ulxam : "Pial' ax' aga- 
gi r lak. Na x ik' aya'mElud' ige'wok." Aga kxw6 7 pt a-i- 
Lq!oa x b gatcfux ige x wok ia 7 lqba ; kxwopt gaqxi'cElut ige'- 
wok isk!u 7 lEyE aya'gikal. Kxw6 7 dau ilga'wulqt icia'gEtc- 
iamt gatclu r x ; gatcltcElirt ilgaVulqt isklu^EyE aya x gikal. 
25 Aga kxwo'pt gali x xk!w' itcla'nk idio'qliamt. Aga kxwo'pt 
gatccu'lxam : "Cma^i pu waT agEmd^xwa p' amd^ya 
na x ikaba. w 

Kxwo'pt gagiu'lxam agagi'lak : "Imikla^El' isklidEyE. 
Na x cqxi na'it!' itc!a x nk. Ya'xtau si'klElutk itda'nk; ka x - 
30 nauwe can lu'qx algiu'xwa ia^ewok. Na^qxi na'ik' it!u r kt' 
itcge'wok. Da'ukwa ma'ik' isklu'kyE mxlu'idEt, mgoa^ilx 
isklu'lEyE- na x qxi pu can lu'qx algiu'xw' imige'wok. Qe r - 
dau alugwagi'm' idE'lxam, 'Hme'mEluct ia'lxlEm isklu'lEyE.'" 


into his nose. And then his blood flowed out; the bucket 
was full. And then it was given to Coyote. Now then 
he went home to the house. 

Now once more Coyote went, and again (came) straight 
to Deer. And again he cut off a piece of meat from 
his body; again the meat was given to Coyote. And 
again he stuck in a piece of wood into his nose ; his 
blood flowed out ; the bucket was full. And again it was 
given to Coyote. And then Deer said to Coyote: "If 
ever you should be hungry, you should come to me." 
Coyote assented. And then Coyote, on his part, said: 
"It is well that you, on your part, should come to me." 
He said "yes" to him: "I, on my part, shall go to your, 
Coyote's, house." Thus he spoke to him. 

And then Deer, in turn, went to Coyote's house ; straight- 
way he arrived. Now there Deer was sitting quietly. And 
then Coyote thought to himself: "Now I, in turn, shall 
give a little meat to Deer." So then he seized his wife 
and laid her down on the ground. And then he cut her, 
whereat the woman burst into tears. Then Deer jumped 
up and said to him : " Let the woman alone. I shall 
give you meat." So then he just cut off a piece of meat 
from his body ; then the meat was given to Coyote and 
his wife. And he caused blood to come out of his nose 
and gave the blood to Coyote and his wife. And then 
Deer started off home to his house. And then he said 
to the two : " If ever you two should be hungry, you 
should go to me." 

Then the woman said to (Coyote): "You are wicked, 
Coyote. I am not Deer. Look at that Deer; everyone 
will swallow his meat. My meat is not good. Likewise 
you, Coyote, are different; you, Coyote, are a person. 
No one would ever eat your meat. Thus people will 
say, 'Coyote is an eater of dead things." 1 


Ipli'cxac io'uxix isklu'lsyE. Aga kxwo'pt iatcgE'mEm 

gali'xux ipli'cxac. Aga kxwo'pt 'gatciu'lxam isklu'lEyE : 

"A'wi ag' aqxEmgi'la-ida. Aga'nuid anigE'lgay' idia'ge- 

wam; anigE'lgay' icka'lax, aniulxa'm' alimgi'la-ida." Aga 

5 kxwo'pt gatctu'lxam idE'lxam isklu'lEyE idak!ig6 r ug6u : u Ag' 

ayugwi x la-id' icka'lax." Aga kxwo'pt gatctgE'lg 1 iltcklwi'an. 

Aga kxwo'pt gatclilux iaqla'itsgElitb' ipli'cxac. Kxwopt 

a'ga gayugwi'la-it icka'lax. Aga kxwo'pt gali'kim icka x - 

lax: "K!a x y' iatcgE'mEm ia'lqba, sa x q u ia'-im' iawa'nba." 

10 Qucti'axa k x im' ilia'qlitcxa aya'qxucqxuc iawa'nb' ipli'cxac. 

Kxwopt gali'kim isklulsyE: "Ag' algiu'Ha La'xEnix- 
itcu x x w ix, alixu'nudama." Aga kxwo'pt gatclu'lxam : "Ka 7 - 
nauwi e x wi amcgiubu'natcgwa ; amcgigE x lg' iapi^tcba." Aga 
kxwo'pt gaqiu'kctpa. Aga kxwo'pt gatdgE'lga ; tclu'x 
15 gatcli'xux iltcklwi'an. Aga kxwo'pt gala-ixElqxu'cqxuc i- 
pli'cxac. Aga kxwo'pt sa x q u galuxwo'La-it idakla'itsax 
it$tc!a x nk. Aga kxw6 7 pt isklu^EyE gayu x pga. Aga kxwo'pt 
l x wi Iwi gatctu x x it$tc!a r nk idak!a x itsax. Adapxl^umax ga- 
tcu'gwig' isklu^EyE sa x q u ; gatcu x gwig' ipi^cxac sa x q u tkLte'li- 
20 yuxt. Aga kxwo^t gatcit/lxam isklu^EyE : "Daukw' a x ga 
ma'ik' ip!i r cxac ilmiqleyo^tikc k!a 7 y' ila^laxc ipxl^u. 
Na x ik' isklu^EyE ilkql^yoqtikc ila^xlEtn ipxl^u." 

Aga kxw6 x pt wi x t!a gactu x ia-it; plala gatcxE'lEmux it- 

ge'wok. Ag' ia'lqdix- gactirta-it. Aga wi x t!a iatcgE'mEm 

25 gali'xux ipli'cxac. Aga wi x t!a gatctulxa^am isklu^EyE 

idE'lxam it^tcla'nk idaga 7 ilax. Wi x t!a da r ukwa gacx^x. 

Aga wi r t!a iatcgE x mEm gali^xux ipl^cxac. Aga wi x t!a gatc- 

1 Compare Boas, Kathlamet Texts, pp. 79-89, where ip'.e'cxac ( Wishram 
ipli'cxac) is translated as "badger." The Kathlamet story, however, would seem 
to apply better to the skunk than to the badger; and it is possible, as confidently 



There were Coyote and his younger brother Skunk. 
Now then Skunk got sick. And then Coyote said to 
him: "Brother, now you will be doctored. Surely, I 1 
shall get a medicine-man ; I shall get Raven, I shall tell 
him and he will doctor you." And then Coyote told the 
people (who were to act as) drummers to beat time : 
"Now Raven is going to doctor." And then he got some 
pitch and stuck it up into Skunk's rectum. Then indeed 
Raven doctored. And then Raven said: "He is not 
sick in his body, it is all in his belly alone." In truth, 
Skunk had only excrement and discharges of wind in 
his belly. 

Then Coyote said: "Now let us take my younger 
brother outside, he will go to urinate." And then he said 
to them: "All of you will go and slowly lift him up, 
you will take hold of him by his anus." So then he was 
carried out. And then (Coyote) took hold of the (pitch) 
he pulled out the pitch from him. And then Skunk 
discharged wind. And then the small deer all died. Now 
then Coyote went out. And then he closely examined 
the little deer. Coyote took all the fat ones, Skunk took 
all the lean ones. And then Coyote said to him : "Just 
so, indeed, your ancestors, O skunk, were" not fond of fat; 
my, Coyote's, ancestors were eaters of fat." 

And then the two of them lived together again ; the 
pieces of meat they ate in quiet. Now they lived to- 
gether for a long time. And again Skunk got sick. And 
again Coyote went to tell the people, the big deer. Again 
the two of them did as before. And again Skunk got 
sick. And again Coyote went to tell the people, the 

affirmed by my interpreter, that there is here an error on the part of the Kathlamet 
informant. Skunk is ap'.e'sxas in Kathlamet. 


tulxa'mam isklu'lEyE idE'lxam icpuxyati'nmax. Wi't!a 
da'ukwa gacxu'x. Aga wi'tla iatcgE'mEm gali'xux ipli'c- 
xac. Aga wi'tla gatctulxa'mam isklu'lEyE idE'lxam itkxa'- 
qwiq. Aga wi'tla da'ukwa gacxu'x. 

5 HagwE'nEmix- ipli'cxac iatcgE'mEm gali'xux. Kxwopt 
a x ga gatciu'lxam isklulsyE imu'lagEmax : "Amcu'y', ayu- 
gwHa-id' idia'gewam, go'u gou amcxu'xwa." Aga kxwo'pt 
gayu'y' imu'lagEmax idio'qliamt isklulsyE. Kxwo'pt a x ga 
gatctflux ihcklwi'an io'uxix iakla'itsgElitba. Aga kxwo'pt 
10 gayuxwila-it imulagEmax. Aga kxwo'pt gayugwi x la-it 
icka'lax. Aga kxwo^t gou go'u gali'xux imu'lagEmax. 
Qxe'dau galigla'lamtck icka'lax : 

"A'i-ma wa' - tckti al-gix- ta'- xa Lla'k wa- gwa'- li^ai'-ma 





wa'- tckti al - gix - ta'- xa cu' 

Aga kxw6 x pt gal^kiin isklulEyE: "Ag' algiukctba x ya 
itcu'x^x* ag' alix^nudama." Aga kxw6 x pt gatc^gElg' 
ip!i x cxac imu^agEmax ; gaqi'ukctba La x xEnix'. Aga kxwo^t 
ya x niwad isklu'lEyE ca'xalix* La^Enix* gal^xux. 3 Aga 
kxwo^t gatcigs'lg' io^xix* i^ x nalxatba. Kxwopt ka x nauwe 
20 gaqigE x lga; gaqiubu'natck ipli'cxac. Kxwopt dadakda'k 
gatdi'xux isk!u x lEyE iltcklwi'an. Aga kxw6 x pt gatcluwa- 
qli'tcxa, gala-ixElqxu'cqxuc. Gatssubsna'yu imu'lagEmax ; 
da'kdak gatcu'xwa watcE'lx; sa x q u gayu'ba. K!a x ya dan 

Wi'tla gatctu'lxamam isk!u x lEyE ids^xam itq u ctxi / Lawa. 3 
Aga gaqi'ulxam : "Na'cqx 1 antcu'ya." -- "Qucti'axa na'qx' 
itlu'kti cki'xax isklu'lEyE k!ma ipli'cxac; cma^i wi'tla ali- 
di x mama isklulEyE aga na'qx' alxu'ya," gali'kim yaga'il 

These two words seem to have no assignable significance. Raven means that 
Skunk has nothing the matter with him, except that his belly is all filled up 
with grass. Cu' cu' cu' is whispered. 


antelopes. Again the two of them did as before. And 
again Skunk got sick. And again Coyote went to tell 
the people, the wild mountain-sheep. And again the 
two of them did as before. 

For the fifth time Skunk got sick. So then Coyote 
said to the elks: "You people shall go, the medicine-man 
will doctor, you shall drum." And then the elks went 
to Coyote's house. Then, indeed, he put some pitch up 
into his younger brother's rectum. And then the elks 
sat down. Now then Raven doctored. And then the 
elks drummed. Thus Raven sang: "Only grass is filled 
into (his belly), iJak wagwa/li , l only grass is filled into 
(his belly), cu' cu' cu'." 1 

And then Coyote said: "Now let us carry out my 
younger brother, and he will go and urinate." And then 
the elks took hold of Skunk and he was carried outside. 
Now then Coyote was first on top, 3 outside of the house. 
And then he took hold of his younger brother by his 
head-hair. Then he was taken hold of (by) all , Skunk 
was lifted up. Then Coyote removed the pitch from him. 
And then he defecated and discharged wind. The elks 
all jumped off, cleared the underground lodge, and all 
went out. None of them died. 

Again Coyote went to tell the people, the large deer. 8 
But he was told: "We will not go." -"Truly, Coyote 
and Skunk are not good. If Coyote comes again, then 
we shall not go," said the big deer. Then Coyote said : 

2 The exit to Coyote's house (watcE'lx, "underground lodge, cellar") is here 
implied to have been by way of the roof. 

3 Itq ll ctxi'Lawa properly means deer and other kinds of big game. 

itcla'nk. Aga gali'kim isk.'u'lEyE: "Ag' amcu'ya ; wi'tlax 
go'u gou amcxu'xwama ; iatcgE'mEm itcu'x^x- igi'xux." 
Kxwopt gafgiu'lxam iskiu'lEyE : "Kla'y' ag' antcu'ya." Aga 
wi'tla iwa't gayu'ya icpuxyati'nmax. Gatch/lxam : "Ag' 

5 amcu'ya; wi'tlax go'u gou amcxu'xwama ; iatcgE'mEin 
itcu x x w ix' igi x xux. w Gaigiu'lxam : "Kla'y' ag' antcu'ya." 
Aga wi x t!a iwa't gayu'ya itkxa'qwiq. Wi'tia da'ukwa ga- 
li'xux. Aga wi'tia iwa x t gayu 7 ya imu^agEmax. Wi'tla 
daukwa gali'xux. KIwa'c galu'xwax idE'lxam ; kla'ya can 

10 gah/ya. 


Iq!a x lalEc ayak!i 7 c. Aga kxw6 x pt gatcu'xtg' agu^ul. 
Aga kxwo'pt galu r y' ayak!i x c iklwa^atba. Aga kxwo^pt 
gagugwa^lEmam agulul a x xt!a; galu^am ; k!a x y' agu'lul 
ik!wa x yatba. Aga kxwo^t galu x y' itq^ia^t. Aga kxwo'pt 
15 gagiugwHx aya r k!ic ia x gitcba ; kxw6 x dau wi x t!a mank ca'- 
xalix* ia^itcba gagiugwilx ; kxwo x dau wKt!' ayacqu r ba 
gagiugwHx ; a r ga gagiugw^lx aya x itcba mo'kctix*. 


Cdu'xt iqla'lalEc ayaldic aqle'yuqt. Kwapt tcagwa'-ix 

kwapt ackdu'xulal itgu'lul. Ani'x aga qlfi'm qlsm nixu'- 

20 xwax iqla'lalEc qxEdumi'tcklinan ; aga La'x gagiu'xwax. 

Aga kwo'pt iklEma'kan gatci'uxwax a'-ima ak!alala x x u takc 

gatcu'xwa. Ya'xtlax kfnwa agiulxa'ma: "A'-ima atlu'k- 

short text is merely a fragmentary version of the myth that next follows, 
supplements the latter, however, by the somewhat more detailed explanation 


"Now you people shall go; again you shall go and drum. 
My younger brother has become sick." Then they said to 
Coyote: "We shall not go now." Then he went off 
again to the antelopes. He said to them : " Now you 
people shall go ; again you shall go and drum. My 
younger brother has become sick." They said to him : 
"We shall not go now." Then he went off again to the 
big-horn sheep. Again his experience was as before. 
Then he went off again to the elks. Again his experience 
was as before. The people had become afraid ; none of 
them went. 


There were Raccoon and his paternal grandmother. 
And then he stole the acorns. Now then his paternal 
grandmother went to the cache. And then she too went 
to get acorns. She arrived ; there were no acorns in the 
cache. And then she went to the house. And then his 
paternal grandmother whipped him on his nose ; and again 
she whipped him on his nose a little above ; and again 
she whipped him on his forehead ; then she whipped him 
twice on his tail. 


Raccoon and his paternal grandmother, an old woman, 
were living together. Whenever it was summer, then 
they used to gather acorns. Now finally Raccoon got to 
be lazy in picking them , the sun made him (so). And 
then he became angry ; he gathered only acorns with 
worm-holes. She used to tell him too, but in vain : 

it gives of the markings of the raccoon. With both versions cf. Boas, Kathlamet 
Texts, pp. 142-154- 


timax amitckli'nanimtck." "Kla'ya!" Aga iklEma'kan 

wao'u gatci'ux; aga k.'a'ya gatcumi'tckli. 

TcaxE'lqftx galixu'xwix. Kwopt wa'lu gagi'ux. Ya'xi 
yuxt bd'liu; ga'n yuxt k.'a'ya qxa'ngi "wa'wa. Kwopt 
5 aya'k!ic gagiu'lxam : "Qxa'ngiska g^n muxt, ga x ya? 
Walu tci gmuxt?" A-i gatcu'x. "Da'n au aya'mluda?" 
Iwa'dan gagixni^a kl x nwa. "K.'a^a!" Kwopt gagiu 7 !- 
xam: "Qxa'ngi pu iya'mlut agulul?" "AM, ak!i x c, 
ama^luda." Gagii/lxam : "Amu^a itxaklwa^atamt." 
10 "AM" gatcu x xwa. GatcagE 7 lgax acda x k!walq ; kw6 7 pt ga- 
yu x ix icdakiwa^atamt, gatc^gwalmam agulul. Gw^nma 
icdak!wa x yat. Gayu'yam. Kwopt iJa'g gatcu'xwax a x -ixt 
a r niwad ; naVid galixE^mux a x niwat sa x q u . 

Wi'tlax a'-ixt L.'a'g gatcu'xwa; galixE'lmux galixE'lmux 
15 wi'tla sa'q u ; a'-ima aqla'ptcxaq kwo'dau aklalalaVtakc 
tca'xgwilxl; sa'q u gatcu'Lxum. Gatcdalqle'latcu itqla'p- 
tcxaqukc kwo'dau itkla'lalax^akc wi'tla iklwa'yatamt. Wi'- 
t!ax a'-ixt L!a'g gatcu'xwa alalu'n aga ya'xdau Lla'g ga- 
tcu'x. Wi'tia da'uka mEq niE'q galixE'lmux, dasaq u sa'q u 
20 gatcu'Lxum. Wi'tla da'uka gatcalqle'latcu aq!a'ptcxaq 
kwo'dau ak.'alalaVtakc. Alala'kt L.'a'g gatcu'x. Kwopt 
galglu'ma ilgwa'lilx : "Kla'lalac iklu'xtgalal ! VE!" Ga- 
lixElwi'tcatk ; mank wi'tlax galixE'ltcmoq da'ukwa : "K!a x - 
lalac ik.'u'xtgalal ; w kwo'dau tla'ya gasi'xlutk. 


Aga gatcagE'lgElx at.'a'ntsa a-igi'dit. Gatculxam : 

^Kla'ya! Na x qxi ngu'xtgElal; ignulxam agttdic; kwopt 

AkgwE x nma L!a x g gatcu'xwa. Kwopt gatca'gElxim : 

"Mti ma x it!a." Aga gala-igElu'ya ; qlwa'p gagi'ux. Ga- 

' Aga kwo'ba Iqla'p ; na'qxi anwi'd iklwa'yatba 


"Keep picking only the good ones!" "No!" And he 
got angrier than ever and picked none at all. 

Winter came on and he was hungry. Yonder he sits 
back in the house ; silent he sits, saying nothing. Then 
his paternal grandmother said to him : " Wherefore do 
you sit silent, grandson? Are you hungry?" -"Yes," he 
answered her. "What, pray, shall I give you?" She 
showed him all sorts of things, but to no purpose. "No!" 
(he said.) Then she said to him: "How would it be if 
I gave you acorns?"- -"Yes, grandmother, you shall give 
them to me." She said to him: "You shall go to our 
cache." "Yes," he said to her. He took their basket 
and went on to their cache ; he went to get acorns. They 
had five caches. He arrived there. Then he uncovered 
one of them, the first; immediately he ate up all (there 
was in) the first. 

Again he uncovered one of them ; again he ate and 
ate all there was. Only the shells and the worm-eaten 
acorns he always threw away. He ate up everything. 
The shells and worm-eaten acorns he swept back down 
into the cache. Again he uncovered one, the third ; also 
that he uncovered. Again, as before, he chewed and 
ate, ate up every bit of the (acorns). Again, as before, 
he swept the shells and worm-eaten acorns down into the 
(cache). He uncovered the fourth. Then a certain per- 
son shouted: "Raccoon is stealing! ho!" He listened. 
After a short while he heard (him shout) again, as be- 
fore : "Raccoon is stealing!" and he looked carefully. 

Then he caught sight of Crow coming towards him. 
He said to her:' "No! I am not stealing. My paternal 
grandmother told me (to get acorns), that's why I came." 
He uncovered the fifth (cache). Then he called her: "Do 
you too come !" So she went up to him, approached him. 
He said to her : " Now there (you have come) far enough ; 


qlwa'p amdi'a. Aic yaxi'mt ayamgEtta'dnihna." A'-i ga- 
gi'ux. Aga kwo'pt galixE'lmux ; a'xka itcakla'mEla a'xka 
tcagElla'dntf ; a'xka agakla'lala^takc iwa'tka L!a'x u atcu- 
fa'daya. Aga qxi'dau galacxE^mux. Kwopt gatcu^xam : 
a K!a x ya ma'nix amnu'xwa." A'-i gagi'ux. Wi'tla da x uka 
gatcalq!e x latcu aq!a 7 ptcxaq; qxaVat waba x na galaMxux, 
a^xka gatca x lkitk. 

Gali^k.'wa. Aga ia^qdix kwoMau a x xt!a galu^ya aya x k!ic 
icdak!wa'yatamt. Galu^am. L!a x g gagi x ux. Adi x a^ima 

10 aqla'ptcxaq kwo'dau aklalalaVtakc. A'-ixtba da'uka. 
KanEmgw^nma da x uka L.'^g. Gala^klwax. Gal^yam ; 
k!a 7 ya iq!a x lalEc. Qxuct a'ng-adix gali'xpcut aba'xEtba. 
GagigE r lgax da x uya yuxt k!a x dc tcianxa^awunxt aya x k!ic. 
Gagi x gElga ikla^unoq ; gagrugwilx ia x gitcba. GacixE x l- 

15 qxit; gali'kta, gayu'gaba. Wi'tJax gagiu'gwelx ; aga da'uka 
qxida x u gagiugwe^ilxl. Gagi x uwa saq u gayugwa^am , 
gagiu'gwelx ks'mkit aya'itcba. Ya'xdau qxi'dau da'uya 
wi'gwa iqlalalEc tel M iage'kau, kwo'ba ya'xdau qxi'dau 

20 Kwopt yaxka'ba gali'kim iqlalalsc : "Aga anu'ya da 7 - 
minwa; kla'ya wi x t!ax agEngElgEla'ya agi'klic." Kwopt 
gali'ktcax. Qxi'dau gali'kim : "La'p Lap 1 igi'nux agl'kllc. 
La x p Lap igl'nux agl'k.'lc." Aga qxida'u gayu'ya. La r x 
gayugwa'qxwam idE'lxam uxwa'qxt uxwa'cgEnil wakla'lkal. 

25 Gatgiu'lxam: "Amtfa ;" gatgigiluma. K!a x ya gatctu'kct ; 
na'wit gayu'ya yuqxwE'lqt. "Ha ha ha x ," galuxwakla'ya- 
wulalEmtck, "ga'nwitca iqlalakc nigi'katxtk ; ya'xdau qxi x - 

1 La'p Lap is said to mean "whip" in the myth language of Raccoon. 


do not come right up to the cache. I'll just throw you 
(acorns) from a distance."- -"Yes," she said to him. And 
then he ate ; those which were bad, those he always 
threw to her. Those that were worm-eaten he would 
throw in her direction. And thus the two of them ate. 
Then he said to her: "Don't you tell on me." - - "Yes," 
she said to him. Again, as before, he swept the shells 
down into the (cache). A few of his (acorns) were left 
over ; those he packed into the (cache). 

He went home. Then a long time (elapsed), and his 
paternal grandmother also went to their cache. She ar- 
rived there. She uncovered it. Alas ! there were only 
shells and worm-eaten acorns. Similarly in another one. 
Similarly all five were uncovered. She went home. She 
arrived there. Raccoon was nowhere to be seen. In 
truth, he had already concealed himself in the rear of the 
house. She seized him here, where he was sitting, looking 
up smilingly at his paternal grandmother. She took hold 
of a stick and whipped him on his nose. He cried, ran 
off, ran out of the house. Once more she whipped him, 
and, as before, she thus kept whipping him. She fol- 
lowed him, and at last he got quite outside , she whipped 
him at the tip of his tail. That is why to-day Raccoon's 
back is black in places it is thus wherever she whipped 

Then Raccoon said to himself: "Now I shall go away 
for good ; never again shall my paternal grandmother see 
me." Then he cried. Thus he said: "My paternal 
grandmother whipped me !" And thus he went on. He 
approached people (who) were assembled together, gam- 
bling at shinny. They said to him: "You shall come-," 
they shouted to him. He did not look at them at all ; 
he went straight ahead, wailing. "Ha, ha, ha!" they all 
laughed, "oh, yes! Raccoon has been stealing, that is why 

dau yuqxwE'lqt." Gali'kim wi'tlax: "La'p Lap igl'nux 
agl'nux agl'k.'ic. La'p Lap igl'nux agl'kllc. Emca'dEnux 
k.'wa'fa mckl'xax klma'dsnux na'ya La'p Lap igl'nux 

5 Na'wit gayu'ya. Wi'tla La'x gali'xux ; adl' wao'u ids'l- 
xam i^ga^Elat. Wi x t!ax da x ukwa gatgignuma : "Amtfa." 
Wi x t!a da x ukwa gali^im: "L^p Lap igfnux agfkllc. La 7 p 
Lap igfnux agl'kllc/ " Ha ha ha 7 ! iq!a 7 lalEc nigi x katxtk , 
nigi'twaq aya^Iic," gatgiugwa^imtcgwax idElxam. Wi x t!a 
10 da x ukwa gal^kim : a EmcaMEnux k!wa x i:a mckfxax k!ma x - 
dEnux na x ya La x p Lap igfnux agfkilc." 

Aga mank ya x xi gayuxwaLa 7 gwa. Gayu'ya na x wit 
gayugwa^wamx itkla^unoq ka x nawi dan yuk!wa x nxat 
ilxElEm. Kwo'ba gayu x la-it aga ga 7 n nixu'xwax sqxi'Lak. 

15 Kwopt gayaklaLxiVulx aslaVaitk 1 agakla^unoq ; kwopt 
gala-ixp/lmux asla x waitk. 

Aga a^t.'ax aya r k!ic qlE'ctu galaxu 7 xwax ; galaxh/xwa-it: 
a Luxwa x n da^bamat qxi 7 dau nini x txa itcgi x yEn ; aga anyu- 
na'xLama." Kwo'pt galaxEltxwitck. Aga kwo'pt galu'ya. 

20 Galaktca'xmax : "A x na witcigi'ysn Ga'iya witciglysn! 3 
Da'ngiya'bama La x p Lap - - Ini^x witcigfyEn. Gatcw^q- 
wax aqle'xcap - - Ama'ltoq ganu'xwax Da'uka itgak!u x - 
k!u. Ga'iya witcigfysn ! Gatcanlu'klamx aqle'xcap 
Amaltoq ganu'xwax Iwa'tka itgaklu'klu." 3 

25 Yu'gwaxt iqla'lalEc a-ixilax asla'waitk. Kwopt i x wi ga- 
li'xux -, gatcagE'lkEl a x dit. Plala gayugwala-it ga x n. Htsli'- 
nun alugwa'ya dE / m+, alaglu'maya : " Ma'ika tci 8 ga'ya ?" 

Species uncertain. In the corresponding Kathlamet myth the word aszla'wa 
is translated "haws." 

: is customary in VVishram, when apostrophizing a relative, as in mourning, 
to use both the non-pronominal vocative and the 1st per. sing. poss. form of 


he is crying." Again he said: "My paternal grandmother 
whipped me ! My paternal grandmother whipped me ! 
You people, indeed, are happy, but as for me - - my 
paternal grandmother whipped me !" 

Straight on he went. Again he approached (some 
people) ; behold ! there were many people again. Again 
as before, they shouted to him : "You shall come." 
Again, as before, he said: "My paternal grandmother 
whipped me! My paternal grandmother whipped me!" 
"Ha, ha, ha! Raccoon has been stealing. His paternal 
grandmother killed him," the people made fun of him. 
Again, as before, he said : "You people, indeed, are happy, 
but as for me - - my paternal grandmother whipped me." 

Now he passed by them, a little farther ahead. He 
went straight on (until) he came to trees (on which) all 
sorts of food were growing. There he sat down and 
remained quiet for a short time. Then he climbed up 
on a berry 1 bush. Then he ate the berries. 

Now his paternal grandmother, for her part, became 
sad. She thought: "I don't know why I treated my 
grandson in that way ; now I shall go and look for him." 
Then she got ready to go. And then she went. She 
cried: "Oh, my grandson! grandson, my grandson! 2 I 
know not why I whipped my grandson. He killed a fawn ; 
a breech-clout I made of it, thus with its hoofs on. Grand- 
son, my grandson ! He brought me a fawn ; a breech- 
clout I made of it, just that way, with its hoofs on." 3 

Raccoon was perched on top, eating the berries. 
Then he turned to look, and saw her coming. Quietly 
he was sitting above, saying nothing. Whenever a bird 
flew, whirring its wings, she would shout: "Is that you, 

the noun (as if one were to say in English: "Papa, my father!"). Compare 
a'ca wagl'xan ("my daughter!") in the first song, p. 94. 

3 The exact rhythmical values of the syllables of this song are undetermined, 
as the myth was written down and forwarded by my interpreter. 


I'wi alaxu'xwax ; kla'ya tfgwa'iilx. Wi'tla uqxws'lqt. Ga- 
iixtu'xwa-it : "Aga wa'wa anu'xwa." Kwopt wi'tla galix- 
lu'xwa-it: "Kwa'tqxa na'qxi wa'w' ana'txax. Aic anu- 
wa'gwa." Kwopt wi'tlax nixhi'xwa-it : "Aic itlu'kdix 
5 anakxaluda'itcgwa." Aga gala-igu'gwamx ; gagiu'lxam : 
"Ma'ika tci 8 ga x ya? w Ga'n yugwa'xt , kla'ya qxa'ngi ga- 
tcu'lxam. Ki'nwatci gagiu'lxam : "Ma'ika ga'ya?" K!a r ya 
wa'wa gatcu r xwa. 

Kwopt gagiulxam: "Na x it!ax asla'wait." Kwopt k!wa't 

10 k!wat gatcu'xwax pa x L ilia^cEn; qxwa x L qxwaL gatcda 7 - 

luxwax waqxa x ts aslaVait. Gatculxam : " Ca x x u i x xa 

imi / k u cxat; na x ika ayamluMa." Kwopt da 7 ukwa galaxu 7 - 

xwax. GatcagE x Rada daqxwa x L itca / k u cxat. Nanqlwa^guxit-, 

ki x nwa gaglu^xam ihcqwa^ K!a x ya gayu x ya. Aga kwo'pt 

15 galaxcgHalEmtck. Kwopt ni x kta ki r nwa k!ma a^gadix 

aga axElu 7 idat na x xux ; m^nk aga dululu galu x kwa. 

Lgwap gali^tcax iqla^alsc ; ki x nwa gatcuValalEmtck ; 
ki x nwa atcagE'lgaya. DuMu alugwa^alma ; ki^watci 8 : 
"Akli'c aga mti" ; aga kla'ya wi'tlax qxi'dau ayamu'xwa ; 

20 aga atxklwa'ya." Ki'nwa gatc^walalEmtck aga a'-ic pE x s- 
pEsps 1 gala^ux; gala x xux acmuMmud aka x xdau Iqxuct 
aya'klic iqla'lalEc. Aga kwo'pt ya^ima ni 7 xux. Aga 
gayu'ya. NaVid galig^gwam isk!u x lyE. Aga gacdu'la-it 
cda'-ima. Kwopt gatciu'lxam : "K!a 7 ya ya'xi mia", dala- 

25 a'x lq!a x b atgEmu'xwa wala'lap 2 da'ngi ilakla'mElamax." 

Aga kwo'pt gayu'ya iqla'lalac wi't!a ; galigu'qwam 

1 A sound supposed to be characteristic of the pheasant. 

No explanation could be obtained of the meaning of wala'lap beyond the fact 
that it signifies some sort of mythical being. One of the old men of the tribe said 
that Coyote himself did not know what it was, but merely wished to excite Rac- 

grandson?" She would turn to look; it was not a person 
at all. Again she wails. He thought to himself: "Now 
I shall talk to her." Then again he thought: "Never 
mind ! I shall not talk to her. I shall just kill her." 
Then again he thought: "I shall just associate kindly 
with her." Now she reached him. She said to him : "Is 
that you, grandson ?" He is perched on top, saying nothing ; 
he said nothing at all to her. In vain she said to him : 
"Is that you, grandson?" He did not speak to her at all. 

Then she said to him: "(Let) me also (have) some 
berries !" Then he picked them .(until) his hand was full ; 
he stuck thorns into the berries. He said to her: "Open 
your mouth wide and I shall give you some." Then she 
did thus. He threw them at her so as to just fill her mouth. 
She choked ; she tried to tell him (to get) water, but in vain. 
He did not go (for it). And then she rolled about. Then 
he ran (after her), but in vain, as she had already become 
different. A short time elapsed and she flew: du'lulu. 

Raccoon burst out crying. He kept running after her, 
but in vain ; he would try to seize her, but without suc- 
cess. She would keep flying about : du'du. In vain (he 
called to her): "Grandmother, come now! Not again 
shall I do thus to you. Let us now go home." He kept 
following her about, but in vain ; now she just uttered : 
"PE'spEsps." 1 That same paternal grandmother of Rac- 
coon, in truth, had become Pheasant. So then he re- 
mained alone. Then he went on. Straightway he came 
to Coyote. Now they two lived together alone. Then 
(Coyote) said to him : " Do not go far away ; perhaps a 
l wala'lap' will meet you they are wicked beings." 2 

And then Raccoon went on again and came to Grizzly 

coon's curiosity so as to get a chance to waylay him, kill him, and eat him. Com- 
pare Boas, Kathlamet Texts, pp. 152-154, where the wa'LaxLax invented by Coyote 
evidently correspond to the Wishram wala'lap. The rest of the myth was given 
as a second instalment, and there is evidently a break in the narrative. 


iklwa'qwa. "Qxa'ngi gamxa'tx ya'xdau imiga'tcba 
"Gana'dla aksklu'tsian ; aga kwo'pt galanxi'tlagwa, kwopt 
wax gadanxi'tx itlasxu'ait kwo'dau ihi'nut." "Da'ukwa 
na'it.'a amnu'xwa, a'wi." - "Cma'ni au imiga'iLmxac yaxa 
5 dauka ayamu'xwa." Kwopt nikfm ik!wa r qwa : "Daukwa 
amnu'xwa." - - a A x -i," nikfm iq!a x lalac. Aga kwo'pt gac- 
gu r la ayaksk!u x tsian iklwa'qwa, sa'q u gacgu'la. Kwopt 
qlwul qlwul ga x cktux itlasxu^it. Kwopt galixxaMma 
ik!wa x qwa ; kwopt gatca-ila 7 gwa aksklu^sian iyaga^cba. 
10 Nawit wa 7 x gatcti x gux itlasxu^it k!ma ilu 7 nut. Kwopt 
gayugwo x ba, 

Kwopt gayuya r ; nawit isklu^iya galigu^wam. Kwopt 
gatcii/lxam : "Ik.'wa^wa tcE r ndwad, ina-ila^wa aksk!u x - 
tsian." Kwopt gatcii^pcut. Kwopt iskli/liyE gatcigE^ga 
15 itclHaq ; a-ifa/1-h gatci x ux iya^atcba. Kwopt lu r q! gateaux. 
Kwopt gala'-ixilupct iskiu'liyE, wax gatciu'gEmaxix ittcli'- 
laqukc. Vx gatctux, qxaiJa'lEt itqxadu'tinkc. 

Kwopt gatci r uwa; na x wit galigElda^cgwam 
Gatci'ulxam : "Na'qxi tci ilmgi'datcgwam ilkla'ckac, di'ka 

20 itcE'ntqxa ilgfnlux." - - "Tcli'tqxala tcIitqxalaV 1 isk.'u'liyE 
gali'kim. Wi'tla gatciugwa'mtcxugwa : a Na x qxi tci il- 
kla'ckac ilmgi'datcgwam ?" a Tc!i 7 tqxala tclitqxala 7 ." "Ha 
ha, kla'ya na x it!a itcdama'xul, awi." (Yaxa a'ngadix lu'q! 
gatci'ux itcli'laq ; a-ite'H- gatci'ux iyaga'tc iqlalalac diwi.) 

25 a Yamu'xulal, dala /8 Ex luq! intu'x anga'dix." "Tcla'niau, a'x 
mxux," gali'kim iklwa'qwa. Kwopt ax ni'xux isk!u x liyE 
galigE x lba ilgwalilx te'l ila'gatc. 

Kwopt ga'nwit gatclu'gwakqxL la'xka da'ula itgwalilx. 

1 This word is apparently quite meaningless. It is perhaps a humorous con- 
tortion of itc'.i'laq ("grasshopper"). 

Bear. "What did you do to yourself so as to be striped 
black on your nose?" "I sharpened an adze. And then 
I hit myself with it, then poured black pitch and urine 
on myself." "You shall do thus to me too, younger 

brother!" - "If indeed you are nervy, then I shall do thus 
to you." Then Grizzly-Bear said: "You shall do thus 
to me." - "All right," said Raccoon. And then the two 
of them sharpened Grizzly-Bear's adze, sharpened it per- 
fectly. Then they prepared the black pitch very hurriedly. 
Then Grizzly-Bear lay down ; then (Raccoon) hit him on 
the nose with the adze. Immediately he poured the black 
pitch and urine on him. Then he ran out and left him. 

Then he went on and on ; straightway he came to 
Coyote. Then he said to him : " Grizzly-Bear is following 
me, I hit him with an adze." Then he hid him. Then 
Coyote took a grasshopper and just made him black on 
his nose. Then he swallowed him. Then Coyote started a 
fire and made it blaze near the grasshoppers. He magically 
transformed them, (so that) they appeared to be children. 

Then (Grizzly-Bear) pursued him ; straightway he came 
upon Coyote. He said to him: "Did not a boy come 
upon you? He made a scar on me right here." "Tc!i't- 
qxala, tditqxala'," 1 said Coyote. Again he asked him: 
"Did not a boy come upon you?" "Tdi'tqxala, tditqxa- 
la'." "Ha, ha! I, for my part, do not speak Molale, 2 
younger brother!" (Indeed, (Coyote) had already swal- 
lowed the grasshopper; he had just made his nose black 
(to make him look) like Raccoon.) "I'll tell you, perhaps 
I swallowed him some time ago." "Let's see, then, vom- 
it!" said Grizzly-Bear. Then Coyote vomited; a person 
came out of him whose nose was black. 

Then, surely, he recognized this person as him. Then 

2 Molale is the western dialect of the Waiilatpuan stock. 


Kw6pt ni'kim ildwa'qwa: "Qxa'ngi aic ga'mxatx yaxdau 
imik.'a'itsEm!"- - "Cma'ni au imiga'iLmxac yaxa pu da'uka 
ma'itiax ayamu'xwa na'ika diwi."- - "Hi, da'ukwa aga na'itla 
amnu'xwa, awi." Aga kwo'pt gacdu'ya, ilk!a x lamat gac- 
5 kfa'xlama. Kwopt gayu'ya isk!u'liyE, Iqlu'p gatcu x xwa atci 7 ^- 
tcix. Kwopt Ixwa 7 p gatcu x xwa. Kwopt qxwa'L gala-i x xE- 
lux iyawa^ba. Aga kwo x pt gayu x ya, galixE'lgwitcu ilkla'- 
lamat ihcte'lt gwa'nEma a'xt axt. 

Gatciu^xam iklwa^wa: u Qxi x dau pu a x nxuxwa." Luq! 

10 lu x q! gatclux gwa'nma ilklalamat. Kw6 7 pt gatclu^wEmct 
iltcqwa'; lE'b \Eb galxux iyawa 7 nba. Gali x xux gua x t guat. 
Kwopt galigla^amtck : "Itcmu^a mu^a." Kwopt gatci- 
u'lxam iya^xt: "Qxi'dau ganxatx itsmala^umit kwodau 
itskla'itsEm/ Gali'kim ik!wa x qwa : "Da'ukwa amnu'xwa, 

15 a'wi." Gali'kim isk!u x lyE : "Cma^i au imiga'iLEmxEtck 
yaxa da r ukwa ayamu^wa." Gayu x txwit isk!u x lyE ; dawa r x 
galxi^Elwaba ilkla^amat iyadu 7 duba. Kwo r pt aga gayu x - 
la-it ik!wa r qwa; gatciu^xam : "K.^p Emxux." Kwopt 
gatdilgwi'tcu ilkla'lamat; sa'q 11 gatci'lgalqx iya'wan. Ga- 

20 yumqxa'tEmtck ; gatci'ulxamnintck : "Emki'm ma x it!a, 
'Ma'la ma'la' na'ika diwi ganxtgimni'nxL." Gay^mEqt ; 
cu x x gatci'xux; kwopt galixE'lmux. 


Icta'mx aya'gikal ma'la gduxt i'tqxuK. Aga kwo'pt 

gahi'ya wa'tckti. Aga Lq.'o'pLqlop guxt. Kwopt gagi- 

25 xi'ma itca'xan; aga ya'xi gala'-igsluqxl, guxt Lq!6 x pLq!6p 

wa'tckti. Aga gakla'kuLqx; kwopt na-iglu 7 ya itcaxa'n. 

1 This myth was taken down in phonetic Wishram and forwarded with inter- 
linear translation by Pete McGuff, the original source being an old Indian woman 
named AnEwi'kus. Despite several attempts to get the whole myth in its com- 

Grizzly-Bear said: "Just what did you do to yourself, 
that you are thus small?" "If, indeed, you are nervy, 
then I could do thus to you too, just like me." "Surely, 
you shall now do thus to me too, younger brother!" And 
then the two of them went and heated some stones. Then 
Coyote went and cut off an elder-bush limb. Then he 
bored it all through and hung it inside of himself in his 
belly. And then he went and threw down five hot rocks 
into himself, one by one. 

Grizzly-Bear said to him: "Thus I should like to do." 
(Coyote) swallowed five rocks one after another. Then 
he drank water and they boiled in his belly. He rubbed 
himself. Then he sang: "I am clean, clean." Then he 
said to his elder brother : " In this way I became clean 
and small." Grizzly-Bear said: "Thus you shall do to 
me, younger brother!" Coyote said: "If, indeed, you 
are nervy, then I shall do thus to you." Coyote stood 
up and the rocks just went pouring out of him from his 
tube. And then Grizzly-Bear sat down. (Coyote) said 
to him: "Shut your eyes." Then he dropped the rocks 
down into him. His belly all burned up. He began 
to die. (Coyote) kept telling him: "Do you too say, 
'Clean, clean,' just as I kept saying." He died. He took 
off his skin from him; then he ate him. 


The chiefs wife is cleaning up the house. And then 
they went to get grass and she cuts it. Then she laid 
her child down and went off far away from him, (while) 
she is cutting the grass. Now she finished (her work) 

plete form, it had to be left unfinished as here given. It is evidently a variant 
of the Kathlamet "Myth of Aqlasxe'nasxena" (see Boas, "Kathlamet Texts," 
pp. 919), 

1 66 

Galu'yam; kla'ya itca'xan, yaima da'ngi gagigE'lkfil idia'- 
qxat di'xtka ickla'li diwi datcli'p itcaxa'nba ixadi'mat. 
Kl'nwa galgi'unaxhck. K!a'ya. Aga kwo'pt galxklwa'yu. 
Aga kwo'pt tla'ya gatgi'a itka'lukc, gatkdu'kl itgaga'matcx. 
Wft!a da x uka gafgi/giga itqxa't da'ima da'ukwa wi r t!a 
datcll'p ickla'li diwi. Aga kwo'pt gahcda'gwa, galu'yam. 
Galki'm: "Kla'ya ik.'a'ckac." Aga kwo x pt ka'nawi idv'l- 
xam galuxinrmtck. 

Qu'ct yaxa a x xdau Atlatla'iiya 1 gag^ux^tk. Gagi'ukl 

10 nawit itca'qxuqba bama li/q!. Aga kw6 x pt wi x t!a tq!i x x 

gagi x ux, aga aic gagiumda'mit bama a'xka. Aga alu x ya 

akdu'laba itlalftsyauks kwo x dau itqwa x dEdukc dan agalE^- 

gwa, akdu x kla. Lu x x u akdu x xwa, atgE x ksta saitla'mEl- 

tta^El. Aga kw6 7 pt adixE'lmuxma. Aga ku x ldix gayi/mt, 

15 iya'gaiL ni'xux. Aklulxa^a itca'qxuq: " Imca^x^x." 

Aga gatdgE'lkEl ilxElu'idEd, tfa^qx ixlu^dsd yaxa ya r x , 

iya x lqx ilgwa'lilx diwi, la^itc ila^qx datc!i r p iyakirnulmax. 

Kwopt nixlu x xwa-it : "Qxa'ngi Iga qxi x dau?" A-ila'x 

iki'xax. K!ma da'minwa giu x xulal itca'xan aga ya x xt!ax 

20 tcagE'mluxan ; qxa'ngi algiu x xwa itca'qxuq tq!i'x agiu'xwa, 

aklulxa'ma : "Imca'uxix." 

Aga da'nmax gatcdu'dina, ittsl^nunks da'nmax idiaga 7 - 

matcx Engi. Da'minwa agiulxa'ma : a Na x qxi iwa't iwa 

galu'ix." 2 Yaxa da'minwa ixqlwa'lal aga dan atciwa'gwa 

25 itc!a x nk. Aga kwo'pt nixlu'xwa-it : "Da'nba Iga gagnul- 

Compare pp. 3539 and footnote on p. 34. Pete writes in regard to this mythi- 
cal being that she u is supposed to be a kind of a person^ but much larger than 

i6 7 

and went to her child. She arrived there. Her child 
was not to be seen ; only something she saw, a single 
track, striped like a basket, where her child had lain. 
They sought to find him, but in vain. He was not to 
be seen. And then they all went home. Now then the 
men went (to search) more carefully, took their arrows 
along. Again as before they found only a track, again 
as before striped like a basket. So then they turned back 
and arrived home. They said: "There is no boy." And 
then all the people mourned. 

Now in truth it was that Atlatla'liya 1 who had stolen 
him. She took him straight to her children for eating. 
But then again she liked him and just raised him for 
herself. Now she used to go to dig up black snakes and 
frogs, or toads, and took them home with her. She used 
to roast them, and when tender, they were done. And 
then he used to eat them. Now he grew up quickly and 
became big. She used to say to her children: "He is 
your younger brother." Now he saw that they looked 
different (from himself), their flesh looked different from 
his own ; his flesh was like a human being's, as for them 
their flesh was marked in stripes. Then he thought 
to himself: "Why, perchance, is it thus?" He is puz- 
zled. But ever she speaks of him as her son, and he, for 
his part, thinks much of her. Whatever her children 
would do to him, she would take his part ; she would 
say to them: "He is your younger brother." 

Now he killed various (animals), various birds with his 
arrows. Always she would say to him: "Do not go off 
in that direction." Now he is always hunting, and even 
kills a deer. And then he thought: "Why, perchance, 

an ordinary person. No one to-day can give the exact description, nor anyone 
ever saw one." 

2 Gatu'ix means "they went." One would rather expect amu'ya ("you shall go"). 


xa'mnil, l K!a'ya amu'ya iwa't iwa'?" Kwopt nixhi'xwa-it : 
a Aga iwa'tka anu'ya." Aga iwa'tka gayu'ya. lyakla'i- 
tsEm wi'xat gali'gugwam, kwo'ba daya ikla'munak ixi'mat. 
Qwob nikk!a'lagwa pu. kwopt ca'xsl nixux ; nixLa'gwa pu, 
5 wi'tla kwo'ba da'uya. Kwopt nigu'txwit, daLla'k nixux. 

tf A^nanana," galxi/x ilgwa^ilx. "Na^ka Iga gani^xtga 
k!rrT aga L!a x k itci x ux itcqw^t k!ma yaxa pu 
lya'waq itcqwrt, ikla^amgwadid 1 Engi itcmE^q, 
cfikcEk Engi akq!u x xl, alxa r plxap 2 Engi axk!u x xsk!uKS, wa r - 

10 tcin Engi itsE x kal." Kwopt gatcu^xam : "Au, k!ma na x qxi 
imnu^xam a^gadix." Aga kwopt t!a x ya gatci x ux itca x quit 
wi r t!a da 7 ukwa. Kwopt gagh/lxam : "Alqxi anyulxa^ 
mEma imilxt.^max." 3 Kwopt na r kta, daLa^ wagflti gala 7 - 
xux. Qu x ct yaxa ikinwa^cumax ya 7 xdau itcagfkal naxa- 

15 nk u h'tckwam. 

ayaxEmilk u h v tckwa ; na r qxi a'xdau wa x maqx, ax- 
lu'idEd a'xdau. ImHkau qxi'gEmtgix watcE 7 lxba abaxa x tba. 
Amuya^abEt, alma amhi'xwa ilqla^uskan tc.'E^tc.'Ex. 
Kw6 7 pt alma kwa x LkwaL amliluxa^axdixa ka x nawi qa x xba 
20 watcE'lxba. Kwo'pt alma wa'x armVxwa alu x yabEt qxa r - 
damt, atdilga'lgwa itca x qxuq. Cma'nix saq u atclitga'lgwa 
itca'qxuq, kwopt ya'xiba kwo'ba iqlfyuqt yuxt." Gagix- 
ni x ma. 

Aga kwo'pt nixklwa'. Kwopt da'ukwa ni'xux; kwa x L- 
25 kwaL gatclu'x ilqla'xuskan alatcE'lxba. Aga kwo'pt wi x t!a 

The ikla'lamgwadid is described as a tin ornament of the shape of a funnel; 

several were tied close to one another to a belt or saddle, and produced a jingling 

Pete adds that surely the "ik'.a'tamgwadid was made before Indians ever 

tin. To my knowledge, it was made of horn or bone in olden days." Per- 
haps dew-claw rattles are referred to. 


has she always been telling me, 'You shall not go off in 
that direction'?" Then he thought to himself: "Now I 
shall go just yonder." And off he went in just that direc- 
tion. He came to a narrow trail ; there lies this stick. 
He was about to step across over it ; then it arose. He 
was about to pass by it ; again there was this (stick). 
Then he stepped on it; it broke right in two. 

"A'nnanana," groans the person (in pain). "Was it 
I, perchance, that stole him ? And yet he broke my leg, 
and indeed I was about to let him know something. My 
leg is valuable, my thigh-bone is of jingles, 1 of beads is 
my knee, of ahca'plxap 3 my ankle, of dentalium my shin 
bone." Then he said to her: "Oh! but you did not tell 
me before." And then he made her leg well again, as 
it was before. Then she said to him : " Wait, I shall 
go and tell your great-grandfather." 3 Then she ran off 
and a sprinkle of rain arose. Now in truth that was 
Thunder who was her husband, and she came to tell him. 

"Now I shall tell you. That one is not your mother, 
that woman is different (from you). Your cradle-board is in 
the back part of the underground lodge, at the rear end. 
When you get there, then you shall split up pitch-wood. 
Then you shall stick some of it into every part of the 
underground lodge. Then, when she goes off somewheres, 
you will set fire to the (pitch), and her children will burn. 
When her children will have all burned, then (go) to yon- 
der place, where an old man is dwelling." She pointed 
it out to him. 

And then he went home. Then he did as directed ; 
he stuck in the pitch in their underground lodge. Now 

2 No explanation of this term was given. Probably some sort of beads or 
other ornament is referred to. 

3 All progenitors from the fourth generation back, i. e., beginning with one's 
great-grandparents, are included in the terms ilxt'.a'max (masc.), alxt'.a'max (fern.). 

galu'ya, galaldi'lapam. Kwopt ya'xtla nixq!wa' qxaiJa'LEt. 
Kwopt wi't!a Lu'k nixux, galtfgu'qwam bdla'-itix. Gatc- 
hTlxam: "Alqxi Lte'kijEk 1 ayamcu'xwa." Aga kwopt 
Lte'kiJEk gatdux. Gabd'qxatq idia'qwitba, saq 11 galikgu'p- 
5 dit. Kwopt k!a'uk!au gatclxElu'x ila x nalxat Engi. Kwopt 
a-iwa x x gatclux. 

Aga kwopt nu'it gayu'ya. Wi x t!a Lu x k nixux, wi'tla 
gayu'ya. Gw^nmix Lu x k nixux ; gatctux gw^nmix itqxa r t. 
Kwopt kwo^au gayu x ya iq.'fyuqtyamt : (ya^iwadix iya 7 lkau 

10 gatcigElga). Kwaic ak!i x ulal At!at!a x iiya, daLia'k nixux 
itcaga'bEn. "Am," na'kim, "iyagE'lmakcti ! aga da x ngi 
itci^gElux itcqxu x q. w Aga kwopt na x wit naxk!wa x ; galu 7 - 
yam, aga tcaVigaluqt itla^ul saq u . Kwopt na x xa-ilutk 
da'niwatba gatctu x x ; wi x t!a Luk na 7 xux. Aga kwo r pt a-i- 

15 klwa'lalfik na x xux; gw^nmix gaktux kw6 7 dau sa 7 iba ga- 

Yaxa ya 7 x galigu^wam iqlfyuqt a-ixflxul Tnadix inat 

wi x mal. Kwopt gatciu'qdi iya x qxwit gwob vti'msA. Ga- 

tciu'lxam : a Na x qxi alma amingutxwrda axqlu^lba." Aga 

20 nigu x ya nawit ayaq!u x xlba, nikk!a x lagwa. Qu 7 ct yaxa i- 

gwa'cgwac da x uya iqlfyuqt iya x Lqt iya^xwit. 

Aga kwo'pt gatci'ukl idia'qulyamt. Gatciumgu'gmit 
sa x q u da'xdau da x nmax dixilax idakla'mElamax. Kwopt 
gatcdilut da'nmax ittlu'ktimax icawa x iyumax itk!a x daqxi 
25 ik!wa x nixmax apgE'liumax itgwa'natmax. Gadi'xElmux, 
nixkli'Lxum. Kwopt gatciuk.Tdi, gatcdi'lut aklwa'tauwias 
kwodau ka'nawi dan itkli'tit. Kwo'dau gatcdi'lut gwE x nma 
itgi'tcxutkc paL itga'matcx kwodau aia'xit. 

Aga kwo'pt gatcixni'ma-ix : "Alma amu'ya da'xiaba 
30 itbu'xux; alma kwo'ba amxli'maya caxla'damt ka'nawi 

1 L'.E'kL'.Ek properly means "to uncover or open" something by taking off a 

then she went off again, went digging. Then he, for his 
part, pretended to go hunting. Then he turned back again 
and came to where they all were. He said to them : 
"Let me louse 1 you." So then he loused them. He laid 
them on his legs and they all slept on him. Then he 
tied their hair to one another's and set fire to them. 

Now then he went off immediately. Again he turned 
back, again he went off. Five times he turned back, 
five tracks he made. And then he went to the old man ; 
(first he got his cradle-board). While Atlatla'liya is dig- 
ging, her digging-stick broke right in two. "Oh, the 
stinker!" she said, "now he has done something to my 
children." Now then she went straight home. She arrived 
there ; their house was all burning now. Then she tracked 
him at the first (track) he had made ; again she turned 
back. And then she became puzzled. Five times she 
tracked (him) before she followed him rightly. 

As for him, he had reached the old man. He is fishing 
with a dip-net on the other side, across the river. Then 
he stretched out his leg across the river. He said to 
him: "You shall not stand on my knee." So he went 
straight up to his knee and stepped over it. Now in 
truth this old man with the long leg was Crane. 

And then he took him to his house. He made him 
vomit all those various bad things that he had been eating. 
Then he gave him all sorts of good things - - bull trout, 
chubs, steel-head salmon, trout, Chinook salmon. He ate 
them, finished eating. Then he clothed him, gave him 
a leather cape and all sorts of clothing. And he gave 
him five quivers of arrows and a bow. 

And then he pointed out his way: "You shall go to 
yonder mountains , there you will shoot upwards all these 

lid. The idea of "lousing" is here derived from that of "opening or parting the 
hair" when looking for lice. 


gwE'nma dauda idmigVtcxutkc." Kwopt da'ukwa ni'xux. 

Galixli'ma nawit iguca'xba, gatcaxu'txmalitEmtck aga'- 

matcx nawit wi'lxba. Kwopt kwo'ba gayugwa'wulxt ; 

da'uka gayugwa'wulxt da'uka dakda'k gatctux idiaga'- 

5 matcx. La'x gayu'yam iguca'xba. Adi', gatcu'gikEl ids'l- 

xam. Lq!a x p gatctux; gatchi'lxam : '"Qxa'damt mcu'it?" 

"K!a x ya! Nadlda^wit ncugwala'-idamit itgaq!a x qctaq- 

ukc." Qu x ct yaxa wa x qxcti a'xdau cartel uk!i x tit. 

Wi'tla gayu x ya ya x xat ; wi x t!a Lq!a x p gatctux itklu^a-itc 

10 idElxam. Gatcdugumtcx^gwa : "Qxa^amt mcu^t?" 

K.'a'ya! Entcxtigwa^imamt Nadlda^wit ilga^aLxat." Qu r ct 

yaxa watsklE'nL axdau. Wi x t!a yaxat gayu x ya ; wi 7 t!a 

gatcu'gikEl itklu'na-itc tga'dit. "Qxada'mt Emcu'it?" 

a K!a 7 ya! Nadlda x nwit ncawila^idamt itgaxE^yakukc." Qu x ct 

15 yaxa waqxudi 7 xat. 

Ya x xat gayu r ya ; gatclgE^kEl ilgwa^ilx Hit. Lq!a x p gate- 
lux. Da'ngi Igi'uctx, qls'pqlEp ts!a x ts!a iki x xax. Kwopt 
gatciugumtcx^gwa : "Da'n dauya miu'klt?" "Kla'ya! 
abu^max dauwa n^klt." Kwopt L.'a x k gatca x -ixux , dagap- 
20 ga x b nixu 7 xix. Kwopt wi x t!ax gatcuxa x bu ; wi x t!a wa x xwax 
nixu^xix. Aga kwopt wi'tlax nixLa x gwa. 

wi x t!a ilgwa'lilx Hit; Iqia'p gatchix. "Ah, 
ah," alxElga'yax, ila^naq ilagwa^ntfba, alilgat aga'matcx! 
Mank ya'xat kwo'ba galu'lktcu; galu'moqt. Gayu'ya 
25 ya'xat; gatd^lkEl Ixdat ilgwa'lilx. 1 

The myth doubtless continues very much like its Kathlamet correspondent 
Boas, Kathlamet Texts. D. iiV 

(see Boas, Kathlamet Texts, p. 


five quiverfuls of yours." Then he did just in that way. 
He shot clear to the sky ; he caused the arrows to stand 
one on top of another clear (down) to the ground. Then 
he climbed up there ; as he climbed up, then also he 
took off his arrows. He arrived up in the sky. Behold! 
he saw people. He met them and said to them : "Whith- 
er are you going?" "No! We are going to ride on 
the heads of Indians." Now in truth those were the Lice, 
dressed all in black. 

Again he went farther ahead ; again he met still other 
people. He asked them: "Whither are you going?" 
"No! We are going to hang on to the hair of Indians." 
Now in truth those were the Nits. Again he went on far- 
ther ahead ; again he saw still others coming. " Whither 
are you going ?" - " No ! We are going to stay in the 
breech-clouts of Indians." Now in truth they were the 

He went farther ahead and saw a person coming. He 
met him. He carries something on his back ; it is tightly 
closed. Then he asked him: "What is this that you are 
taking along with you?" "No! These are nights that I 
am taking along with me." Then he opened his (box) and 
it became entirely dark. Then he closed it again and it 
became all light again. And then he passed him again. 

He saw a person coming again ; he met him. "Ah, 
ah!" he was groaning; he was shot in the heart, an arrow 
stuck to him. A little farther ahead there he fell 

down and died. He went farther ahead ; he saw a per- 
son coming in haste. 1 



Aga k!a'xc gi'uxt akla'ckac itcxa'n 1 atcucga'ma. Ag' 
a'lEma wikxi't aniu'xwa na'ika. "Itla'ktix ka'nauwe amc- 
xElqla'xida ag' a'lEma kVdux- wiki'd aniu'xwa. Aga 
mcgilxa'mam ika'la iqle'yoqt. Aga wiki x d aniu x xwa , ag' 
5 ana-ixmEla'lEma ikal' aya^an. Wiki r d anilu r da ag' a^Ema 
atciu'gwia wi x kit ika x la." Aga 'gidi^am iq!e x y6qt. "Ag' 
andi'luda ika'la wiki't. Ag' a'mdilukla da'udax." Aga 
wiki r d ini x ux. 

Ag' ItcdHut idia'kt' ikala. Ag' itctilut Ju'nikc ia'- 
10 itix 2 ilgrxEltkiu 2 wikx^t kwo x dau mo^ct itk^udaniukc 
itgaxamatla^yutckEmax itcdHut ayaxa r nba , itca-ixE'mElal. 
Aga da x uda itkdnftk^ck na x it!ax : i'x't ikaMmak kwoMau 
i'x't idu^ha qexE^dEnit kwo x dau mo^ct itp!a x siskwa, wi x t!ax 
na x it!a iqdni x tk u tck. 

15 Ag' atcucga / m' itcxa x n ak!a x ckac ; aya'gikal alaxi/xwa; 
iga'xux. Aga alugwigE'liudama ; ag' algiu'kfa itcxa'n aya- 
gika'lba; alxugwigE'liudama. Ag' a'lEma kwoba" 'lixa'txa 
iaqci x xba kw6 r dau aya^cix kwo x dau aya^ikal. Aga wHimx 
igi'xux itcxa^. Ag' tfkctka'm naika x ba wo'kcti itcxa^ 

20 aya^ikal, wanda x cti axgi'kal inda'xan aya^ikal. Qxfdau 
ga'ngadix galuxtki'xax itqle'yoqtikc, wikxi 7 t gayuxwiti'm. 

The father of the bridegroom is to be thought of as telling this account. 

Of these two words for "slave," ila'-itix belongs more properly to Lower 
Chinook, but has become current, probably through the medium of the Chinook 
jargon, in Wish ram as well. 



Now my son 1 likes a girl and wants to marry her. 
So I am to make the bridal purchase. (I say to my as- 
sembled acquaintances :) u It is good that you all learn 
that I intend to-morrow to give the bridal purchase-money. 
Now do you all go and tell an old man. Now I shall 
give the purchase-money, now I shall buy from the man 
his daughter. I shall give him the purchase-money, and 
the man will take the purchase-money." Now the old man 
has come (and I say to him) : "Now I am to give the man 
these (things) as purchase-money. Now you shall take these 
here to him." Now I have made the bridal purchase. 

Now he has given the man his things. He has given 
him as purchase-money three slaves and he has given 
him two fast-running horses in return for his daughter. 
He has bought her from him. And also to me they have 
brought back as wedding-gifts these things : one tanned 
elk-skin and one ox-hide blanket and two blankets ; they 
have been brought back to me, for my part, as return gifts. 

Now my son is ready to marry the girl ; she is to be- 
come his wife. She has become (his wife). Now the 
bridegroom's relatives are to go to meet his wife at her 
house. Now we are to take my son to his wife ; we are 
to meet her at her house. Now there he is to remain 
with his father-in-law and his mother-in-law and his wife. 
Now my son has become a married man. Now they 
have brought back the two of them to live with me, 
him and my daughter-in-law, my son's wife; she is my 
and my wife's daughter-in-law, our son's wife. Thus long 
ago the men of old used to do ; they used to get women 
by giving each other purchase-money. 

I 7 6 


Cma'nix p' ag' ili'axan tfk!a x ckac p' ag' a x ligima ika'la: 1 
"Aga kanawo x mcti ; ag-' itcxa x n ili x axan ilak!6 x its ilk!a x s- 
kas aga Lxo x pLxop aqlu x xa nVmiJoxi itcxa x n tfi x axan." 
Aga kxwo x pt kanauwa x 2 'tq u li x b' aluxwa'x' idE'lxam. Aga 
5 kxwo'pt ts!u x nus itlxlfi'm aqiu'xwa. Aga kxwo'pt aluxil- 
xE'lEm' idE'lxam, sa x q u aluxilxE'lEma. Aga kxwo'pt ilk!aV 
kas aqhi'da ilqle'yoqt ilka'la. Aga kxwo'pt Lxo'pLxop 
alklu'x w a ilamLlo'x^ba ; gwa'nimix ilamLlo'xi a'nat, wi'tlax 
a r nat gwa'nimix Lx6 r b alkli/xwa ilql^yoqt cma^i pu 

10 Ikdu'kul. 2 

Aga pu ika^-imak dab' 3 ix^mat yu'lgwiat pu kw6 x b* 
ilkla'ckac Lx6pLx6 x b aqlu^wa. Aga kxwo x pt pu aqh/xwa 
Lq!u x pLq!up ikaMmak lq!a r b itgi^pa Ifxad ilgoa^ilx. Aga 
kxwo x pt aqia^wimagwa da^Emax at!u x ksai kwo x dau ilk!a x - 

15 muat kw6 7 dau ak!wa x lq ; bu ci x kc aqdu x xwa idE^xam tq!e- 
6'qtikc. Ag' it!u x kt' igi x xux ik!a x ckac a x watc' ak!a x ckac. 
IttcrnEmax aqxi x lluxwa lomL.'o^imaxba Lxo / pLxop. Cma x ni 
pu kla'ya Lx6 7 pLx6p aqlugwa x nimtcgw6 pu. 

Aga kxw6 x pt ilaqla^ctaq iqi'limatsudit 4 aqilkxa^ima 

20 ilap!a x qx' aqillu'xwa. Cma'ni pu kla'ya dap!a x l ilap!a x qxa 

ilaq!a x qctaq p' aqlugw6 x nimtcgwa. Cma x ni pu ilqa x gilak 

ila x wanb' ilk!a x ckac p' alu x mEqt' aluxwi x nimitcgwa idE x lxam 

gwE x nEm' ilgoa x max; tq!^ x x aqlu'xw' ilk!a x ckac. GwE x nEm' 

agaYax aluxwi x nEmitcgwa idE x lxam. Wi x t!a da x -itck' alu- 

25 x w ilxE x lEma kVdux ix'tka'dix- aga wi x 2gwa da x nE luqx k!ma 

Iga'blad itga x lxlEm. 5 Qxe x dau ga'ngadix galxtki x xax ila x - 


1 That is, his father. This account is told from the point of view of the 
child's paternal grandfather. 

8 That is, one who is practised in the operation is selected, not any one at random. 


If now he should have a child, a baby, then the man : 
would say: "Do you all now come! Now my son has 
a child, a little baby, and the ears of my son's child will 
have holes pierced into them." And then all the people 
get to be in the house. And then a little food is pre- 
pared. Now then the people eat, all eat. And then the 
baby is given to an old man. Now then he pierces holes 
into the child's ears, five holes in one of his ears, 
again five holes in the other does the old man make, if 
he should know how to do it. 2 

Now here 3 a tanned elk-skin lies spread out, thereon 
the baby has his (ears) pierced. And then the tanned 
elk-skin is cut up into pieces enough for one pair of moc- 
casins (as gift) for each person. And then various (other) 
things are distributed : small baskets, and horse-hair rope, 
and twined basket-bags. Gifts would be made to the 
people, the old people. Now the boy or the girl has 
become good. Beads are strung through holes in the 
child's ears. If it did not have its (ears) pierced, it would 
be laughed at. 

And then a head-flattener 4 is laid on its head, is put 
on its forehead. If its head should not have a flattened 
forehead, it would be laughed at. If a woman should die 
with a child in her womb, the people would mourn for five 
days ; they like a child. Five days the people mourn. 
Again they eat once in the morning and are without 
swallowing anything all day long, yet they have lots of 
food. 5 Thus long ago the Wishram used to do. 

3 Indicated by gesture. 

4 Any piece of hard wood or skin made to fit on the child's forehead as it 
lies wrapped on the cradle-board. 

5 That is, it is not for lack of food that they refrain from eating. 


i 7 8 

3. DEATH. 

Cma'nix p' ika'la ixi'al p' ayu'mEqta pu aluxwi'nimto 
gwa idE'lxam. Tq!&'x p' aqiu'xwa ; ka'nauwe dan p' itlu'kt' 
aqi'luda. Sa'2q u k!a'uk!au aqdi'luxwa itci'nEmax ilt!a'- 
inikc 1 tfqla'mucEkcEk kwo'dau ika'lxalukc 2 ialqba aqlil- 
5 Jxwo'ya. Aga.kxwo'pt p' aluxwi'mmtcgwa tca^ilxam aga'lax. 
Wi'tla da'ukwa agagi'lak wa'liq pu 'lu'mEqta. Alu'mEqta 
pu wa'liq sa x q u itk!i x max ilqla'mucEkcEk iltla'-inikc itci x nE- 
max aqfe/luxwa kwo x dau iltska^Emax. Lq!u 7 p alax^uxwa 
wakxa'q itgomLlu^iba ca^aladamt. Wi x t!ax da 7 ukwa wi- 
10 tcE r m a-iLqloa'b alixu'xwa iliena'fxat. Wi'tlax do'ukwa 
ka x nauwe lac^xtikc. 

Aga y^mEqt. Ag' aqiu'kla tkifmxatgEmaxiamt ; idme 7 - 
mEluctikcpa aqiu / tgama. Aga qiu'klt ; tgi x d aga palala^ 
fga'blad idE^xam tgi\vad itm^mEluct qlu x klt. Cma'nix 
15 p' ayu'mEqt' ika x la p' aluxw^nEmitcgwa ; tq! r x aqiu x xwa ; 
it.'u'kti yago^Enil ka^nauwe ca x nba. Tca^ilxam aga 7 Lax 
ak!u x n gwE'nEma aga x Lax p' aluxwi x nEmitcgwa. Wi x t!ax 
da'ukw' agagilak ; it!u r kt' itcago^Enil kw6 7 dau qxo x qE- 
mitp' at!u'kt' itca^gulitpa. 


20 Cma'nix pu imrtcgEmEm amxu'xwa aga kxwo^t amx- 
luxwa'-ida: "Ca'n anlgE'lgaya iltlu'kti itla'gewam ? w Am- 
Lu'da lu x n itki^daniukc kwo r dau mo^ct iduiha^ax kwo 7 - 
dau mokctte'at ida'la. Ixulal idia'gewam : tt Na'qxi t!a 7 i' 
aniu'xwa; cpa'g iatcgE'mEm iki'xax." Ik!u r n Txat idia'ge- 

1 ihla'-inikc: said to be very valuable and to have been made by California 

Probably Chinese coins, which were current along the Columbia River at the 

a P 

3. DEATH. 

If a young man should die, the people mourn. He is 
liked; he is given all kinds of good things. All over 
(his body) are tied on to him beads of sea-fish bones, 
sea-shell beads, 1 round glass beads, and strings of brass 
square-holed coins ; 3 they are put around him on his body 
(on neck and arms). And then they mourn for ten days. 
Again, so also (it is done) if a virgin woman dies. If a 
virgin dies, there are put all over her woven cloth, round 
glass beads, sea-shell beads, fish-bone beads, and brace- 
lets. Her mother cuts off (her hair) down to her ears. 
Again, so also her father just cuts off his head-hair. 
Again, so also all her relatives. 

Now (suppose a man) is dead. Then he is to be taken 
to the burial vault 3 and deposited among the dead. Now 
he is being carried and very many people go following 
him, (as) the dead person is being carried. If a man 
should die, the (people) mourn. He is liked ; his heart 
was good to everybody. Ten days and five days they 
mourn. Again, so also (in case of) a woman. Good 
was her heart and, when looked at, good her appea- 


If you should become sick, then you think to yourself: 
"Whom shall I take that is a good medicine-man?" You 
give him three horses and two oxen and twenty dollars. 
The medicine-man says: "I shall not succeed in making 
him well, he is too sick." One more medicine-man has 

time of the early coast traders. Cf. Chinook iqa'lxal "gambling disks." 

3 See A. B. Lewis, Tribes of the Columbia Valley and the Coast of Washing- 
ton and Oregon, Memoirs of the American Anthropological Association, Vol. I, p. 171. 


warn iqigF/lga; ag' ictmo'kct icxu'x. Iqdi'lut la'kt itki'u- 
daniukc a'-ix't adu'iha k!ma ya'lilxam ida'la kwo'dau 
mo'kct itpa'iskwa. 

Ag' ixu'lal idia'gewam: "Ag' itlu'ktix atxugwi'la-ida 

5 saiba' 'txugwi'la-ida. Aga t!a'y' atgiu'xwa." Ag' ixulal 

idiaVewam : tt Ma x ika Iga nimxlu^wa-it yak^mEla-ix- 

idmigeVom. Da x uya Iga kwo x ba yatcg^mEm nigi^ux 

qxa'dagatci ag' atxigHa-ida. Aga t!aT alixu^wa. QE X - 

nEgi mxlu'xwan idia'gewam ma'itiax?" Ixu'lal : "Aga a 7 

10 atxigila-ida aga ka'nactmokct." Acdigila-ida aga n^qx- 

it!i/kt' igi'xux. Ag' iu^Eqt ika x la. Ka^actmokct iqcu'- 

woq itcda^ewam nictigidla^it. Aga cda x xdau icdakla 7 - 

mEla ; tgeVam nicg^ux. 

Wi x t!' fxat yatcgE'mEm igi'xux. Aga wi't!' iqi 

15 idia'gewam ; iqdilut mo^ct itkrudaniukc kw6 x dau lu'rt 

itpa r -iskwa kwo r dau yalilxam ida^a. Wi x t!' iqxa x gElg' 

agagi x lak alugwila-ida. Iqda x lut iqda^mimtum i'x't ikiu x tan 

kwo'dau aMx't adu x iha kwo x dau mo^ct itpa x -iskwa kwoMau 

gwE'nEm' idala. Ag' actugw^la-ida, ag' icguxa^ima it- 

20 go'ugoumat 2 ag' igla'lam; yugwi'lalit idia'gewam. 

Ag' ixu x lal idia'gewam; "Aga na'qx' ayu'msqta ; aga 
tia' 1 'ntgiu'xwa." Wi'tla da'ukw' axulal agagi'lak itga'- 
gewam: "Aga na'qx' ayu'mEqta; aga tla^i' antgiu'xwa." 
Aga cxu'lal: "Ag' a'kma kVdux antx u k!wa x ya aga sa'q 11 
25 andigHa-ida." Aga dai ictugwi x la-it sa x q u . Aga kxwo'pt 
acx u k! wa'ya ; cxu'lal : " Aga qa'xb' itkiu'daniukc ?" 3 Tctu- 
gwa'kmamt ik!a x ckac itkiu'daniukc. Aga p!aT. iula'-it ia'tc- 

1 Equivalent to tla'y' antgiu'xwa. 

2 IQ both the medicine-man's song and the gambling song a deafening accom- 

been taken ; now they are two. He has been given four 
horses, one cow and ten dollars, and two blankets. 

Now the medicine-man says: "Now it is well that we 
two doctor, we shall doctor right. Now we two shall 
make him well." And the medicine-man says (to his com- 
panion) : "It seems that you thought you are a poor 
medicine-man. It seems that this man over there has 
become sick, so that we two shall doctor him now. Now 
he will get well. What do you think, O medicine-man, 
for your part?" He says: "Yes! now both of us shall 
doctor him." The two of them doctor him, but he has 
not got well. Now the man dies. Both of the medicine- 
men are killed, (who) were doctoring him. Those two 
were wicked, they had "shot" him. 

Again one man has become sick. And again a me- 
dicine-man has been taken ; he has been given two horses, 
and three blankets, and ten dollars. Also a woman has 
been taken (who) is to doctor. She has been given, has 
been paid as her fee, one horse, and one cow, and two 
blankets, and five dollars. Now the two of them doctor; 
now they have put down time-beating sticks 2 and he sings ; 
the medicine-man keeps on doctoring. 

Now the medicine-man says: "Now he will not die, 
now we two shall make him well." Again, just so the 
medicine-woman says: "Now he will not die, now we 
two shall make him well." Now the two of them say : 
" Now to morrow we two shall go home and we shall 
completely doctor him." Now the two of them have just 
completely doctored him. And then they are about to 
go home. They say: "Now where are the horses?" 8 

paniment is made by the beating of sticks (itgou'goumat) on a long plank spread 
out before the medicine-man's or gambler's assistants. 
3 That means, horses in payment of their services. 


gEmEm; ag' itclo'qxEmct ihi'luck 1 kwo'dau iltcqoa' ia'mqt. 
Aga t!aT alixu'xwa; aga t!aT igi'xux. 


Qa'ngadix k!a'y' itqui'tquit; aic tslu'nus dan iqla'lalEc 

iana'lxat a-ik!a'u ilaqui'tba. K!a x y' itsta'gin; ga'ngadix 

5 wa x tckti aqaxi-ilguramida itgi%aba. KwoMau itc!a 7 ng 

iapla'skwal da 7 ukw' iena^xat aqdu x xw' itgi^pa idaiJa^umit. 

Isk!u 7 ly' amEni isga^Iaps aqsu x xwa ili^xa x qctaq da x uk' 

ista x nalxat. Isk!u 7 ly J EnEgi iap!a 7 skwal aqdu x xwa itkcie 7 nE- 

mat, kwo r dau aqexsllxwaya. Alk!wa x dit amsni aqiu x xwa 

10 sik!E x nxat; a-ist^x alilxEl^xwa ilapu^cba daLJa 7 tftga^a-ix. 

Aqo x xwa w6 x qlq 2 ila x lqpa, algiu x xwa isk!u x ly' 

nix iq!a x lalEc iap!a x skwal ya x xliu T 

Ga x ngadix k!a x y' at!i x wat- k!a x y' aq!e x wiqxe ; k!a x y j ic- 

gwo'lala; k!a x y' iqlfstEn. Itqlu'tc' 3 a'mEni tsE'xtsEx gaq- 

15 tu x x itkia'munak. Aka x cat, 4 amu'tan: 4 Ga x 2ngadix ga- 

qxo'x' alxu'Lat; gatku'x Nadida'nuit da x uax a'xka. Aga 

da x uya wi x gwa 


QlatsE'n 5 aqxigE'lgay' igu'nat walxi x ba. Aqxiugwo'pga. 
Kanauwa x 2 ayuxwi'mux' itqie'yoqtikc tslu'nusmax. A'xt' 
20 aqxo'xwa su't wa'lxi. 

u'luck is a kind of soup made of heads of salmon and white salmon. 

words may be translated sleeveless shirt." They contain the same 
em (-qtrj) and differ only in gender (fern, and neut. respectively). 

A boy goes to get the horses. Now the sick man has 
remained quiet ; now the sick man has drunk fish-soup l 
and water. Now he will get well ; now he has got well. 


In olden times people wore no trousers ; just a slight 
affair (made of) a raccoon's scalp was fastened about 
one's legs. There were no stockings ; long ago a man 
would spread out grass in the moccasins. And warm 
moccasins were made out of a deer's hide, its scalp, as 
above. A hat was made out of a coyote's head, two of 
their scalps, as above. Out of a coyote's hide gloves 
were made, and (coyote skin) was worn around the neck. 
Out of tule a twined fabric was made ; a person would 
wrap it about his buttocks so as to keep warm wherever 
there was snow. A "woqlq" 3 was put on a person's body , 
he would make it out of coyote (skin). If (made out of) 
raccoon's skin, its name was "Mqlq." 5 There was no shirt. 

In olden times there was no bucket, no knife, no gun, 
no ax. Trees were split by means of bones. 3 In olden 
times dip-nets were made out of "Indian string"; 4 this it 
is {pointing to specimen) out of which Indians made them. 
But nowadays, not so. 


A salmon is caught at the fishing post for the first 

time. 5 It is steamed on hot rocks. All of the old men 

eat it, each a small piece. That fishing post is (thus) 
made lucky. 

3 That is, elk antler wedges. 

* aka'cat is the material itself (Apocynum cannabinum, Indian hemp), amu'tan 
the string ready for use. * The first catch of the season is meant. 


Aga tca'gwa-ix' aqcutx'wi'tcgw' icE'lxlxmax. Lxo'p- 
Lxop aqiawi'xa ittslE'mEnEmax. 1 Ag' ittcqoa' 'Idi'a tca- 
gwa'-icq. KEla'-ix* Igoa'filx LaxEma'gapx- 3 quxwinxa'nan 
ittslE'mEnEmax, tlafxe'wulx ifka'la. K'atkVdmax lugwa- 
5 k!a x nq 3 hcqoa 7 . Qa r xw' alakxkia^w' a^k' a x niwad aqxa- 
gEtnxa'gaba. AqlgE 7 lgaya te/xka da 7 ut' ilka^a la^Emagapx* 
walxi'ba. Aquqt!i x Lx' ads^dEx. A-ik!a r u aqlu'xw' ila- 
wa x nba iHpa'g EnEgi. Aga kxwo x pt Ixli'wix* k!a x u lilu'xtix* 
bama na'qxi tcxa 7 kluyEm. Aga kxwo x pt aligu^x' ik!a'- 
10 munak qxE'mkxit adigla x -id' idE^xam bama na 7 qx' ayula- 
p!a x tcguxwida. 

Lga'gslgat atslfi'mEna; aga IxElsqla't qa'xba yaglu'xtix-. 4 
Aga tslsklElu'tkt iltcqoa" qxE x nEgi lu'xwunit. Daluklu'g 
alxa'tx' iltcqoa'. Aga kxwo'pt lE x b alga'tx' atslE'mEna 

15 dakxwo'L na'wit; qxatgi'a kwo'ba datsagwou' qa'xlkun 
algutxEmi'da. Na'wit k!a'u algagu'xw' adE'xdEx a'xka 
qx' ilaku'lx; na'wit aqlakxa'tgwaya tklalamat Ixli'wix. 
Wi x t!a da'ukwa i'nat. Kwoda'u aqdaktc!e x qlgw' itkla 7 - 
munak; k!auk!a'u aqu x xwa itbi'nalx snEgi. Ag' alcx'u^- 

20 gaxid' icElxlx. Ak!u x n' alakta'gwa; da x ukwa wi x t!' aqxa- 
gEmxa'gaba. Cda'xtau qxelxu ; i: bam' icE x l ? J ? . Qxe'd' 
icda'xEmagapx-. 5 K!a r ya ceiwatkla'ck' ilgoa'Hlx afcgEmxa'- 
gaba; qxa'daga kEla x -ix- ilgoalilx ila'xEmagapx-. Qxf- 

Borings have been made some distance out from the shore when the water 
low. Into these holes the poles are later to be set as supports for the fishing 
platform. ; ; 

1 Equivalent to tiaxEma'gapx'. 


Now in summer stagings are prepared. Holes are made 
for the staging-poles. 1 Now the water comes, summer 
water. A special person, a workingman, is set aside for 
setting in the staging-poles ; he is a strong man. Every 
now and then the water comes up in time to use them. 3 
Whichever fishing-post it fits, that one is first worked at. 
He is taken to the fishing-post, this workingman ; a fir 
sapling is pushed out from shore so as to balance and 
the man is tied with a rope about his belly. And then 
the rope is (also) tied on to the shore, so that he may 
not be drowned. And then he walks out on the tree 
trunk and at the other end the people sit on it, so that 
it may not tilt up. 

The man holds a staging-pole and he knows where it 
is prepared for it. 4 Now he looks to see how the water 
flows. The water slackens in its course. And then he 
drives the staging pole under water so that it fits right 
in its place. Sometimes it misses there, but after a while 
he sets it up. Immediately he ties on to it the fir sapling 
on which he has walked out ; immediately rocks are piled 
on it on shore. Again, (it is done) thus on the other 
side. And logs are put crosswise over the saplings and 
they are tied by means of hazel ropes. Now the staging 
is finished. The water comes up to another fishing-post; 
again, as before, they work at it. That staging is for 
fishing with dip-nets. Thus is the work done on it. 5 Not 
any person taken at random can work at it ; a person 
just for that particular purpose (is employed) as working- 
man. That is how things are. 

3 Literally, "it fits them." 

4 He knows just where the holes are which have been dug for the reception 
of the staging-poles. 

5 Literally, "thus is its work." 

1 86 

Alxi'lxul' a'watci IgutxEnii't ilgoa'lilx kwo'ba pa'l i 
xam idabl'tcEm tqle'yoqtikc. AltfiLa'-idam' ixqle'walal. 
Cma'nix p!aT algigatxa'-ima-axdix' icE'lxlxb' altxui'da lixa't 
itabl'tcEm ; igiwo'gw' algiugwi^Elxl' aga ya x xtau laxka 7 
5 bama fgiubftcEma. Cma^' aliliLa^idama da x ukwa mo^ct 
da x ukwa Ju x n aLiLa'-idama aluxta^cgwam' alkdugwatxa'- 
ima-ulxEma. Cma'ni p!a r la Jixa x d wftlax alkdugwflElxl' 
alkdudi 7 naya laxka 7 bam' alkdubl'tcEma. Cma^' alitiLa 7 - 
idama da x ukw' aLiLa^idam' aluxta^cgwam' ahx-wi x da da x b' 
10 itabl'tcEm alxatge'lxEm' alalxul ilapu'tcb' aga da x xtau 
taxka" bama; l^p aiuta'-id' ilabl'tcEm. Aga da'ukw' 


y l ilkla'ckac alkdu'naxl' iLxe'wulx ; sa 7 q u qE'nEgi 
wi'lx kwo'dau itpogo'xmax aluwacgi'wagwo'tcgwa. IkV- 

15 qxEmlt algiuktca'nEma ; ya'xka qxi tdula tci'llud ikV- 
qxEmit. Qfi'nEgi yaxa'qxsmit ha x -ai da x ukwa alxfluxwa 
kwo'dau atclxi'maya. Cma'nix atchd'maya bam v iLxeVulx 
atklugwi'' ilklalamat. Qa'xb* atcihmi'ma-axdix'a kwob' 
alktugwi'a. Qxa'ntcipt alklxa'tgway' atdulxamab^t. Cma'- 

20 nix kwo'pt alklugwi'a aga ya'xdau pa 7 ! algiu'xwa yaxa x - 
qxEmit. Cma'nix a-itsxE x p 3 wi't.'a kVdux- xa'bix'ix- atctxi'- 
maya; ha'-ai yaxa'qxEmit pa x l algiu'xwa kwo'dau stu'x'w 

Hagikcta'mEnil 8 fi'xat aga daxka 7 bama h/pgEnat Ikdu- 

> Literally, "moves himself." 

i8 7 

(Where) a person fishes with dip-net or sets his net, 
there it is full of old people who have come to get fish. 
A fish comes into his net. If he quietly puts it down on 
the staging, some one, who has come to get fish, stands 
up ; that one kills it, keeps tapping it, and that (fish) he has 
obtained for himself. If a fish comes into his net, just 
so if two, just so if three come into his net, they come 
out to the surface of the water and he hauls them up 
on to the staging. If he lets them lie, again some one 
keeps tapping them, kills them, and obtains them for 
himself. If a fish comes into his net, just so if several 
fish come into his net, they come out to the surface of 
the water ; a person, who has come here to get fish, stands 
up, (but) the dip-net fisherman slaps himself on his but- 
tocks and those (fish) belong to himself; those who have 
come to get fish sit squatting. Now thus the tale. 


A boy trains, 1 he looks for strength; he travels over 
all kinds of land and mountains. He takes a command 
with him ; he who trains him gives him a command. What- 
ever the (trainer) commands, that he must do for him before 
he lets him go. If he sends him off, he carries rocks for 
strength. Wherever the (trainer) directs him (to carry 
them), there he carries them ; he piles up as many (rocks) 
as he tells him to. If he carries that many, then he 
fulfils that command of his. If he falls short, 2 the (trainer) 
sends him off again next day in the evening ; he must 
fulfil his order before he is released. 

An inspector, 3 a certain person appointed just for those 

2 Of he gets exhausted before the directed amount of work is done. 

3 Literally, "his always coming to look after things." 


xwokcta'mEnil da'-itcka qxi uxwa'la idaxEtna'gapx'. Da'u- 
yax i'x't ikVqxEmit wi't!' iLxe'wulx bama. Ahi'ya xa'bi- 
x-ix- inatcka'nlit EnEgi idbi'nalx afttduxwa'ma. 1 Ya'xka 
ikVqxEmit atciu'xwa yakli'la ; qa'uad idbi'naix afkdu'xw' 
5 ilk.'a'ckac, atclxukcta'ma yagikcta'mEniL Cma'nix atcdi- 
iLa'ma yak.'Ha kwo'pt natcdupgEnayaba 7 t stu x x w alxu'xwa 
fa'xka qxi 


A'ngadix' nkia^kacbst itql^yoqtikc qxa r nutck atgiu'xwa 
tcagE x lqlix'. Aga kwo / ba nxugui^catkt. Aqnolxa^a : 

10 "Cma'n* amugopti'da a^itsxEp na'wit amxqwo'dama ; 
cma'nix k.'a'y' amugopti'da kl^y' amxgwa'dama." Yax' 
itckla^c iqxa x nutck nkla^kacbEt ag' adnEnklna^xida 
da'xka da x ud aqxnuka'm' ag' anxuguwi^catkEma. Cma^i 
a'-itsxEb anugopti'da sa 7 q u alixu'Jgw' aqxEnugo'tcgEma. 

15 AtgEnulxam' ilqle'yoqt : "Mxgwa'tam." Kfnua qte'm 
anxu x xw' aga dnu qxa'daga ha'-ai 'nu x ya. Da'kdag aq- 
nu'xwa ngaq u da / tx qa x xb' itelEqla^ liabla x d ika x ba oVatci 
da x ukwa daq!a x b ixi 7 gat. 

AlgfnEluda iqlfstEn bama capca'p qiuxi/nntf ika x ba. 

20 AJgEnulxa'ma : "Saq u Lx6 7 b amiu'xwa-axdix-a ; Is'b am- 
xu x xwa, amxkta^cgw', amxElga^w', asErnxslu^ka a^pxiamd 
aga'Lax, wa" 'mxu'xw' amglu'maya ; Is'b amxu'xw', amx- 
ta'tcgw' asEmxElu'tka tcIe'qlkEmt giga'd, wa x na'wid wi't!' 
amxu'xwa; Is'b amxu'xw', amxda'tcgwa, wi'tla daukw' am- 

25 glu'maya, iwa'd asEmxElu'tka tcIe'qlkEmt ; k'b amxu'xw', 
amxda'tcgw', asEmxElu'tk' u'lpqdiamd aga'Lax, wa' 'mxu'- 

Ropes made like twisted hazel switches, such as were commonly employed 
to tie timber. 


things, looks after the work of those who are training. 
This one command is also for strength. He goes out at 
night, he goes to make twisted wood-ropes 1 out of a 
grove of oak saplings. He, the trainer, gives the order-, 
the inspector goes to see how many wood-ropes the boy 
makes. If he reports to the trainer (that he has done) 
as many as he had apportioned, the one that trains is 
released. (If not, he must try again.) 


A long while ago, when I was a boy, the old men 
would tell myths in winter. Now there I was listening 
to them. I would be told : " If you fall asleep before 
it is finished, straightway you will have to go and bathe. 
If you do not fall asleep, you will not go and bathe." 
Now I was fond of myths when I was a boy, so I would 
be satisfied with the things that I was told and would 
listen to them. If I fell asleep too early, (when) it was 
all finished, they would wake me up. An old man would 
say to me: "Go in bathing!" I would try to refuse, 
but in vain, so I just had to go. I was undressed entire- 
ly naked where he knew there was lots of ice or also 
where it was pressed together tight. 

He would give me an ax for chopping up the ice. He 
would say to me: "You will chop right through it, you 
will dive under water, you will stick your head out, you 
will turn around, you will look to the rising sun, you 
will cry out l wa!', you will shout. You will duck down 
under water, you will stick your head out, you will look 
across this way (i.e., north], straightway you will again 
shout 4 wa!' You will duck down under water, you will 
stick your head out, again you will shout as before, you 
will look across yonder (i.e., south). You will duck down 

i go 

xwa; lE'b amxu'xwa lagwE'nEtnix*, mxda'tcgw', aminxa'- 
nauEnx' igu'cax, wa' 'mxu'xw', aga ko'pt, amxatkiwa'ya." 

ya'xdau andi'mamabEt aga a'ngadix- ugwi'hrix- 
watu'l, tfgna'fxat qxEmx'i'udEmax itanft'qliq ilxklwa'iulkl. 
5 Qxnulxa^a: "Na'qxi qsakli'dfilk wa x tul; iwa'd EmxEl- 
ga x gwa, imipu'tc ya'lud wa'tul; p c u x agsmu^wa k^E'ldix', 
agEmu'xwa kVldix* amu^da." Ya x xtau qxe x dau ga- 
qxE'ntx bama kl^y' i^mqt kwo x dau iLalxeVulx, a x watci 
da x ukwa iyu^max gilgElxulal. Aga ga x nuit nk!a x ckac bama 7 

10 k!a x ya qxa x ntcix itctcgE^Em ; da^inua tklxeVulx ; k!ma 
kla'ya ganigi x tkEl dan ia x xleu iyu'lmax, 1 qE x nEgi lka x n 
ialgwilit. Cma x ni k!a x y' ika x ba wrmalba ix'tma^ix' aknfm 
a'watci abu'd i^luxt ; Jaka x xt' iltcqoa" 'tenxElgwo'da. Abu x d 
a'watci 'knfm kta x cq tcagE'lqlix- tclElbo'nil da / minua a x -ic 

15 qxi ma x nk ts!u x nus a-its^s. Qxfdau. 


Incakle'cmanix wima x i: bama. Cma r nix ayutxwi^a 2 imqxa x tc 
qucti x axa ya x xdau alxdu x ma ilgagi x lak. Qa x xba Li x xatmax 
iakla'mEla iia'mqxatc. Cma'nix tcagwa x -ix cpa'k aga x iax 
alaxu'xa, annE r nEna ala'xlaya; yaxa cma'nix itlu'kti ila'm- 
20 qxatc yaxa tca'ctcic. Da'ukwa tcaxE'lqxlix aga alulaMda 
ittga' ; cma'nix ia'klamEla imqxa'tc, ka'nawi dan alixu x xwa 
icgfhi ikxa'lal dan wika'q-, yaxa da'uka ila'mqxatc it!u'kti 
alixu'xwa LJa^Ia k!ma tcaxslqxlix. Da'uya t.'u'nwit inca- 
kl^cmanix na'qxi nca'imadikc incaxE'luit; qxi'dau ya'xka 

1 Literally, "what its name a guardian spirit." "Not what" = nothing. 

under water, you will stick your head out, you will look 
to the setting sun, you will shout 4 wa!' You will duck 
down under water for the fifth time, you will stick your 
head out, you will look up to the sky. Then enough ; 
you will return home." 

Now when I came home, a fire was already burning. 
On the ends of my head-hair icicles were dangling. I 
would be told: "Don't be looking at the fire-, turn away 
from it, present your buttocks to the fire. It will quickly 
blow at you and make you grow quickly." That is how 
I was done to in order not to be sick and in order to 
be strong, or, just so, in order to prepare one for a 
guardian spirit. And indeed ever since I was a child I 
have never been sick ; I have always been strong. But 
not at all have I seen anything that they call a guardian 
spirit, l I do not know what it is like. Sometimes, 
although there is no ice in the river, it is present in a 
canoe or a boat ; in that same water I would bathe 
myself. In winter the water of a boat or canoe always 
freezes, which is just a little bit cool. Thus. 


(These are) our signs, who dwell along the river. If 
a rainbow appears, 3 truly (it signifies) that a woman will 
give birth to a child. Once in a while some one has a 
bad rainbow. If it is summer, (this signifies that) the 
sun will be strong, he will sting and burn; if, howe- 
ver, he has a good rainbow, then it will be nice and 
cool. Just so in winter snow will fall, when the rainbow 
is bad ; everything (bad) will happen rain, west wind, 
or east wind. Just so, however, (if) one has a good 
rainbow, it will be nice and warm, even though it be 

2 Literally "stands." 


we'mai; qxi'dau ka'nawi da'-itcka ki'kct ada'wawat. 1 Ixt- 
ma'x aqxigElgEla'ya mokct- ixtka'dix ; quct ya'xdau ic- 

Cma'nix aqxagE'lgslaya ak^mfn xa'bixix iqlexa'nEba 

5 qlwa'p tcu'wat ina^kadix ya'xdau quct aga q!wa x p ilpa 7 !- 

qau alxi/xwa ilgagi x lak. Cma^ix aqxagE^gElaya ak u Lmi < n 

cgu'wat ctmokct icq!^xa r nEba ya'xdau ilgagi'lak alu'mEqda 

kwo'dau icga'xan alxLa r -ida. Yaxa cma'nix wa'xix aqxa- 

gE'lgElaya ak u Lmrn imqxa'tc yaxLa x dak u t quct ya'xdau 

10 aqxlxitpo/da. TcaxE'lqlix wa'xwax ak u Lmi x n atkbaMwa 

tsman^x qxu'qEmit; klaya 7 aluxwa'nimananma ada'kcEn 

Engl. Itk!l'lawa iaga'il itca'tcaq alixu'xwa ; ma'sa pu ala- 

xu'xwa ak u Lmi x n. 


Ma'ri na'ika wa'naqc! Ag* inigE'mla-it ila'dam. Ag' 

15 ipte/x anie'lux' aldu'.tk. Ngitxudi'nEmtck Ji'd tfke'wax Ha- 

da'm. 3 Da x uya (pointing with right hand to head) wia'm, 

'da'uya (pointing to ^^^^yaxa x n v da x uy' (pointing to heart) 

it!u x kti. yago'mEntf. Qfdau gw^nlsim itlu'kti. 

Literally "they 'kikct' their-speech." "Kikct" is a term that embraces.the various 
probably mutually intelligible dialects of Upper Chinook : Wasco, Wishram, White 
Salmon (= Mooneys' Chiluktwa), Hood River and Cascades (Kwikwulit), and 
Kathlamet and Clackamas. 

* Of the three Christian sects now represented among the Indians of Yakima 


winter. This, to be sure, is not the sign of us Wish 
rams alone. Thus indeed all along the river ; thus (believe) 
all those who speak as we do. 1 Sometimes two (rainbows) 
are seen at once. Truly that (signifies) twins. 

If at night the moon is seen with a star closely follow- 
ing her to one side, that truly (signifies that) now some 
woman is soon to become a widow. If the moon is seen 
with two stars following her, that (signifies that) the 
woman will die and her two children will die. Now if, 
when it is yet daylight, the moon is seen with a rainbow 
about it, truly that (signifies that) somebody will be 
murdered secretly. In winter, (when) the moon shines 
very brightly, the people all go out, plainly she is seen ; 
they never point her out to one another with their fingers. 
It is a bad sign, a great frost will take place ; the moon 
would become ashamed (if pointed at). 


Mary, my mother ! Now I am sitting at the table. 
Now I shall put medicine into my spirit. Help me, give 
light for the tables. 3 This is the father, this his son, 
this his good heart (= the holy ghost). Thus always 
good (= Amen). 

Reservation (Catholics, Methodists, and Shakers), the Shakers are probably the most 
religious. A number of Wishram hymns and religious texts are in use among 
them. See Mooney, The Ghost-Dance Religion (i4th An. Report Bur. ofEth., Pt. 
2, pp. 746-763). 

3 This probably means, "Illuminate my spirit while I eat." 




Ninigt'tg' imitda'xwi. Aga sa'q u ninxi'tx-witckut pu ninu'- 
ya ninix-matkli'nuaba itcE'lx k!m' aga ninigi'tg' imitda'xwi 
nimxtki'm k.'a'ya kwo'ba yaxEmakli'q^nil ya'lqdix- alitklwa'- 
alakwida. Aga da'yax tql&'x E.ndu'xt anxElEqla'xjda cma'- 
5 nix Lqla'p pu aniugumakli'nuaba itcE'lx da'uya klmala- 
lidix*. Tq!e r x Endu'xt anxitqla'xida ma^kayamt kVlt. 
Ninxi'tluxwan pu anu r ya k'uldix* qla^ssn ag' acsnxat- 
wo'gw' aga na x qxi nxs^qlat dafn aniu x xwa. Qa x dEe ga r nuit 
anxitqla'xida maika'yamt. Na x qx' it!u x kti-ix' inxgigla 7 - 
10 gwax k!ma na'qxi dnux Enxi'mad itctcgE'mEm k!ma / dnux 
a'-ic na x qx' itlu'kti-ix' inxg^glagwax lux'wa'n qxE r n'Egi. 
Amixa'n M. W. 


Niniqi x Lgix, ninxatklwa 7 , timd^mam mo'kctba wi x gwa 
ya^ilxam di'ndin. Ninigi'tg' igoa'lilx itcxa'n kwaic ia'- 

15 gwomEntf k!ma x dnux na'ikab' itkxa'dagwax k!a r ya ya- 
gwo'mEnil wi't!' ix*t wi'gwa. Iba'ctEn idiaxilalit nigixtki'm 
kla'ya yago'mEnil nio'kct tfgwo'm.Ex qla'tsEn. Nadida'nuit 
tgaxi'lalit digEmxa'gapx*. AyamElu'xwam' itc!a r xwi qxa'n- 
tcix wi't.'a cma'nix itcx-a^ alidE'niEqta. Inxlu'xwan k!a r y' 

20 ayamgi'tgElx ya'lqdix'. Cma'ni can lgnu x k w ul na'gwatx 
amxaLik^i'tcgwa itcxa'nba. Akx'a'n nigi'mElutam itc!a r - 
xwi; luxwa'n nimigi'tga. Ya'xtau itcla'xwi nimi'nit nigi- 
ninu'yabEt. Qxfdau da'uda sa x q u . 

1 The four letters here given were translated into Wishram by my interpreter, 
Pete McGuff, from the English versions given unaltered above, written by Indians 
who have been to school. The idea that prompted the procuring of these trans- 



I got your letter. I was ready to go and change my 
land, but after I got your letter you said the allotment- 
agent would be gone for a while, so then, now I want 
to know if I will be in time to change my land, if I wait 
until this fall. You let me hear from you soon. I thought 
I would go over and stay two weeks but now pretty soon 
I'll be busy and I don't hardly know what to do. Be 
sure and let me hear from you soon. I'm not feeling 
very well although I am not down sick, but I just don't 
feel good somehow. Your daughter M. W. 

2. ' / . 


I started for home and got here Tuesday at 10 o'clock, 
found my poor boy still alive but still, in my judgment, 
he won't live another day. The white doctor said he 
could not live for two days at first. The Indian doctors 
are working on him. I'll write some time again if my 
son dies. I don't think I'll see you for a long time. If 
anyone knows me I wish you let them know of my poor 
son. My daughter wrote you, I suppose you got the 
letter. The letter you wrote me came when I was gone. 

This is all. 

. . . 

lations was mainly to secure a small body of illustrations of verb forms, not ordi- 
narily found except in conversation. 


Wi'namAc, tu'xEmAc, ya'nawiAc ns'pftdwipa pu'tAtntpA 

I came, I came home, I arrived here second-day-on ten-at 

wie'slikt. Au'yaxnAc inEmi cnua'i mi&'nEc a/xwi wa'qUc 

time. I found my poor child still alive 

ku inmi'pa pxuf tcaw iwa'da anatda'xi na'xc Iklwi'. Kxu'ix 

and my-in judgment not he will again one day. White 


twa'ti (i)na'txaana tcaw iw6'iitk u ta m'pt. Tl'n twa'tima 

doctor he said not he will stay two. Indian doctors 

over night 

paku'tkutca bowapl'tACA. A'natdaximAc mun nfikta ti'mAC 

they are working they are helping Again I you some will give letter 

him. time 

MxE x lq}at qE x nEgi ninxtk^xax niamqi^qbEt. Ninxa^x 
tc u xa r nba go x {q ilgwo^ax. May la'ktix* nigatgu^it mo^ct 
di 7 ndin iklu'n cftlix- niga-ixaLa'^dix- sitkum szm^ itcxa'n 
itcinx^ma. Ancgiu x tg' a/lEma kVdux*. Itcgwo^Enil 
5 L!a r g iki r ax; inxlu'xwan na x ikaba qVdaga p' inxuVoq. 
Na x qxi nxE x lEqlat qE^Eg' anxi/xwa; sa x q u itcxa x n i^mEqt. 
Yaka'xtau wi x lx ninilxiga^am ; na 7 qxi nxE^Eqlat pu wi r t!' 
anu'ya yaxda x ubo wflx. AmxtkligEmtcxi/gwaya cma^ix 
p' anigElga 7 ya wi x lx bam' ilxga^Enkc ; cmanix k!a x ya, 

10 k!a'ya pu wi r t!ax gwio'qt anxi/xwa. H^ai nki'ax ; k.'a'ya 
yakla'mEla-ix- inxli/x'wan aga saq u s'nEg' inxklwo'kct. 
K!a x ya t!a 7 y' iqi x ux. Ninigi'tg' iba'ctEn idiaxilalit kwo'dau 
wi x t!' alu'nikc Nadida x nuit tgaxHalit. Na'qxi nxE'lsqlat 
qs'nEg' anxu'xwa. K!a x ya dan nigEmtu'xwan itcgwo'mE- 

15 nit. Da 7 uda sa'q . 

1 Inasmuch as very little western Sahaptin material has ever been published, 
the above short text may not be entirely unwelcome. Doubtless the phonetics of 
the Sahaptin have suffered somewhat through the fact that the letter was transla- 

pa'iAcnAc miin iJia'uida A'SWAU. Pa'-icmac tca'u mun 

if my some time will die boy. If I you not some 


q!i'nuda a'natclaxi wi'at!ic mi'ckmnAmAca bacu'gadaxnai 

shall see again for long time I wish you me would let know 

inEmi'ki cE'nwai a'swan mie'nAc. InEmi mie'nAc a'iat 

my-about poor boy child. My child female 

ini'am ti'mac ; pa'-icnAm wu'npA. Ti'mAc nAmni'ma wi'- 

she gave letter; perhaps you did get it. Letter you me gave I 


nAnAc k'u'k^Ac tcau watcA'. 

went then I not was. 

You know in what condition I was in when I left you. 
Well, I stayed with my son eight days. Yesterday, May 
4th, at 2 : 30 P.M. my son passed away. We will bury 
him to-morrow. Well, my heart is broked. I feel like 
I'd like to kill myself. I don't know what to do, lost 
my only sweet son. The boy I was there to get land 
for, but I lost him and don't know if I'll come that place 
again. You ask if I can get land for my grandchildren ; 
if not, well, I won't try noway again. Well, I am satis- 
fied, nothing to make me feel still bad, as I got all I 
can try to save my son. But they failed to cure him. 
I got white doctor and besides three Indian doctors. I 
don't know what I'll do. I don't care for my life. This 
is all. 

ted by Pete McGuff, a Wishram. A is to be pronounced like u in English but, 
ii is long open e. 

2 Chinook Jargon for "noon;" literally, "half day." 


' rijrri :/, 4. 

Ninigi'tg' imitcla'xwi a'ngadix- klwale' ninxitqla'xit 
maika'yamt wi'tla. Idia'giutgwa'xix' ninxithi'xwa-it nin- 
xi'tcmoq S. k!ma Mrs. M. icdatcgE'mEtn ; nagwa'tx aga 
pla'Ia da'ya da'pt. Ka'nauwe pla'la di'ka yaMma cpa'g 
5 ixifldix* da'ya da'pt. Nintguxwatca'mit qa'uatk' iguna'd 
idiaga'qctagokc nintxatklwa'-itambEt. James F. Grand 
fio'nde-iamt nigidi'mam ; aga kxwo'pt nitctu'kl q'a'uat. 
Aga kxwo'pt Mrs. A. di'ka nigaxtki'ax ; niktu'kt q'a'uat. 
Wi 7 t!' agEwu'lx' ZteY&r-iatnt di'ka nigaxtki'ax; niktu'kl 

10 q'a'uat. Aga kxwo'pt kla'ya ta'blat duk!wa x -itix\ 

Nintx^matga'b' \\a' nnerybz. sqfLak k!ma A. nigi- 
gi'tga wi'mqt agakcE 7 nb' ix'qle'walal ielE'xlEx. Aga kxwo'pt 
p!a x la ni'ntxatx k!a x ya Iga'blad uxwoqle'walal. \\.ca'nnery 
aga q!oa x b aluxwatbu^ida qxe'waba k!a 7 ya fga'blad u- 

15 xwoqle'walal wi'malba. K!ay' itlu'kti-ix inxgigEla'gwax nin- 
dimamba't Ya'&zma-yamt ; aga kxwo'pt k!a'ya Iga'blad 
inuxwaca'mit uxwoqle'walal. Da'uya sa'q 11 da'uyaba da'pt; 
qxe'dau ag' anixbua'ya^ Andu'y' iduna'yaxiamt qxa'uat- 
b* Hgwo'max nxlu'xwan. Nki'ax 

ami'utxix . 

j :i;'%I>I;jivi.i.un^ \{f:t *iol LjfijKi j'v*.i run i '":;. 
r ; ; . ' i T " 

" : .l ;".':- .. ' i.' > iOVV . 'llJi'^ii "/"i''''V \ ;. ' v";^ -' _; 

: !!,; JIT i ; iiKtl IfUfi [:i:ft off! r^^ 


I received your letter some time ago and was glad to 
hear from you again. I was sorry to hear that S. and 
Mrs. M. were sick. I hope they are well by now. We 
are all well down here but the weather is very warm at 
present. We dried only a few salmon-heads. After we 
came home and James F. of Grand Ronde took some 
and Mrs. A. was here and took some and my niece from 
the Dalles was here and took some and we haven't very 
many left. 

We worked in the cannery awhile but A. got salmon 
poison in her thumb and we quit as there is not many 
fish anyway. The cannery will soon close as there's not 
many fish in the river. I haven't felt very well since I 
came home from Yakima and I didn't dry much fish. 
This is all I can think of for this time. So I must close. 
We are going to start for the huckleberry patch in a 
few days, I think. I remain 

Your cousin . 




Luxwa'la-itix- tfa'xluit Wa'qlsmaba -, 2 Iqa'uadikc fxe'la- 
itix- Wa'qlEmaba tqa'uadikc hce'la-itix* wi'lxamba Nix-- 
lu'idix-ba. Aga kxwo'pt galu'kw' agwi'xqwix ca'xalix'. 
Aga kxwo'pt gaiga'xtcmoq ; gaqa'ltcmoq cu'lulululu. 3 Aga 
5 kxwo'pt i'x-ad ikala gali'kim : "Iqaltcmoq itcoVcxatpa." 
Fxat gali'kim: "Icga'gitcpa iqa'ltcmoq." 1'xat gali'kim : 
"Itga'piqba iqa'ltcmoq." Aga kxwo'pt tslu'm galxu'x. 
Aga kxw6 x pt galgu'gwig' ilaga^atcx. Kxwopt a'ga galx- 
di'na, galxwo'q ka^amokct. Galxdina'4 ; pla'la galxu x x. 

10 Aga kxwo'pt alalxi'luxula da x ukwa itctagi'tcxutkc icta- 
xala cti x gEmuxt, watch cx^gEmuxt ; yaxa x yax ayaxi^xulx* 
itguna't ctuxu Tal, iciaxa^a ctrgsmuxt. Lu x n ite^x ga x lxux 
kwo'ba galxe'la-it; kwo'ba galxdi x na ; p!a x l' aga ga'lxux. 
Aga kxw6 x pt gtiflcim ita^luit : "Lluya 7 qatgi ag' alxu x ya 

15 qxa'damt; LJuya 7 nilxa x tx Mxaxa^ukc ; ag' algiu^axla 
wflx." Aga kxw6 x pt galgu x gwiga icgE'nEmax. Aga 
kxw6 x pt galu^ya. Yaxtaba x 2 galu'ya Walawalaba/2 ; Ac- 
nEmba x 2 galu x ya , NuLla-ikba^ gak/ya; na x wit NuL!a r - 
nuL!aba x 2 gatu'ya ; na^wit Sts!Emtsiba x 2 gahi x ya ; na x wit 

20 Wisu'mba gah/ya-, naVit Ta^alanba galu^a; naVit Txa x i- 
aunaba galu'ya; na x wit wiqxalba 7 2 4 galiglu^a-ix* ; naVit 
Po'uwankiutba^ gala x gluya; na x wit Xitla'iba gahi'ya; na'wit 

See Mooney, op. cit., pp. 740, 741, according to whose version the emigrant 
Wishram travelled up the Spokane, not the Yakima. Of course the tale is purely 
mythical, but is separated from the myths because of its pseudo-historical character. 

1 A Wishram village which was a short distance up the river from the main 
village Nixlu'idix or Wu'cxam. 

* Very high pitch. 



The Wishram were dwelling at WVqlEmap; 2 some of 
them were dwelling at Wa'qlEmap, some of them were 
dwelling at the village Nixlu'idix. Now then a duck flew 
over their heads. And then they heard it, it made a 
noise: shu'lulululu. 3 Now then one man said: "It made 
the noise with its beak." One said: "It made the noise 
with its nostrils." One said: "It made the noise with 
its wings." So then they got to arguing. And then 
they seized their arrows. Then indeed they fought, both 
parties killed each other. They fought and fought (until) 
they ceased. 

And then, (whenever) any one fished with dip-net, thus 
two men provided with quivers remained near their friend, 
kept watch over him ; while he, the dip-net fisherman, 
caught salmon, his two friends staid near him. Three 
years passed by and there they dwelt; there they fought 
(until) at last they ceased. And then (one party of) the 
Wishram said: "Being in some way disgraced, let us 
now go off somewheres ; we have become disgraced be- 
fore our friends. Now let us go to look for (another) 
country." So then they took cedar planks and then went 
off. Way yonder they went, among the Wallawalla. 
They went on past AcnE'm. They went on past NuiJa'-ik. 
They went straight on past NuiJa'nuiJa. They went 
straight on past StslE'mtsi. They went straight on past 
Wisu'm. They went straight on past Ta'malan. They 
went straight on past Txa'iauna. Straight on they went 
to a small river. 4 They went straight on to Po'uwankiut. 

4 Without doubt the Yakima is meant. 


ixco / q u tba wi'qxal galu'ya ; gahi'ya SAtA'sba; na'wit ga- 
lu'ya IiJu'mEniba; na'wit Pata'xiba 1 gahi'ya. 

Aga kwo'ba gabd'la-it. Aga kxwo'pt itguna't itsu'iha 
aga'kwal ickla'daqxi gafktu'x, galxE'lEmux. Aga kxwo'pt 
5 galki'm: "Qxwotxala' yak!a'its wi'lx. Ag' alxu'ya i'wat 
iklu'n' alg^unaxlama wrix." Gafu'ya na x 2wit Patixkwi'utba, 
aga da'uya wi x gwa itba'ctEn algii/pgsna \Gafp ? Kwoba" 
gatxHa-it. Ya x -ima xa'bix'ix* atkdu x xwa itgu'nat alalxi'- 
luxuk; yaka'xdau ya'xliu wilx IxElExtgi'dix'. 3 Aga wi x t!a 

10 galki'm: "Qxwotxa'la yakia'its wi'lx." Aga wi'tla galu'ya 
galgiu^axlam wi^x. Da x uya wi r gwa nio^xumit qa r xba 
galxidla^itix* ifo/xluit ga^gadix*. Itk!a x lamatpa ickE^max 
ixi x nxat; qxe'wa nxE'lqlat galgi^kl icgE^Emax qxaMagatci 
nxli/xwan la'-itcka ilacgE^Emax ita^luit ; dala'x pu gal- 

15 dE x mqt. 

Aga wi 7 t!a galu x ya galgiu'naxfam wi x lx, galkla^u. Ga- 
Wu'xwa-it: u Algu x gwiga itguna x t lga x blat qa'matg' it!u x kti 
wi x lx aga kwo'ba alxfla-ida." Galu'ya na x 2wit W^natc- 
caba-, 4 galu'yam ila'xluit. Aga kwo x ba galxfla-it galxi- 
20 Ia x 2it. Aga wi x t!a galki'm : "Ag alkla'yuwa." Aga 
kxwo'pt wi'tia galkla'yu. Lga'p galgigE'lga wilx itgu'nat 

- 1 It was not found possible to definitely locate all of these Sahaptin place-names. 
NuLla'-ik was somewhat east of Wasco; NuLla'nuLla was about 2\ miles east of 
Nixlu'idix; Txa'iauna was at Summit, within the limits of Yakima Reservation and 
some distance south of Fort Simcoe; Po'uwankiut was at Canyon, near Summit; 
>A'tAs .is represented by Satus Creek of to-day; iL'.u'mEni was at the head of 
Canyon Creek; Pala'xi was said by Pete to-be near Wenatchee, north of North 
Yakima (if this is correct, the name is evidently misplaced in the narrative, as it 
should come after "The Gap"). The course of the supposed migration was thus 
cast for a short distance along the Columbia, then north across the divide between' 
the Columbia and the Yakima, and then along the Yakima to the Wenatchee. 


They went straight on past Xit!a'i. They went straight 
on past a dried-up small river. They went straight on 
past SA'tAs. They went straight on past IJLu'mEni. They 
went straight on to Pafa'xi. 1 

Now there they remained. And then they caught 
Chinook salmon, blueback salmon, eels, and suckers ; they 
ate them. And then they said: "Behold! the country 
is small. Now let us go off yonder, let us look for 
another country." They went straight on to Patixkwi'ut ; 
now to-day white people call it "The Gap." 2 There they 
remained. Only at night do people catch salmon (there), 
they fish with dip-nets. The name of that same country 
is IxElExtgi'dix. 3 And again they said: "Behold! the 
country is small." And again they went on, went to seek 
(another) country. To this day I see where (those) Wish- 
ram used to live long ago. Among the rocks cedar 
boards are standing. That is how I know that they took 
cedar boards with them, so that I think they are the 
cedar boards of them, the Wishram ; perhaps some may 
have died (there). 

And again they went on, went to look for (another) 
country. They moved. They thought to themselves : 
" We will get lots of salmon ; far away somewheres there 
is a good country, and there we will dwell." They went 
straight on to Wenatchee; 4 (there) the Wishram arrived. 
And there they dwelt, dwelt long. And then they said: 
"Now let us all move." And then again they moved. 
They took a country for themselves (where there were) 

2 "The Gap" is the narrow pass through which the Yakima flows in break- 
ing through the low range south of the town of North Yakima. 

3 This is its Wishram name, and may be approximately translated as "the 
place where two mountains nearly touch." Patixkwi'ut is the Klickitat or Ya- 
kima term. 

* In the country of the Salish Piskwaus or Winatshi, who dwelt along the 
Wenatchee R., a western tributary of the Columbia. See Mooney, op. cit., p. 736. 


Jga'blat kwo'dau itq u ctxi / Lawa fga'blat. Da'uya wi'gwa 
kwo'ba Jxe'la-itix- ag f a'ic ila'xluit. Cma'nix p' anu'ya 
na'ika na'wit p' anuya'ma ilaxlu'itpa, algnu'gulaqfxa ; 
na'wit p' alginuwo'gwa. Da'uya wi'gwa fa'-itcka ila'xluit 
5 galgigF/lga wi'lx palala'i 'tgu'nat palala'i 'tq u ctxi x Lawa 
k!ma na'qxi incklu'qxumit nca'ika. Qe'dau klu'xwan 


Na'ika Louis Simpson soldier ganixtki x xax mo^ct ils^x 
galuxwadi x naxba idE^xam aqhrwa'gwa pu hluwa^xayukc. 3 

10 Gaqxi'ntcit iqa'kEmit ; icta^x {soldiers gatci'ntcit: "Amc- 
khi'wagwa iltlua'nxayukc; a-iLa x x ilaVan, a-iLqloa'b amo 
klu'xwa Iaqxa 7 qctaq, amcgagE^g' ala^alxat. Aga kxwo'pt 
Lq!u x b amcklu'xwa ilat^k ; cta^ilxam ick!i x tcax amcgix^ma 
ilaqxa x qctaq ilt!u x anxayukc. w la^liu fxat \chief Pala x i-ini 8 

15 fxat ia'xliu YaViwa; 3 tcdalxe x wulx icdakla^Ela icka^la 

Itca^ilxam aga^ax gantcu x ya. Na x qxi gancklgi x tkEl 
wfxatba; gu x Lqb' aga x Lax gantcu'guix. Gantcu'ya fxt 
intcakla'munak k!un sfnEmokctlgal, da'pt gancu'ya idE'l- 

20 xam hlu'anxayukciamt. Aga kxwo'pt gantcklgs'lgax wf- 
xatba luwa x n gwE'nEmikc iltlua^xayukc. NaVit k!a x u- 
k!au gantckhi'xax ; kla'ya ilka'lukc Ja 7 -ima ifqa'dotin k!ma 
ilnp/mckc. Gantco'guix. Aga kxwo'pt gantcgiguo'qox 
sa r q u itgaVulqt gantcxu'xwox ka/nauwe. Aga kxwo'pt 

25 ka'dux gali'kim intca^tamx : "Aga mcxE'lkilx ag' amcE- 

The Paiute or Snake Indian War spoken of in this personal narrative of 
Louis Simpson has been described in detail under the title of "The Shoshone 
War" (1866-1868) in H. H. Bancroft's History of Oregon, Vol. II., Chap. XXI. 
(pp. 5 12-5 54)- The war was conducted against the Oregon Shoshones of Mal- 
heur River and Camp Warner, the whites being assisted by a considerable body of 
Indians from Warm Spring Reservation. 


lots of salmon and lots of deer. To this day they 
dwell there and they are just nothing but Wishram. If 
I should go off, should go off until I came to (those) 
Wishram, they would recognize me; straightway they 
would kill me. To this day they, the Wishram, hold the 
land (where are) many salmon and many deer, but we 
people have not seen them. Thus believe the Wishram. 


I, Louis Simpson, was soldier for two years when the 
people fought, (when) the Paiutes 2 were to be killed. 
The order was given to us, the chief gave it to us sol- 
diers : "You shall slay the Paiutes. You shall rip open 
their bellies and cut their heads ; you shall take hold of 
their scalps. And then you shall cut through their necks ; 
you shall put the heads of the Paiutes ten paces off." 
The name of one (Paiute) chief was Pala'i-ini, 3 the name 
of another was Yawi'wa ; 3 they were both of them strong 
and wicked men, chiefs. 

At 10 o'clock we started off. We did not see any 
(Paiutes) on the way. At 8 o'clock we camped. We 
started off one hundred and seventy of us, this many did 
we people start off towards the Paiutes. And then we 
caught about five Paiutes on the trail. Immediately we 
bound them ; they were not men, only children and wo- 
men. We camped. And then we dreamt that we all 
became covered with blood. And then in the morning 
our chief said: "Now do you make a fire and I shall 
tell you something." So then we got up from bed, and 

2 Ih'.ua'nxayukc, used to refer to the Paiutes, really means "enemies." 

3 These names are probably Bancroft's Panina, the leader of the Paiutes, and 
Wewawewa (op. cit., p. 550). 


lukli'tcgwa." Aga kxwo'pt gantcxla'i-itckox. Aga kxwo'pt 
gantcktgE'lgax itqta't. 1 Aga kxwo'pt gantcgla'lamx ; aga 
tcpa'q gantcgla'lamx. Aga kxwo'pt gali'kim itlo'xyal : 
tf Ag' amcElukli'tcgwa mca'ika qE'nEg' inixgigwa'gwa. 
5 Dau' aga'lax ag' alxla'-id' ag' MgE'lkEl tftlu'anxayukc. 
Cma'nix a'lEm' alxklgE^gsla acxu'xwa icgi'lti.' 7 Qi'dau 
gal^gimx itiu'xyal. Aga wi't!a gantcgla^amx iqta't gantc- 
gi'guqhdx. Aga wi x t!a fxad ika x la gairgimx : "Ag' 
amcElukl^tcgwa qE x nEg' inikigw^gwa na 7 it!ax. Nigi^gsl- 

10 taql iqwo'qwo 'g' ulpgd^emd aga x lax. Aga kxw6 x pt ilgi 7 - 
gElga iqwo x qwa ia^an 3 ia^ima. Qfdau inixkigwo^wo." 

Aga kxwo^t wa^ 8 aLgi ma/8 4 galuxwa x xax idE^lxam. 
Htlu'anxayukc k!wa x c gaho/xwax; galktca^umx. Aga 
kxwo'pt gayutcu'ktixix. Aga kxwo'pt gantcgu r gigax idki^ 

15 udanikc; gantckdaVixax itkala^idmat tkiuda^ikcba. Aga 
kxwo x pt gatcintcu^xamx icta'mx 11 : " Ma/kct mokct amc^ya ; 
na'cqxi amcxElpIa^awulalama da r uya w^gwa." Aga kxwo^t 
gali'gimx icta'mx 11 : "Da'ulax iltsE'ndi itlu'ktix amtsklkli'tka. 
Cma^ix a x lEma amtcklgE^gsla da x ulax iltsE x ndi 

20 i x w' alxu x xwa wflxba lu^ix ag' a^Ema kxwo^t iV 

xa r txa ka r nauwe ; a^Ema da r ukw' amcxu^wa. 57 Aga 
kxwo^pt gantcu x ix ; qucti x axa ilt!u r anxayukc klwo^ixix ; 
agatu'ya iltsE^di galuskE^Emux. Aga kxwo^t iVi gal- 
xu'xwax ; lu'nix i x wi galxu x xwax wilxba. Aga kxwo^t 

25 i'wi gantcu'ix ntca^kaba. GantcklgE x lgElx iltlua^xayukc 
ila'qlimax sfnEmokct ala x tul. 

Kxwopt a'ga icgi^ti gacx^xwax. Aga kxwo^t Lla x k u 
gatci'uxwax icta'mx 11 qxeligikctim. Aga kxwo'pt gali'- 
gimx icta'mx 11 : "Na'cqxi Paiute so Idler ste-itokz.? Kxwo'pt 

30 gaqxa'gElgax ; capca x p gaqu x xwax; pa 7 ! itga'matcxv 5 

1 The i( l ta ^J^^Pjece of hard wood that has a series of semicircular notches 
cut into it : I s-^.^^^ t Another piece of wood was rubbed up and down 
over it, a "thrilling" sound resulting. In the war dance, as practised by the 
Wascos, singing and the simultaneous rubbing of the iqta't accompanied the 


then we took hold of iqta't-sticks. 1 And then we sang, 
now strongly we sang. And then the hero said: "Now 
I shall tell you people what I dreamt. Now this day we 
shall die, I have seen the Paiutes. If we are to see them, 
it will rain." Thus said the hero. And again we sang, 
rubbed the iqta't-sticks together. And again one man 
said : " Now I shall tell you what I, for my part, dreamt. 
A grizzly bear ran away from us towards the setting sun. 
And then we caught only the grizzly bear's son. 2 Thus 
did I dream." 

And then the people yelled their war-whoop : wa-f- 3 and 
jna-f. 4 The Paiutes became afraid, they cried. And then 
daylight came. And then we got the horses and put the 
saddles on the horses. Now then the chief said to us : 
"You shall go two by two; you shall not talk to one 
another to-day." And then the chief said: "This flag 
you shall well keep. Whenever you see this flag move 
three times from the ground, then you shall all look 
about. Thus you shall do." And then we started off. 
Truly there were Paiutes not very far away ; now the 
flag went on, went ahead. And then it moved, three 
times it moved from the ground. So then we went and 
looked about among ourselves. We saw houses of the 
Paiutes ; they had seven fires. 

Then indeed it started in to rain. And then the chief 
took out a spy-glass. And then the chief said: "They 
are not Paiute soldiers." Then a box was taken and 
chopped open ; it was full of bullets. 5 And then they 

2 That is, "male cub." 

3 This sound is broken up into short periods by quickly beating the palm 
against the open mouth. The pitch of the vowel is very high, a shrill effect 

4 As before, but whispered. 5 Literally, "arrows." 


Aga kxwo'pt gaqhi'tx tt'xat tfka'la gwE'nEm algal. Aga 
kxwo'pt t!a't!a gaqtu'xwax itgoa'lala ka'nauwedan 'tipistol; 
gaqa'wigitkax itgoa'lala kwo'dau itkJE'nEt. Aga kxwo'pt 
tla'ya tla'ya galuxwa'xax idE'lxam. I'xt ikiu'tan t!a't!a 
5 gaqi'uxax; da'b' 1 itpi x q gaya'-its ikiu x tan kla'u gaqdi'luxax 
itp^q. Aga kxwo'pt "Ag' alxu'ya sa x q u alxkl^xwa" gal- 
g^mx. Aga kxwo'pt itki x udaniukc gantcugwa'la-itx. 

Aga kxwo'pt gantcu x ix sa'q u gantcklu^wax ilt!ua x n- 
xa)fukc, sfnEmokct ala^ul sfnEmokct Wqlimax. Aga 

10 kxw6 r pt tc!pa x k gatgi^ itkiu'daniukc ; q!wo x p gantcklu^ 
xwamx. Aga kxwo x pt qe 7 dau gantcklu x wax inxi x amxulu- 
max wa/8; 2 lk!u x p lk!u x p galuxwa x xax itgwa^ala. Aga 
kxwo'pt gatktxwi^x \\,Paiutes aga gafgi/gwigax ilaga x - 
matcx. Aga kxwo x pt lk!u x p Iklup galuxwa x xax qa'daga 

15 dagapga x p itx u dll / t iWqlba. Twi gantcxu x xwax ; wi r gwa 
gantcxd^nax. Yaxta'b' aga'lax 8 pla'la gantcxu'xwax. A-i- 
Lla'x ila'wan, a-itqloa'b tfa^uk, a-ilq!oa x b ana^xat, cta 7 - 
lilxam icki'tcax itaqxa'qctaq. GantckcgE 7 lgax ctmo^ct 
ickla'ckac a x -ixad agagi x lak fxad ika'la ik!a x ckac. 

20 Gantckhi'dinax akti'lx labla'd. 

Kwo'pt xa x bixix galixu x xwax. Kxwopt watch gantcxu^ 
xwax; wa'pul ganckca'wiglagwatckox itkiu x daniukc. Aga 
kxwo'pt ittslfnonks 4 gaqxa'witcmoqax ; qucti'axa a'-ixad 
akla'ckac galga x gElga xa x bixix galgantcxta'mitx. GanxE r l- 

25 tcmoq na'ika (whistling]. Aga kxw6 x pt gatcnu'lxamx ika'la : 
"Mi'a lElxa'mam. Wi'tla Iklu'na-itc watch alxu'xwa." Aga 
kxwo'pt ganlu'lxam: " Mcgu'yutk ; lk!u x na wi'tlax iW- 
mam iltlua'nxayukc." Aga kxwo'pt watch gantcxu'xwax 
antca'tilx tkiuda'niukcba. Gayutcu'ktixix. Aga wi'tla gan- 

30 tcu'ix. Aga wi x t!a gantcklgElgax ih!ua x nxayukc. Aga 
wi'tla kwo'ba galuxwadi'nax ; a x -ixad agagHak a'niwad 
gaqxwo'qox. Aga kxwo'pt galuxwadi'nax ; ftdu'p Iklup 

1 Indicated by gesture. 2 AS above. 

8 With gesture towards the western horizon. 


were given out, fifty to each man. And then the guns 
and all the pistols were carefully cleaned, the guns and 
revolvers were loaded. Now then the people were all 
prepared. One horse was carefully fixed up ; here l feath- 
ers were tied on to a bob-tailed horse, feathers. And 
then they said: "Now let us all charge on them." And 
then we rode the horses. 

Now then we started out and all charged on the Pai- 
utes ; they had seven fires, seven houses. And then swiftly 
the horses went, we came up close to them. Now then 
thus we followed them with war-whoops : wa+ ; 2 the 

guns were shot off. And then the Paiutes came to a 
stand and seized their bullets. Now then they shot ; 
the smoke just darkened everything up about their houses. 
We looked about and fought all day. (When) the sun 
(was) over there, 3 we stopped. (We) ripped open their 
bellies, cut through their necks, cut off the scalps, (put 
down) their heads ten paces off. We caught two chil- 
dren, one girl and one boy. We killed many of them, a 
great number. 

Then it became night. Then we kept watch, looked 
after the horses all night. Now then the horses 4 were 
heard to neigh; in truth the (Paiutes) had under cover 
of darkness seized one girl and run off with her from us. 
I whistled, and then a man said to me: "Go tell them! 
Let some more of us keep watch. " So then I went and 
then I told them: "You fellows wake up! Some Pai- 
utes have come again." And then many of us kept watch 
over the horses. Daylight appeared. Now again we 
started off, and again we caught some Paiutes. And 
again they fought there ; one of the women was killed 
first. And then they fought ; bang, bang ! went the guns. 
We caught some women. I killed a Paiute, we shot at 

* Literally, "birds", (= "animals"), somewhat slangy for "horses." 



galu'xwax itgwo'lala. Gantcgu'gwigax idnE'mckc. Na'ika 
ganidwo'q itlu'anxa; ftdu'p gantci'katx; ya'xka ika'la it!u'- 
anxa da'n iatca't iga'q u tEtx. A-iiJa'x ia'wan gani'uxwax, 
a-iiq!wa'b ia'tuk, a-ilq!wa/b ayana'lxat. Kwo'ba gali- 
5 xi'maxitx itiu'anxa da'n iaqla'qctaq. 

Gani/yamx qa x xba gantcxdi 7 naxba, palala x i idns^ckc 
fkabla't. Palala'i agati'lx ana'lxat luxwa'n laktlga^. Gaq- 
tudi x nax ada 7 nal:xat. Qe x dau galuxwadi x na Paxutobb wflx 
ia'xleu Gwoph^ni 1 kwo x dau wflx ia x xleu Malhe'wa. 1 Aga 
10 kxwo'pt gantckluMinax sa x q u adatrix gantcgi/gwigax Paiute 
idnE'mckc. Xa^ixix k!a 7 uk!au gantcktu r xwax. 

Aga kxwo^t gaqxE'ntculx gantcu x ix iaga^l wilala ada- 
ti x Jx it!u x anxayukc ; na^wit ilklala^imatpa gaqxE x ntcukla- 
max. Aga kxw6 7 pt lk!u x p gaqcEntclu x xax. Aga kxwo x pt 

15 gaqEntcupgna^wanananumx mokcdga^ ilka^ukc la^ilxam 
ilka'lukc ihloxi^luwimax ilalx^wulxumax wi x t!ax. Kxwopt 
la/lilxam qx^gEmtkix galxu 7 xwax galuxwa x xax qxiq!a/q- 
ba gactxwo^ox itkiu x danikc. Aga kxw6 x pt galuskE 7 - 
nEmx ilka^ukc mo^ct mokct, gantsu^gEnEm intca x niwa- 

20 dike. Aga kxw6 x pt naVid idE'lxam intca^ikouba gat- 
gE x ntcuwax kwo x dau intcaxiuManiukc itga^atcx gactx6 x - 
mox qxiq!a x qba idE'lxam. Aga kxwo'pt gantcu'ix ilk!a- 
la x -imatba. 

GatcEntcu'lxamx \captain: "Na'qxi a'lEma Lu 7 k amc- 

25 xa'txa; amcu'ya a'natkadix. Cma'nix a'lEma lk!u x b alu- 
xwa'txa itgwo'lala ag' a'lEtna mco'it; na'qxi k!wa 7 c amc- 
xu'xwa. Aga da'ukwa Igucgi'wal, iqxa'kEmit niqe'lxElut. 
Aga ia x -ima alxlaMda," gatcEntculxamx , "qs'nEgi mcxlu x - 
xwan? a r ga tci da'ukw' amcxu'xwa? ate' amcxla'-ida, ca'xEl 

30 imcktxa' idEmca'kcEn." Aga kxwo'pt e'wi gantcktu'xwax 
Intca'kcEn. Wi'tla nixE'lgakwax gatdu'lxamx : "Dau' 

1 It is practically certain that these names are nothing but disguised forms of 
the English Camp Harney and Malheur River. 

him ; he, the Paiute man, had no shirt on, he was naked. 
I ripped open his belly, cut through his neck, cut off his 
scalp. There lay the Paiute without his head. 

I arrived where we had been fighting ; there were very 
many women. There were very many scalps, perhaps 
forty. Those to whom the scalps belonged had been 
killed. Thus they fought in the Paiute country named 
Gwopha'ni 1 and the Paiute country named Maine' wa. 1 
So then we killed them all and caught many Paiute 
women. At night we bound them. 

Now then we were taken, we went to a large lake 
(where) there were many Paiutes. Straightway we were 
brought to the bridge, and then we were shot at. And 
then we were called out by name, twenty men ; ten men 
were brave warriors, also strong. Now ten were put in 
the rear ; the pack-horses were put in the middle. And 
then the men went on in front two by two, we first went 
on in front. And then straightway the people followed 
us in back of us, and our pack-horses for the bullets 
in the middle of the people. Now then we went up to the 

The captain said to us : " You shall not go back, you 
shall go ahead to the other side. If the guns will be 
shot at us, just go ahead. You shall not be afraid. Now 
that is how we are travelling ; the command has been given 
to us. Now we can only die," he said to us. "What do 
you think? Now will you do thus? Are you willing to 
die? (If so), lift up your hands!" And then we showed 
our hands. Again he turned round and said to the 
(others) : " Now this day we shall die. What do you 
think? Now will you do thus? Are you willing to die?" 


aga'lax ag' alxla x -ida. Qs'nEgi mcxhi'xwan? a x ga tci 
da x ukw' amcxu x xwa ? ate' amcxfa x -ida ?" Galu x gwakim : 
"A'-a! it!u x ktix intcxlu x xwan sa x q u nca x ika dau' aga x lax ag' 
antcxla'-ida." Aga da x ukwa a x ni x ntcxux : "Aga da x uya 
5 wi x gwa antcxla'-ida." Cma'ni la'xya-itc alu x ya alasgE^Em- 
nan datcxa'-i da x uda-itc qxiqla'qba datcxa x -i atgi x a. Aga 
kxwo'pt gantcu x ix. Aga kxwo'pt gatgi'x idE'lxam ; gwa'p 
gantcu x ix. K!a 7 y' itli/anxayukc gwa x p gatgi x x, intca x niwa- 
dikc. Aga kxwo x pt idE^xam gatgi x x gwo x p. Da^m' it- 

10 ga x qxat kwo x dau itgaq u li x max da x im' itk!a x munak. 

Aga kxwo x pt kwo x ba gantcu x guix. Aga kxwo x pt xa x bi- 
xix watch gantcxu x xwamx itpoqo x xba. Iwa x d ndmo x kct 
gandu x ix ; iwa x d ctmo x kct gactu x ix ; wi x t!a ctmo x kct iwa x d 
gactu x ix ya x xtau. Ag' alatu x lpa watch antcxu x xwa wa x pul; 

15 agantga x gElgElx watu x h Aga kxwo x pt gatcnu x lxamx na x ik' 
anu x ya antulxa x mama itgu x yEmxatpa : "QE x nEgi tc!a x l' 
amu x y' a x watci na x ika?" Kwopt gangi x mx : "Naik' anu x ya." 
Ya x xi ia x Jqdix ganlu x lxamam ; aga ga x nuix. Aga kxwo x pt 
ganu x yamx; ganlulxamamx : "Wa x tul ia x xiba intgagE x l- 

20 kEl." Galigi x mx \captain: "A x -u alxu x ya." 

Aga gantcu x ix; na x 2wit gantcu x yamx ika x laba. Kxwopt 
gantcu x ix watu'lpa. Kxwopt ka x nauwe gantcga x gElgax 
watu x t daq!a x 2p idE x lxam. Dawa x x galixuxwa x xix. Aga 
kxwo x pt lk!u x p lk!up galo x xwaxax. Gantcklu x dinax ilt!ua x n- 

25 xayukc sa x q u luwa x n la x lilxam lk!un gwE x nEma. Aga 
kxwo x pt gantcgu x gwigax ilaxiuda x niukc mokct ; i x xt iatcgE x - 
mEm ia x qxuit ikiu x tan kwo x dau i x xt dadakda x g ia x guL. 
Plala la x -itcka gali x kla-itx ilt!ua x nxayukc dadakda x g ia x guL 
ih!ua x nxayukc ila'xiutan. Wi x t!ax ka x dux alqidi x wi da x ukwa 

30 wi x t!ax watch gantcxu x xwax watu x lpa. Wa x pul ganckla x yux 
gantcga x gElgElx wa x tut ka x nauwa ; wi x t!a ka x dux ganckf- 
gE'lga alati'lx. Wi x t!a gancxdi x nax; ganckfu x dina sa x q u . 
Wi x t!ax iLa x qxat gancgu x guigElx iltka x ba. Aga kxwo x pt 

1 That is, my companion. 


They said: "Yes! We all think it well that we should 
die this day." Now thus we agreed: "Now this day we 
shall die." Whenever those who were in front advanced 
fast, these in the middle would advance fast. So then 
we went on. So then the people went on , we went across. 
The Paiutes did not go across ; we were first. Now then 
the people had gone across. There were only their tracks 
and their houses, nothing but logs. 

And then we encamped there. Now then we kept 
watch at night in the mountains. Two of us went off 
that way ; two went off that way ; two again went off that 
way. Now we were to keep watch all night for their 
fire. Now we two caught sight of the fire. And then 
he * said to me : " How about it, will you go or shall 
I?" Then I said: "I shall go." Way off yonder I went 
to tell them ; now I went. And then I arrived and told 
them: "We two have seen a fire over yonder." The 
captain said: "Yes, let us go." 

So on we went ; straightway we came up to the man. 
Then we proceeded towards the fire. Then we all got at 
the fire, the (Paiute) people all standing around. It be- 
came light. And then they shot. We killed all the 
Paiutes, about fifteen. And then we caught two of their 
horses ; one horse had a sick leg and one was sore-backed, 
his skin all coming off. The Paiutes quietly sat on their 
sore-backed horse with his skin coming off. Again next 
day, just as before, again we kept watch for a fire. All 
night long we moved and saw all the fires ; in the 
morning we again caught many of them. Again we 
fought ; we killed them all. Again we saw their tracks 
in the snow. And then we followed them (until) it be- 
came quite dark. And then one man said: "I shall go 


gancldi/wax daxapxa'p nixu'xwaxix. Aga kxwo'pt gali- 
gi'mx t'xat ika'la: "Naik' anu'ya ya'xtaub' ika'la idia'- 
qxatba." Aga kxwo'pt gayu'yix ; gantcu'ix. Gali'gimx : 
"Qatgi'ng 1 inxux ca'niamt." "Anu'ya na'ika idiaqxa'tba 
5 it!u x anxa na'ik' aniwad," gali'kim fxad ika'la. Gatci'wax 
idia'qxatba. Aga kxwo^t dagapga'b galixuxwa'xix. 

Aga kxwo'pt gali'kim ika'la : tt Dik' a x g j alxugu'ya." 
Aga kxwo'pt gantcu'guix kwo'ba iltka'ba. Ka'dux ganto 
gu'itgEmux. Aga wi x t!a gantcgi x wax itli/anxa idia^xatba. 

10 La x x gantcxu x xwax aga tca-itga x luqt watul. Aga gantc- 
ga 7 gElgElx ka x dux. Aga kxwo^t iVi gantcxu x xwax ; a-i- 
kia'u gantcxu x xwax li/lu ga x n. Aga kxwo x pt dakda x k 
gantcgu'xwax idEntcagwo x lala ; gantcktu x xax t!a x ya t!a x ya; 
gantcga'wigitkax ; itga^atcx qu x LquL gantckt6 7 wixax. 

15 Aga kxwo'pt gantcu 7 ix ; gantcgilgfiluxta^max so^ 11 gantc- 
klu x xax wa^S. 1 GalksubEna 7 iux naVit iltcqo^amt iltlua'n- 
xayukc ; ilqa x uadikc gantcklgE^ga gantcklu x dinax. I x xad 
daba x ik!a r skas gantcgigE x lgax ; fxad nikta x x ika x la itk/anxa 
nixwo^itx. Aga kxwo^t galgixwo'xix. Aga kxw6 7 pt 

20 ika x la Ik.'u^ gatccfguxax ; ia^aq gatci x luxax K^'kcEnba 
itli/anxa na x wid dalxoa^. Aga kxwo^t nixElga x kwax 
it!u x anxa ia x xt!ax ciagwolala. Aga kxwo^t ia x xt' it!u x anxa 
ik!u x p gatccu x xwax. Aga kxwo'pt wi'tia Iklu'p gaqdi'gu- 
xax. Aga kxw6 7 pt nixi'maxidEmx. Aga kxwo'pt iatu'kba 

25 Iqlo'b gaqi'uxax kwo'dau iaq.'a^ctaqba Lq!6 7 p gaqi'uxax 
kwo'dau L!E'X ia'wan. Qucti'axa ia'xtau it!u x anxa ia'maq 
iaxu x ba. 

Aga kwo'ba galgi'waqxox ; iciagwa'lala gantckcgE x lgax 
it!u r anxa-, iaqla'qctaq ia x xi galgiufa'dax. Dawa'x aqle'yoqt 

30 atlu'anxa dan isga'xus agaplu'nsnkau kwo'ba gaqugwilxE- 
mux ing' icgwolala itcaqla'qctaq. Aga kxwo'pt p!ala 
gantcxu'xwax. K!a'ya iltlua'nxayukc. Aga kxwo'pt gantc- 
ia^xi ca'xElix itklalamatba ala'tilx. Aga 

1 As above. 


in the man's footprints." So then he went on, we went 
(after him). He said: "I give up; let somebody else 
try." - "I shall go in the Paiute's footprints, I first," said 
one man. He followed him in his footprints. Now then 
it had become very dark. 

And then the man said: "Now let us camp here over 
night." So then we camped there in the snow. In the 
morning we awoke and again followed the Paiute in his 
footprints. We came in view, now (we saw) the fire 
burning. Now in the morning we saw it. And then 
we looked about and got together in a bunch without 
saying anything. And then we loosened our guns, care- 
fully cleaned them, and loaded them ; we put bullets into 
them. And then we went on. We made a charge, we 
all yelled wa-f- 1 at them. The Paitites all jumped straight 
into the water; some of them we caught and killed. We 
caught one little boy here. One Paiute man ran away, 
he dashed off. And then they headed him off. And 
then a man fired at him and wounded the Paiute in his 
hand, pierced it right through. And then the Paiute was 
surrounded ; he also had a gun. Now then that Paiute 
shot it off. And then he was again shot at, and then 
he fell down dead. And then his neck was cut through, 
and he was cut in his head, and his belly was ripped 
open. In truth, that Paiute had been wounded in his arm. 

So there they killed him; the Paiute's gun we took, his 
head they threw way off. At daybreak there was an 
old Paiute woman there, without eyes, blind ; her head 
they mauled with a gun. And then we ceased. There 
were no Paiutes to be seen. Now then way off we caught 
sight of many of them, high up among the cliffs. And 
then we went on slowly, we went up a small river. And 


kxwo'pt iawa' gantcu'ix gantci'lwilxtx wi'qxai. Aga 
kxwo'pt i'wad tclpa'g gahdlp!a'lawulalEmEx tftiua'nxayukc. 
Aga kxwo'pt gi'gad galgi'mx itlu'anxa. Qe'dau gali'- 
gimx itlu'anxa: "Ga'du dabi'bo, agaidzi'." 1 Aga kxwo'pt 
5 iklu'na gali'gimx: "Dabi'bo, ga'du agaidzi'." 3 Aga wi'tla 
da'ukwa gali'gimx ia'niwad: "Gadu dabi'bo, agaidzi'." 2 
Aga kxwo'pt mte&captain gali'gimx: "Na'qxi saxEmat- 
klna'iugants. Aga tslu'm Ixa'lguxt ; aga Ixu'lal 'agaidzi" 
Jaxta'uaitc, qada'ga bi'd imcxu'x." 

10 Aga kxwo'pt da'uya 3 ika'la Paiute gali'gimx : "Ag' 
inu'gikEl ga'nuit soldiers? Aga kxwo'pt k!wan klwa'n 
galuxwa'xax ; inxi'amxul wa'8. 4 Aga kxwo'pt gali'gimx 
ia'xia i'nadix : "Na'qx' anu'ya." Aga kxwo'pt wa'x 
gatctu'xwax idio'ql. Aga kxwo'pt gatca'wigaluqwax 

15 idio'q'l itlu'anxa. Aga kxwo'pt gali'kta itlu'anxa gali- 
xwo'xitx. Aga kxwo'pt da'ba ctmo'kct gactu'ix ntca'ika- 
bama kwodau lla'ktikc galu'ix ; tclpa'k e'wi galu'ix itkiu'- 
danikc a'mEni. Da'ba galxo'xamx. Aga kxwo'pt \\Paiutes 
lk!u'p galkcu'xax; 1'xt ikiu'tan ia'maq galgi'luxax ayatc- 

20 kJE'nba kwo'dau i'xt iatu'kba. Aga kxwo'pt i'wi i'wi ga- 
li'ktax, gatciuda'mitx ikiu'tan; ki'nua gatci'xgax. Antca'i- 
tikc kwo'ba gantcu'yamx. Aga kxwo'pt gali'gimx ika'la : 
" Ia'maq tfgi'lux itcxiu'tan iltlu'anxayukc mo'kct itga'maq 
ilkto'wix." Aga kxwo'pt bl'd gantcxu'xwax. 

25 Aga kxwo'pt gali'gimx ika'la: "lak.'a'mEla-ixpa hd'la- 
itix ilt!u'anxayukc ; aq!E'lax aki'xax ; k!a'ya qs'nEgi al- 
klu'xwa." Ctmokct icka'la cta'xta itkla'lamatba gactu'La-itx. 
Aga kxwo'pt gacxklwa'x nca'ikaba; na'wit gactu'yamx. 
Aga kxwo'pt gacgi'mx: "Iak!a'mEla-ixba hd'la-itix ilt!u- 

30 a'nxayukc." Aga kxwo'pt p!a'la gantcxu'xwax ka'nauwe. 
Aga kxwo'pt I'xad ika'la i'wad gayu'yax. Aga kxwo'pt 

Literally, Fish-eaters." This sentence is in Shoshoneau, 
* This sentence is in Shoshonean. 

then farther on some Paiutes were talking excitedly among 
themselves. Now then the one towards us spoke, a 
Paiute. Thus said the Paiute : "They are not whites, 
they are Wascos." 1 And then another one said: "They 
are whites, not Wascos." 3 And again as before the first 
one spoke: "They are not whites, they are Wascos." 2 
Now then our captain said: "Do not look around! Now 
they are uncertain as to who we are. Now those men 
are saying 'Wascos,' (but) do you just keep quiet." 

And then this 3 Paiute man said: "Now I have surely 
seen that they are soldiers." And then (our people) be- 
came glad and yelled their war-whoop : wa+. 4 And then 
yonder man across the river said: "I shall not go (to 
meet them)." So then he set fire to his house. Now 
then the Paiute's house burned, and then the Paiute ran 
off and escaped. And then here two of our men went 
on, and four of their men went (to meet them); very 
quickly they went ahead on horseback. Here they came 
together. And then the Paiutes shot at the two ; they 
wounded one horse in his shoulder and one in his neck. 
Now then (one man) looked about as he ran off, the 
horse ran away with him ; in vain he tried to hold him 
back. We arrived there. And then the man said : "The 
Paiutes have wounded my horse, they have wounded the 
two of them." And then we quieted down. 

Now then the man said: "The Paiutes are staying 
in a bad place. There is a fence (there) and we can't 
do anything to them." Two men (went over and) staid 
there at the cliffs. And then they came back to us, 
straightway they arrived. And then the two of them 
said: "The Paiutes are staying in a bad place." And 
then we all stopped. Now then one man went off a 

3 That is, the one near us. * As above. 


gantcxEltcmo'qwax wo'8 1 inxi'amxul galgi'uxwax. Qucti'- 
axa ia'maq galgi'luxwax ilt!ua x nxayukc ika'la iaqui'tba. 
Aga kxwo'pt galksubEiia'iux ; galgi'gElgax ika'la. Aga 
kxwo'pt gi'gad gatgi'ukl. Aga kxwo'pt kwo'ba wi'gwa 
5 pia'la gantcxu'xwax. 

Aga kxwo'pt gali'gimx \captain: a Kwa x ic adamcElu x da 
mo'kct itk^munak ag 7 a x lEm' amsksu^Ena ilt!u x anxayukc- 
ba." Aga kxw6 7 pt ika r la ia^aq galHwulxtx aga nixi x - 
maxitx qe'dau : "V V V etc* aga q!oa''b iaxiba^ 

10 'galax. Aga kxwo^t gali^imx \captain ia 7 xleu Billy Chi- 
nook'. "Naqxa 7 dik' alxu x xwa ag' alxk!wa x y' aga 
dik' a 7 lxuxwa, sa x q u a^Em' alktu x dinaya ilt!u x anxayukc i 
xaxi x udaniiikc qxa r dagatci alxk!wa 7 y' aga. Ya x xtau i 
ia x maq ia^cgEmEm kwaic hi'xwan ayu^nEqta ag' a 7 lEm' 

15 algi'ukla." - - u A'-u qwoW alxklwa'y' aga." Aga kxwo'pt 
gantcxE^txuitckax ag' alxk!wa x y' aga. Aga kxwo^t ika x la 
ia 7 maq iaxi 7 utan gantckcikla^aqwox. Aga kxwo x pt gantc- 
gikla'-imitx. Aga kxwo^t ika x la a-ik!a x u idia^uit gantc- 
gi x uxwax. 

20 Aga kxw6 x pt gantcu 7 ix naVid w^qxat; gantci/pgiux 
iltcq6 x ba. Aga kxw6 x pt Ik!u 7 p gali/xwaxax itgwolala ; 
na'qxi can i^maq gaqxrtluxax. Wa x x wax nu x it lk!u x p 
nuxwax itgwo'lala ; ka'nauwe gaqsntcu'qlpax. Aga kxwo'pt 
inxi'amxul galgi'uxax iltlu'anxayukc nca'ikaba , wa x 8 3 

25 gahcu'xwax. Aga kxwo'pt gali'gimx \captain\ "Ag' 
anhi'lxama iltlu'anxayukc, ca x n alganElge'laba." Aga 
kxwo'pt gali'gimx ikala : "Na'ik' anlulxa'ma iltlu'anxa- 
yukc. Qfi'nEgi mxlu'xwan qE'nEg' amlulxa'ma?" "Anlul- 
xa'm' aga a x nigi'xux iaga'il icta'mx 3 alxdi'naya gwE^nEma- 

30 lat \b:'\x aVatci i x xt ilakla'munak ite'lx qxa'dagatci na'qxi 
pu Iklu'b amckcu'xwa. 4 Qxa'daga ha x e amEncgE^lgEla kwo'- 

i.bove, in a high pitch. 2 AS above. 

3 That is, the President of the United States. 


ways. And then we heard yelling: wo-)-, 1 the (Paiutes) 
yelled the war-whoop. As it turned out, the Paiutes had 
wounded the man in his leg. And then some (of us) 
jumped up and seized the man. And then they brought 
him hitherwards. And then we stopped there all day. 

Now then the captain said: "Soon I shall give you 
all two hundred (bullets), and you shall jump upon the 
Paiutes." And then the injured man's wound swelled, and 
he lay groaning thus: V V V etc. Now the sun 
was nearly (down) way yonder. And then the captain, 
his name was Billy Chinook, said: "Let us no longer 
stay here, but let us return home. If we stay here, the 
Paiutes will kill off all of our horses, so that we had 
better return home now. That wounded man is sick, and 
perhaps he will die soon ; now we shall take him with 
us." (We said): "Yes, indeed, let us return home now!" 
So then we got ready and were now about to return 
home. And then we bound the wounded man to his 
horse and put him astride him. And then we tied the 
man's legs. 

Now then we went on straight to the river and waded 
in the water. And then the guns were shot (at us), but 
no one was wounded. Immediately when it was daylight, 
the guns were shot ; they missed all of us. And then 
the Paiutes yelled a war-whoop to us ; wa-f 3 they yelled. 
And then the captain said : u Now I want to speak to 
the Paiutes; who will interpret for me?" And then a 
man said : " I will speak to the Paiutes. What do you 
think? What are you going to tell them?"- - "I shall tell 
them that the Great Chief 3 has made up his mind that 
we fight for fifty years or one hundred years, so that 
you had better not be shooting. 4 You must first see us 
before you shoot at us ; maybe you will run out of am- 

4 Sarcastic. "Don't waste your powder." 


dau ttdu'b amcEncgu'xwa, di'gutcix aluxwa'ixuma idEmca'- 
gamatcx. 1 Da'uax a'-ixt aga'matcx na'ika qxa'dag' ayamc- 
lu'da ; mca'ika iltlu'anxayukc amcxi'duitcatk, mcxa'ngi- 
duitcatk." Aga kxwo'pt Hdu'p gatccu'xwax. 
5 Xa'bixix gatchi'lxamx : "A x xtau a^matcx qxa'daga 
ya x mclut. Ag' a 7 igi'xux iaga'tf icta'mx ag' alxdi'naya 
luwa'n ila/k!amunak itelx." Aga kxwo^t gantcxu x xwax 
qe x dau: wa^. 3 Aga kxw6 7 pt gantcu 7 ix xa^ixix idEntca- 
gu^imxadiamt. Gantcgiu x kt ika x la ia^aq k!a x u gaqi r - 

10 uxax idia x quitba ; ag' iatcgE^Etn nixu x xwax ika r la. Aga 
kxwo'pt mo^ct itkiu x daniukc gatgi 7 x gadinsxsgE^Emux 
idEntcogu'yimxadiamt. Aga kxwo'pt galkcu'lxamx : "At- 
ga'dit idE'lxam fxad ika'la ia'maq iqi'lut, aga qi x Lt." 
Aga kxwo'pt da'ba gayuxwigi'lxax ; wi'tla da'ba gayu- 

15 xwigi^xax; la'kt watu'l: gaqo'xwax. Aga kwo'ba gantci/- 
yamx. Aga kxwo'pt gantcaxLa'kwax watu'h Da x uda-itc 
itka x lukc idEntcagu^imxatba ; aga kxw6 7 pt galgE^tcgslgax 
idEntca^cEnba ; shake hands galgE 7 ntcuxwax. 

Aga da'ba gantcaxLa'kwaxix watu%a. Aga kxwo'pt 

20 galgintcu'lxamx : "Ca'n ila'maq igixa'llux ?" Aga kxwo'pt 

gantcgiu'pgEnax ia'maq igixi'lux Tia'mlauwai. Gantckhi'l- 

xamx Igabla't gantcga'gElgax ana'lxat iltlu'anxayukc aga- 

ti'lx. Aga kxwo'pt na'wid nugwa'lalamx ana'lxat itga'la- 

lamax; wa'pul gatgu'yutckwax gada'nLakwax itga'kcEnb' 

25 ana'fxat. Aga kxwo'pt fxad ikla'skas gaqi'gElgax it!u x - 

anxa ilisa'qba gaqixu'tgax ; iaxta'ba watu'l gantcu'yamx. 

Kwo'ba gaqiuxwala'dapax kwo'ba nikta'lalEmax watu%a 

gaqiucga'makwox ikla'skas it!u 7 anxa. Wa'pul galugwa'la- 

lamx dawaxwa'x nu'it a-iLa'x aga'lax. Aga kxwo'pt p.'a'la 

30 nuxwa'xux idE x lxam. 

IkaT aga iatcgE'mEm galixu'xwax. Aga kxwo'pt ga- 

Literally, "Your bullets will be eaten up, consumed." 2 As above. 


munition. 1 This one bullet I shall give you just for fun. 
Do you Paiutes listen, listen to me !" And then he shot 
off his gun. 

In the evening he said to them: "That bullet I gave 
you just for fun. Now the Great Chief has made up his 
mind that we fight perhaps a hundred years." And then 
we yelled thus : wa-f-. 3 And then at night we went to- 
wards our camp. We took the wounded man along with 
us and he was tied by his legs; the man had now be- 
come sick. And then two horses went on, went on ahead 
of us towards our camp. And then the two men (riding 
them) said to those (in camp): "The people are coming, 
and one man has been wounded , now they are bringing 
him." And then they made a fire here, another fire they 
made here ; four fires were made. Now there we arrived. 
And then we passed around the fire. These men were 
in our camp ; and then they took us by our hands and 
shook hands with us. 

Now here we passed by the fire. And then they said 
to us: "Who has been wounded?" And then we named 
who had been wounded TIa'mlauwai. We told them 
that we had taken many scalps, many Paiute (scalps). 
And then straightway the people sang the scalp song ; 
all night long they danced and went around with scalps 
in their hands. Now then a certain Paiute boy was taken 
and enclosed in a sack. We went right there up to the 
fire. There he was taken out, there he ran about near 
the fire, and the Paiute boy was captured (as though in 
war). All night long they sang, right up to early dawn, 
when the sun just began to appear. And then the people 

Now the man had become sick. So then a long pole 
was set up, and then ceremonial feathers were tied on 


qiu'txEmitx ik!a'munaq ia'lqdix. Aga kxwo'pt itklicgE- 
la'lamax kla'u gaqti'luxwax icgi'lukc ia'kutc ikla'munaqba 
ca'xlix ika'la ya'yulmax. Gali'gimx ika'la: "Ag' a'numEqta 
ag' amcgEnxtcmo'gwa qE'nsg' angina da'n inE'lqlat na'ika 
5 nk!a'ckac ganExtki'xax. Aga kxwo'pt da'n ganigE'lksl 1 
nkla'ckac qxa'dagatci ag' axamcEluk^tcgwa dan woVo 
gatci'ntxa nk!a x ckac dan ganitgla^lq. Aga tsh/nus icgi x hi 
acxa r txa. Qe'dau nxE x lqlat ganxElEqla x xit nk!a x ckac. Ga- 
yu x ya dala^max igi/cax ganigE x lkEl kwo x dau datk!u x b igu r - 

10 cax gayi/ya. Aga kxwo^t gacti/y' icgi^ti. Cma^ix 
a'lEma na'qxi ackgrttia kw6 7 dau cma^ix a x lEma na x qxi 
watsi/ptsup ag' a'lEma Iquct anu^Eqta." Aga gactugrt- 
tix kwo'dau watsu r ptsup aga gali^imx ika r la ia x maq : 
a Ag' anxgwaMa iltcq6 7 ba ag' amcgEn^kla." Aga kxwo x pt 

15 ihcqo'yamt gaq^ukl gaqi^^imalxax. Aga kxwoxpt t!a x ya 
galixu x xwax ika x la ; ya^ulmax ga^iuit t.'u^uit ya 7 maq 
galgi'tx iltii/anxayukc. Na x cqi gali^Ernqt , t!a x ya galixa x tx. 
Ka'nauwe can galgi x tqxEmit ; na 7 it!a da x uya gan^tqEmit. 
Qxfdau Nadida^uit itgahteVulxEmax idago'mEnil: ; k!a r ya 

20 da x ukwa Ba^tEn. Pu gwE^Emix alugu 7 ya Nadida^uit 
k!ay alxlxs'lEma k!a'ya pu alugE'mcta iltcqoa'. Qe'dau 
iLalxe'wulxEmax Gala'sqlo ; kla'y' idaklwa'cumit. Da'ukwa 
la x -it!ikc ilt!u 7 anxayukc k!a r y' ilaklwa^umit. 

Lu'nix- gantcugu'ix k!a'y' itlxlE'm. Aga kxwo x pt gantc- 

25 gi'gElgax iuklo'its ila'lik lu'nlgal idE'lxam. Aga kxwo'pt 
li'xat tslu'nus gaqxi'llutx -, lu'qx galgi'uxwax. Ya'xi idsn- 
tco'guyimxat ; da'uyax ila'lik yoklo'its lu'qx gantcki'tx 
kmlga'l idElxam. Aga gantcx u k!wa / yux ; naVid idEn- 
tco'qtba gantcu'yamx. 

30 Aga wi'tla gantcu'ix; wi x t!a gantcklu'naxLamx ih.'u'an- 
xayukc. Aga gantcklgE x lgax ca'ib' aga'Lax. Aga kxwo'pt 
na x wid iltcqo'ba gantckhi'wax galxantcgE'luwoqlqax ; galu- 

That is, "dreamt when training during the puberty rites for a guardian spirit." 


top of the pole to a wolfs backbone, the man's guar- 
dian spirit. The man said: "Now I shall die, and do you 
all hear what I have to say, what I learned when I was 
a boy. Now then I saw 1 something as a boy, so that now 
I shall tell you all what it was that spoke with me as a 
boy, what I recognized. Now it is going to rain a little. 
Thus I know, I found it out as a boy. I saw black (clouds) 
passing over the sky, and the sky turned white. And 
then it rained. If it will not rain and if it will not hail, 
then truly I shall die." Then it started in to rain and 
to hail, and the wounded man said: "Now I shall bathe 
in the water, and you will carry me." So then he was 
carried to the water and put into it. And then the man 
recovered ; surely indeed the Paiutes had shot at his guar- 
dian spirit. He did not die, he became well. Every one 
saw him, also I here saw him. Thus the Indians have 
strong hearts ; not thus are white people. Indians could 
pass five days and eat nothing, nor would they drink any 
water. So strong are the Wascos, they are not cowards. 
So also they too, the Paiutes, are not cowards. 

We passed three nights and there was no food. And 
then we caught a very small jack-rabbit ; (we were) thirty 
people. And then to each one a little bit (of meat) was 
given each one ate (his share). Far away was our camp ; 
this small jack-rabbit we thirty people ate. Then we went 
each to his own home, straightway we arrived at our 

Now again we set out ; again we went to look for the 
Paiutes. Then we caught them when the sun was straight 
overhead. And then straightway we chased them into 
the water, they escaped from us ; the Paiutes all swam 


kli'x'iyux tftlu'anxayukc. Aga kxwo'pt ia'xiba tftcqo'ba 
La'2x aixa'txa iitlu'anxayukc. Aga kxwo'pt Lgu'b antckl- 
tcgu'xa iftlu'anxayukc. Kxwo'ba gantcu'guix ; kVdux- 
wi'tlax gantcklgE'lgslx tftcqo'ba. Aga kxwo'pt gantcx u - 
5 k!wa'x; gantckhi'lxamx : "Da^ba mcxpci/iwalit iltlu^n- 
xayukc? Mcti x alxdi'naya." Aga kxwo'pt Lku x p gantc- 
kcu'xwax; gantckhi'lxamx : "Da'u' aga^atcx qxa'daga 
iqa'mcElut." Aga kxwo^t gantc^klwa^ux ; gantcklgE^- 
gax wi x ixatpa iit!u x anxayukc. Aga wi x t!a kwo x ba gantcx- 

10 di'nax. Tx*ad ika x la itlu^nxa iciagw6 x lala k!a x uk!au 
idia x piq ikna^n. Aga kxwo x pt ia^aq gaqi x luxwax itli/anxa ; 
Lku x p gaqci^uxwax ; naVid gayu^Eqtx. Lgo^qdikc gaq- 
lu x dinax ilt!u x anxayukc; k^nauwe da x k gaqa^xuxax ana x l- 
xat kwo x dau a-iLqlo^b ila^uk a iLa/x ila x wan ; safq" ka 7 - 

15 nauwe qxfdau gaqlu^wax. GanckcgE x lgax ilctagwo^ala ; 
nca r ika sa x q u gantcklu'dinax. Aga kxwo^t galugwa x la- 
lamx idE'lxam analxa r d amEni ; k!wan k!wa x n nuxwa r xax 
idE'lxam Galasqlc/. 

Aga p!a x la galxu'xwax ittlu'anxayukc iqxaMinaxiamt. 

20 Aga kxwo'pt galxtki'm iltlu'anxayukc: "Aga p!a x l' intc- 
xux; kwo'pt aga ilxd^na." P!a x la gantcxa'tx ka x nauwe. 
K!a x ya gantcg^gitkEl Pala'-ini ilt.'u^nxayukc ila'ctamx kwo 7 - 
dau k.'a'ya gancg^gitkEl Ya'wiwa ih!u x anxayukc ila'ctamx. 
Aga kxwo'pt na'wid gantcklm'q ka x nauwe ; na'wid Wala- 

25 wala'ba gantcklLu'q ; kwo'ba gantcklxa'dima iltlu'anxayukc. 
Qe'dau gantcxadi 7 na tftlu'anxayukc ; iakla'mEla-ix gantcxa- 
di'na. Aga tfakla'mElamax itt.'u'anxayukc ilagu'liumax. 
Qe'dau a x gali x xatx \goverment qxa r dagatci gantcxa x dina 
naika Pa'pkss 1 ganxa 7 dina. 

30 Aga na'-ima ka'nauwe galxa x la-it Galasqlo"; da'uya 
wi'gw' aga ctmo'kctka Warm Springy k!ma na'ika 

Pa'pkEs is one of Louis Simpson's Indian names ; it was said by him to have 
been borne by a former Wishram chief. His common Indian name to-day is 


off. And then way yonder in the water some Paiutes 
would just appear. And then we would shoot at the 
Paiutes. There we camped over night; in the morning 
we again caught sight of them in the water. And then 
we started home ; we said to them : " What do you 
Paiutes all keep hiding yourselves for? Come, let us 
fight !" And then we shot off one volley. We said to 
them: "This bullet we have given you for nothing.". 
Now then we started home. We caught some Paiutes 
on the road. Now again we fought there. One of the 
Paiute men had magpie-feathers tied on to his gun. And 
then the Paiute was fired at, he was shot ; straightway 
he died. Eight Paiutes were killed ; their scalps were all 
taken off, and their necks cut through, their bellies ripped 
open ; to every one of them it was thus done. We took 
their guns, we killed them all. And then the people 
sang with scalps ; happy the Wasco people became. 

Now the Paiutes ceased from the war. Now then the 
Paiutes said: "Now we have stopped, we have fought 
enough." We all stopped. We did not see Pala'-ini, 
chief of the Paiutes, nor did we see Yawi'wa, chief of 
the Paiutes. And then we took them all back with us. 
Straight to Wallawalla we took them back ; there we 
left the Paiutes. Thus we and the Paiutes fought, fierce- 
ly we fought. And the Paiutes are bad people, they 
are thieves. Thus the government agreed, so that we 
fought. I, Pa'pkEs, 1 fought. 

Now I am alone, all the Wascos (who fought) are 
dead. This day there are now only two at Warm Spring 
and I - - we three fought with the Paiutes. Now to-day 



nchi'nikck' aga gantcxa'dinax iltlu'anxayukcba. Da'uya 
wi'gw' aga iltlu'ktimax ag' ala'wowot Ba'ctEnEmt fap!a'- 
lamExtsEmEx tftlu'anxayukc. Da'uya wigwa itlu'anxa 
ya'xan k!m' ag' ayasqlu' ika'la aya'xan tcu'cgamt. Qxfdau 
5 government gatcuguitxu'dinEmtck. 


A'ngadix fga wa'lu gaktu x x idE'lxam ; la^Elat galuxwa^ 
la-it, Aduxixi x klxa ika x la gatcudukwa x ckwax aya x gikal : 
"Aga tli/ktix amu^a agu^xixiamt ag^mluda dan tfxE r - 
IEITI alilxE^lmuxma itxa^xuq." "Tli^kdi-ix," gagiu^xam, 
10 a anu x ya." Kwopt gali/ix ; gagia x lut icima^q ba x ma iklrt- 
xwalalmat iaga x ilbat icima^q. Kwapt lq!6 x p gagiu r xwax 
ixco'qt ika x titck kwoMau isklfmks ; gagiu x klam. Gatcu x l- 
xam : "K!a x ya amifli/da itxa x qxuq; qa x xba hatla^ixba 
amyu^ka." "A^u," gagiu^xam. Kwopt gagi x utk. 

15 La x bElat idiage'xEltkiu ka x nawi wa x lu gElu'xt. Quctia x xa 
qlwa'p aga gawaxE'mdix. Ka'dux gayu'ix wima^iamt ; 
gatcu'xwa ala'lax ikica'tckba. Kla^a can Igiu'qxEmit 
kwaic ka'dux yu'yEm. Ka'lqun aga gatcgs'lgax ickla'- 
taqxi mo'kct. Wi x t!ax gayu'ix ka'dux ; dau'kwa gatcgE 7 !- 

20 gEnil. Kwo'ba tcu'dslk ; la'bElat gacxu'x kwo'dau ga- 
tcu'kl itla'q^iamt. Gatcu'lxam : "T.'a'ya amcukstE'mita 
da'ucta ickla'taqxi. Ts!u x nus tslu'nus amiWu'da itxa'qxuq 
qxa'datci k!a x ya ilatcgE'mEm alkcu'xa." " A'-u," gagi'ux. 
La'-it!ikc iliage'xEltkiu gaklclu'tx ma'kct mokct, yaxa sa'qx u 

25 aga walu gElu'xt. Kwaic kla'ya stu'kst kwopt galcxE'lmux- 
bax alumqxta. 

This account of a famine at the Cascades was taken down in Indian from 
an old woman by my interpreter, Peter McGuff, who supplied also an interlinear 
translation. The events took place about 1835. 


the Paiutes are good and speak English, they are peace- 
ful. To-day a Paiute's son and a Wasco man's daugh- 
ter marry. Thus Government helped them. 


Long ago, I believe, the people suffered hunger ; many 
of them died. They tell about a man (who) sent his wife 
(to get food): "Now it is good that you go to my elder 
sister, she will give you some food, our children will eat." 
- "It is well," she said to him. "I shall go." Then she 
went away. She gave her (sister-in-law) a sea-shell for a 
necklace, so large a sea-shell. Then (her sister-in-law) cut 
some dried pounded salmon and dry fish-skin. She 
brought it home. He said to her: "You will not give 
it to our children ; you will put it away in some hidden 
place." - "Yes," she said to him. Then she put it away. 

He had many slaves; all of them are hungry. Behold, 
springtime is now near at hand. In the morning he went 
off to the river ; he constructed a fish-trap at the falls 
(when) no one sees him, very early in the morning he 
always goes. Finally he caught two suckers. Again he 
went off in the morning ; as before he kept catching them. 
There he always puts them away ; they got to be many 
and he brought them to their house. He said to her : 
"You shall cook these suckers carefully. You shall give 
our children just a little bit, so that it will not make 
them sick." - - "Yes," she said to him. To them too, his 
slaves, she gave each two suckers ; indeed they are all 
hungry now. The stickers are not yet done; then, when 
some of them ate of them, they died. 


T!u' LalLla ga'lixuxix ; ma'nk la'bElat gatdgs'lga. Am'x 

anix aga gatcigElga'nif igu'nat-, aga it!u'ktix Ixi'la-itix. 

Aya'-utxix itca'qxuq gahi'yamx a'-ixat yattxwa't ilacima'lq. 

Gala'kim agage'lak, da'k gagi'uxwax ak!a 7 ckac, gagia'lutx. 

5 Gaqxulxamx akla'ckac : Aya'mEllxwaya imca'sklimks 

kwo'dau imcaka'titck." Galu'yam ak!a x ckac itlo'qlba. Ga- 

gi'uguloql ilasa'mun ; gala x xEmasa-it. Ka'nawi idE'lxam 

gatga'xslk^itck itgatqlfxumit. La x bElat idE^xam kwopt 

galu'xwala-it wa'lu ngi. Ka'nawi qa x xba la x bElat ihga x 

10 kwo'dau ika'ba wima%a. 


A'ngadix fga galu'xiqlaxit idE^xam aga qlwa'p atgadi'- 
mama Ba x ctEn. Ixa x t Iga gal^xslqlaxit iq!i 7 uqt xa x bixix. 
Kwopt galixgigwa^wax ; gatcugi x gElx uxalu x idat idE^xam, 
wa x wa gatgi'ux, gatkdi^nimananfmtck ka x nawi dan ; kwo r - 

15 dau itca'waclalamax 2 gatcaVitcmoq qxa x wat Iga lu r n tci 
la'kt. Ka x dux u galigi'mx sa'q u ba idslxam. Aga kwo'pt 
gadigE x lxaq k^nawi can ilgag^lak ilka x la ilkla^kac ilqli^qt 
sa x q u can. Gayaxa x wik u Litck idE'lxam dan gatcigE x lgElx 
itqxi x uba xa^ixix. Aga kwo r pt gadigE^xaq ; gatguwi x utck 

20 ka'nawi wi x gwa ka x nawi xa'bixix; k!wa x n k!wan galuxwa 7 - 
xax Engi idia'watca. 

Gali'kim: "KwaMc adilga'tgwama da'nmax uxalu'idat; 
k!a'ya wi'tlax anga'dix diwi; k!a r ya wi'tlax da'uda idfil- 
xa'kdi kwaic alkdu'cima ; atkLa'ma ka r nawi dan uxalu'idat ; 

1 This text, like the preceding, was taken down in Indian and provided with 
an interlinear translation by my interpreter, Peter M^Guff, the source being an 


It became quite warm and he caught a little more. 
Finally now he began to catch Chinook salmon ; now 
they are living prosperously. His elder sister's children 
came to (them), one of them has their sea-shell around 
her neck. The woman told her (about it), the girl took 
it off of herself, and gave it to her. The girl was told : 
"I shall put the dried fish-skin and the dried pounded 
salmon of you people around your neck." The girl ar- 
rived at their house. (Her mother) recognized their fish, 
she was ashamed. All the people talked about her being 
stingy. Many people then died of hunger. Everywhere 
there was much snow and ice in the river. 


Long ago, I believe, the people learned that now whites 
would soon come. One old man, I believe, learned of 
it at night. Then he dreamt ; he saw strange people, 
they spoke to him, and showed him everything; and he 
heard something like three or four Indian 3 songs. In the 
morning he spoke to all the people. And then every- 
body gathered together to hear him, women, men, 
children, old men, everybody. He told the people 
what he had seen in his sleep at night. And then they 
gathered together to hear him ; they danced every day 
and every night. They were made glad because of his 

He said: "Soon all sorts of strange things will come. 
No longer (will things be) as before ; no longer, as will 
soon happen, shall we use these things of ours. They 
will bring to us everything strange ; they will bring to us 

old woman named Sophia Klickitat. The events are supposed to have taken place 
at the Cascades long before the coming of the whites. 
2 Ca'wac ("Indian"), from Chinook jargon sa'iwac. 


atkLa'ma a-ic amikllu'qdia ixF/lalal dan ya'xiba, dapa'u 
ayu'lktcwaya, ayu'mEqta." Qucti'axa icgwa'lala ya'xdau 
gatccu'lxam. "Aqxa'Lama atli'wat qxalkli'tcxEmal ; k.'a'ya 
wi'tlax amu'cima anga'dix bama amitli'wat akla^amat 
5 Engi." Qu'ctiaxa ga x nuit gatkLa 7 !!! gatcdu^xam idE^xam. 
tt K!a x ya wi x t!ax ala'mxpcta anga^ix diwi." Wa x ou k!wa x n 
kiwan galu x xwax ; cpa x k galuViutck. "AqxtLa'ma da r ngi 
idak.'a^tsax itk.^munoq daxka x ngi alamxlgi'Lxa." Qu r c- 
tiaxa amE^sis a x xdau gatci^lxam. 

10 Wfgwamax wa^ulmax gatguwi 7 utck ; k!a x ya wa x lu gak- 
du x x, t!u x nwit bu x t gali/xwax. K^nawi dan gatgi^Elksl 
iqlfstin aq!fstin aq!i r wiqxi astu'p. " Uxalu'idat idfilxam 
atkLa'ma qxi'dau da'nmax ; datgu'pmax idE'lxam itgami'q- 
cumax wata x xba aga x Laxiamt atga'dimama. Tcu'xEnika 

15 mcxa^x." Aga r yaxa cpa'k wi x t!ax asuxibu^oninxla ; bu't 
nuxwa'x cpa'k. Aga ga'nuit da'uka da'nmax da'uya 
wigwa aga t!u x nwit da r ukwa galixgigwa'qwa iqlfuqt. Kwopt 
ya'xpt k!a x ya dan iduiha'max ; kwaic gatgi x Lam Ba'ctEn ; 
ya'-ima caxEla'damt bama ica'wacduihamax. K.'a'ya wi'tlax 

20 dan iki'utan, da'ima itqlu^suLxlEm. Qxi'dau a x ngadix 
galu'xwax wi'mal bama idE'lxam. 


(something which) you just have to point at anything 
moving way yonder, and it will fall right down and die." 
As it turned out, it was a gun of which he spoke. "There 
will be brought to us a bucket for boiling-purposes; no 
longer will you use your old-fashioned bucket made out 
of stone." As it turned out, they really brought to us 
what he told the people of. "No longer will you make 
fire by drilling with sticks as before." Still more were 
they made glad, they danced with energy. "Certain 
small pieces of wood will be brought to us with which 
you will make a fire." As it turned out, it was matches 
whereof he spoke. 

For days and nights they danced. They were not at 
all hungry, truly they did their best (in dancing). Every- 
thing they saw ax, hatchet, knife, stove. "Strange 
people will bring us such things. White people with 
mustaches on their faces will come from the east. Do 
you people be careful!" Then indeed they would again 
jump up and down ; they did their best strongly. And 
truly things are just so to-day ; now surely the old man 
dreamt just that way. Up to that time there were no 
cattle at all. Presently white people brought them , only 
farther up there were buffaloes. Nor were there any 
horses either, only dogs. Thus long ago did it happen 
to the people dwelling along the river. 



(Recorded by Franz JBoas.) 1 

Nictaxt sklu'lia 2 kwoda'u ia'-uxix itdi'nun. A'ga nigi- 
qlwo'lalEm 3 itcli'nun, maga 4 sklu'lia 2 qlawilExa'm 5 nigi- 
xu'lalmntf isklu'lia tq u li'ba. Maga tcli'nun 2 nitctudi'nntf 
tcla'nk. 6 Maga nitctu'ctx tc!ank, 6 qa'wat mokct a'watci 
5 tun tq u li'ba. Aga kwo'ba ni'hdmnil La'xanix tq u ft'ba, maga 
nicgu'lplq tq u li x ba. Maga sklu'lia 2 niyi/yamnil, da'-im' 
ala^asks nitcta / mnil. Maga nitctucilalEmnil tq^i^a, maga 
itc!i x nun nitctu^cxmalmann tqe x waq. 

Maga klmaka^ 2 nitciuxu'lalamnit isklulia. A-ic da^uka 
nitcixi'tpcut ia'-uxix isklu^ia, tcli'nun 2 nilgi x dwaq. Kwapt 
a x ga qaamaila/xna 7 nilula^idnil. Maga nigi x kim ya x xkaba : 
"Qwa'tka, anu'ya tkla'munaqba. Skwapkadfx tgadi'ma- 
ma Nadida'nuitkc." 8 

1 This short Wasco text, as well as the Clackamas text that follows it, was 
collected by Dr. Franz Boas in 1892 at Grand Ronde Reservation in northwestern 
Oregon, and has been kindly put at my disposal by him. The phonetic system 
of the original has been modified to accord with that used in this book. The text 
is linguistically interesting for two reasons. In the first place, it exhibits a con- 
siderable number of frequentative verb-forms in -nit (and -1- .... -nit, -almEnit, 
-lalEmnil). In the second place, the narrative verb-forms have as tense-prefix, not 
the ga- or gal- of remote past time characteristic of my own \Vishram texts, but 
the ni- or nig- of indefinite past time. This latter tense-prefix is identical with the 
ni- or nig- of the forms found in the Wishram letters above, pp. 194-198. It is 
important to observe that the ni- forms of this Wasco text have -u- as directive 
prefix, while the Wishram ni- forms referred to have the correlative -t- prefix; the 
change from -n- to -t- implies a change from action in the distant past to action 
nearer the present day. 

These forms are masculine nouns, but lack the regular pronominal prefix -i. 





Coyote and his younger brother Eagle were living to- 
gether. Now Eagle used to go out to hunt, but Coyote 
was left at home, Coyote used to be in the house. And 
then Eagle always killed deer, and he carried the deer 
on his back, (bringing) about two or three to the house. 
Now there they always lay outside of the house. And 
then he used to go inside in the house. Now then Coyote 
used to arrive, (but) he always brought merely mice. And 
then he used to roast them in the ashes in the house, but 
Eagle used to boil meat. 

Now then Coyote always got angry. So Coyote just 
secretly killed his younger brother, they slew Eagle. Then 
he never used to stay long in any place. And then he 
said to himself: "Never mind! I shall go to the woods. 
Very soon the Indians will come here." 8 

This omission of i- seems to be phonetically parallel to the not infrequent drop- 
ping of the i- in the neuter, dual, and plural prefixes of the noun (1-, c-, and t- 
instead of il-, ic-, and it-). 

3 Very probably an error for nigiq'.wo'lalEmntf, as [the -Em- is a mere connective 
between the continuative -lal- and the frequentative -nit or non-frequentative -tck. 

4 It is possible that ma'ga is a 'stereotyped rapid pronunciation of k!m' a'ga 
("but now, and now"). Compare ga'ngadix (as well as a'ngadix), "long ago" (from 
ag' a'ngadix, "now long ago"). 

5 This form seens to involve the word wi'lxam ("village"). 
8 For (i)t-tc!a'nk, plural of i-tc!a'nk. 

7 I am entirely unable to explain this word, if indeed it is a single word. 

8 Notice the typical "Transformer motive" in the last sentence. The idea im- 
plied is: "When the Indians come to inhabit the country, things will be as told 
in the myth. Eagles will always get large game, but coyotes will have to wander 
about and content themselves with rodents." 



(Recorded by Franz Boas.} 

Ikala agiuxu'tum itca'xan. Aqa gayu'ya itE'mEqo, aqs'- 
lEmuq atco'xa. Aqa de'ka daba 3 qayalga'xit qa'lamuq. 8 
Aqa iqle'uqt 4 nexox ia'xan. Aqa cli'keqiqct 5 ia'qlaq- 
ctaqba; ia'cxalxt tce'gilga ia'q.'aqctaqba. Nelga'xitx qE x - 
5 lamuq 3 iaqla'qctaqba nilgyoxtE'mbEt. Aga gatcio'lExamx : 
"Qada gamE r xatx em^cxalx daViax?" Kwa x bd atcfuwaq 
ia'xan. Aga gatcio^xamx : "Qaxpo mgwa^elx mk^xax?" 6 
"Kema'txo 7 na x -ika ela^ax di^qtcam gatcne^agwa." 
"Rwanda mxa^qwat," gatcio'lExamx ia x xan. Aga 
10 ik!a x ckac galixqwa^x. Aga qleyi/qt 3 n^xox ya'xka k!a x c- 
kac. 8 Aga ya x xkaba qana x gaba 8 emo^ak. Aga kwobd 
, qleo^t 3 ne^ox. K!anek!ane r . 

1 This text, short and incomplete as it is, is the only specimen of Clackamas 
yet published. Linguistically Clackamas seems to be very close to Kathlamet, if not 
identical with it. The main points of difference from Wishram-Wasco, as exempli- 
fied here, are: 1st, the presence in Clackamas, as in Kathlamet, of accented 
inorganic vowels (agiuxu'tum and gamE'xatx would be gagiu'xtum and gamxa'tx in 
Wishram); 2d, the presence, it seems, in some verb forms, of the tense prefix a-, 
found also in Lower Chinook, alongside of the ga- regularly used in Wishram; 3d, 
a few lexical differences (e. g., itE'mE'qo ["wood"]; cf. Kathlamet e'mEqo ["stick"] 
and aqa'lamuq ["stick"] for Wishram ikla'munaq ["stick"] itk'.a'munaq ["wood"]). 


She gave birth to a male (child), her son. Now he 
went to get wood, sticks he gathered. Then a stick ran 
into him right here. 3 Now his son became older. Then 
(his father) louses him on his head and finds his scar on 
his head. After they had given birth to him, a stick 
had run into him on his head, (whence his scar). Then 
(his father) said to him: "How did you come to get 
this scar of yours?" Then he whipped his son. Then 
he said to him : " Where did you get to be so ?" 6 
"Once a deer struck me with its horns." - "Then bathe !" 
he said to his son. Then the boy bathed. Now he, the 
boy, became older, but elks never appeared to him (when 
he hunted, for he had falsely accused them of inflicting 
the scar upon him). Now then it is finished ; he got to 
be old. Story, story. 

2 Pointing to head, 

3 These nouns lack the masculine pronominal prefix i-. 

4 Iqle'uqt means properly "old man." It is here used, probably unidiomatically, 
for "old, older." 

5 Probably tdtigE'qiqct ("he louses him"). 

6 Literally, "Where you-person (or you-poor-one) you-become?" 

7 -txo occurs in Kathlamet in ta'ntxo ("why?") Perhaps this should be tke- 
watxo ("thus"). 

8 Related to qana'x ("how many?") 




Edited by EDWARD SAPIR. 


The twenty-five tales and myths that make up the follow- 
ing collection of Wasco folk-lore were obtained by the late 
Jeremiah Curtin in the first months of the year 1885 at 
Warm Spring Reservation, Oregon (see 6th Ann. Rep. 
Bur. Eth., 1 884-' 85, pp. xxxvu-xxxvm). Permission to 
publish Curtin's Wasco mythological material in this 
volume has been kindly granted by the Bureau of Amer- 
ican Ethnology. Curtin is well known to students of 
American mythology by his set of Wintun and Yana 
myths, published under the title of "Creation Myths of 
Primitive America" (Boston, 1903); J. Mooney has also 
arranged and published five Seneca historical traditions, 
obtained by Curtin from the Senecas of New York State, 
in his "Myths of the Cherokee" (see iQth Ann. Rep. 
Bur. Am. Eth., 1897-98, pp. 359~3 6 4. 3 6 5~37)- The 
larger part, however, of Curtin's collection of American 
myths, is still in manuscript. 

Outside of comparatively unimportant changes in titles, 
wording, and paragraphing, the text of Curtin's manuscript 
has been allowed to stand. For the grouping, however, 
of the material into the five heads of Tales, Guardian- 
Spirit Stories, Coyote Stones, At!at!a x lia Stories, and 
Miscellaneous Myths, for the arrangement of the tales 
and myths within each group, and for the footnote com- 
ments, the editor is responsible. It has also seemed best 
to replace Curtin's Indian names of the characters by 
their English equivalents; for where the names of the myth 
characters and the ordinary animal names are identical, 
as is generally the case in American mythology, there 
seems to be little point in treating the Indian names as 
untranslated proper nouns. 


The Wasco Indians (calling themselves Gatasqlo' 1 ) for- 
merly occupied the southern shores of Columbia River in 
the region of The Dalles, and formed, with the closely 
related Wishram (more properly Wi'cxam) or Ila'xliiit O n 
the northern shore of the river, the most easterly mem- 
bers of the Chinookan stock. To the east and south the 
Wasco were contiguous to tribes of Shahaptin stock, to 
the north and west to members of the same stock as 
themselves. At present they reside on Warm Spring 
Reservation, in what was originally mainly Shahaptin ter- 
ritory; they are here closely associated with Shahaptin 
(chiefly Tenino) Indians and with Oregon Shoshones (Pai- 
utes, Snakes). Excepting Boas' "Traditions of the Tilla- 
mook Indians" (in Journal of American Folk-Lore, Vol. 
vi., pp. 23-38, 133-150) and the rather small number 
of Klamath mythical texts contained in Gatschet's "Kla- 
math Indians of Southwestern Oregon" (Contr. N. Am. 
Eth., Vol. IL, Pt. i, pp. 64-132), these Wasco tales 
and myths are practically the first specimens of Ore- 
gon mythology yet published. It will be observed that 
they exhibit a considerable number of close resemblances 
to and identities with incidents already published in 
Boas's "Kathlamet Texts" and in my preceding "Wishram 
Texts." Were more comparative material available from 
Washington and Oregon, it would probably be found that 
the Chinookan, at any rate Upper Chinookan, tribes 
formed, in comparison with neighboring tribes, pretty much 

1 Wasco (more properly Wa'sqlo) was the chief village of the Wascos. It was 
situated a few miles above The Dalles, opposite Nixlu'idix, the main village of 
the Wishrams. The name is derived from wa'cq'.o ("small bowl" or "cup" [gen- 
erally of horn]), the reference being to a cup-shaped rock near the village, into 
which a spring bubbles up, or formerly did. The Wasco tribal name Galasq!o' 
simply means "those who have the cup." Mooney's suggested explanation of 
Wasko as a Tenino word meaning "grass" or "grass people" (i4th An. Rep. Bur. 
Eth., 1892-93, Tt. 2, p. 741) is apparently an example of Shahaptin "popular 


of a unit in regard to mythology as well as language ; 
material from the Clackamas Indians of Grand Ronde 
Reservation would be of value in this connection. Only 
some of the more striking myth cognates have been 
given in the notes ; the steadily increasing bulk of North 
American mythology makes anything like an exhaustive 
listing of cognate myths, incidents, and myth motives, 
impracticable, and accentuates from day to day the need 
of a concordance to the already published material. 



I. TALES. 1 


A man and his wife and four children lived at Wasco. 
It was the time of year when the women were cutting- 
grass to pack their dried fish in. One day, while this 
woman was getting grass, a man from Tenino 3 came and 
talked with her. They fell in love with each other and 
planned to deceive the old husband. The woman said, 
"I will go to a creek and eat alder-bark till I spit it 
up ; he will think I am spitting blood. After a time I'll 
pretend to die." - "All right," said the man. She chewed 
the bark. At night she came to the house, apparently 
suffering terribly, and said, "I can't live." "What's 

the matter?" asked her husband. "Oh, I must have bro- 
ken something inside." She had told the other man, 
Til die at daybreak. They will bury me, and you must 
be near to dig me up quickly." 

At daybreak she died. Before dying she said to her 
husband, "When I die, take my cup and mountain-sheep 
horn dish and cover my face. Don't cover it all up." 

1 Under this title are included five narratives that deal with the doings of 
human beings as such; in other words, the idea of a mythic or pre-Indian age, 
the people of which are the untransformed prototypes of present-day animals or 
plants, is either absent or kept in the background. The word "tale," as contrasted 
with "myth," is not meant to imply that supernatural or mythical elements are 
lacking, but merely that such elements are thought in these tales to have entered 
into the life of human beings as now constituted. The last few sentences of No. 
i almost wilfully turn a pure tale into a myth by the introduction of Coyote in 
his familiar role of transformer. With these tales as a class compare Wishram 
Texts, pp. 201-231 of this volume, and Boas's Kathlamet Texts, pp. 155-230. 

2 For the myth motive of pretended death in order to satisfy forbidden lust, 
compare Wishram, pp. 105-107 of this .volume (Coyote and his Daughter). 

3 Tenino (or Ti'naino), a village of the Wa'yam Indians (known to the Wasco 
as ttk'.a'imamt), was situated nearly five miles above The Dalles, being the first 
Shahaptin village on the south side of the Columbia east of Chinookan territory. 



The husband buried her soon after sunrise. As soon as 
he went away, the other man dug her up, and she went 
with him to Tenino. The old husband built a sweat- 
house, sweated five days, and mourned much. He did not 
know what to do with his children, they cried and wor- 
ried so. One day he took the children out and made 
pictures on the rocks to amuse the youngest child 
pictures of deer, birds, and weapons. To amuse his little 
girl he placed five stones in the road, one after another, 
and made holes in each stone. 

Towards midnight of the following day the fire went 
out, and in the village the fires went out in every house. 
Next day the father said to the eldest boy, " Go over to 
Tenino and get fire." The two boys started. Towards 
sundown they reached Tenino, peeped into the door of a 
house, and the youngest boy said, "That woman looks 
like our mother." The other said, "It is our mother." 
Their father had made a stick of cedar-bark for them 
with little cracks in it, good to hold fire ; they crept up 
to the fire and lighted this stick. The mother had a 
young baby. She saw the two boys and asked, "Does 
your little brother cry much?" - "Yes," said the eldest 
boy, "he cries all the time." 

A few days after this the fire went out again. The 
boys went four times for fire ; the fifth time they told 
their father that when they went for fire they always saw 
their mother. He said, "You must not talk that way." 
They laughed, and he scolded, saying, "It is wrong to 
say that. Your mother is dead." They said, "No, she 
is not. We see her every time we go." At last he went 
to her grave and found it empty. Then he went to 
Tenino, looked into the house, and saw her with the 
other man. She went out for water, he followed her, 
touched her on the shoulder, and said, "Why have you 


done this?" She threw her arms around him and begged 
him to save her life. She said, "I am sorry, and I want 
to live with you again. This man whips me all the time ; 
I have no peace with him. I'll tell you what to do. 
When he puts his head on my lap and goes to sleep, 
you can slip in and cut his head off." This was done, 
and the man and his wife went home together. 

Next morning, when it was time for the man to get 
up, he still lay covered up. People came in, took the 
cover off, and found that his head was gone. They 
could not find the head. They went up to Celilo 1 and to 
four different villages to hunt for it. At last they heard 
that the woman's husband had stuck it up on a pole. 
Then they made war on the man and his people. When 
both sides were ready to fight, Coyote came along and 
asked, "What does this mean?" They told him. "No," 
said he, "I'll not have such a thing; this must end here. 
A woman should never cause war. I'll end all such 
things. Right here you people of Tenino become rocks, 
and you Wascos be rocks." Both sides are standing 
there to this day, all rocks, 


During a hard winter among the people at Dog River, 
twenty-five miles below The Dalles, a great snowstorm 
set in. It snowed for seven months without stopping. 
The snow had buried the tallest trees out of sight, and 
the people ' lived under the snow. 

1 Celilo (Si'lailo) was a Wa'yam village about eleven miles above The Dalles. 
Twenty or thirty Wa'yam Indians are said to live there yet. 

2 See a similar tale, Kathlamet Texts, pp. 216-220. In this a trivial but for- 
bidden act done by a child (a boy plays with his excrements) brings on an unu- 
sually severe storm; compare also Teit, The Shuswap (Publications of the Jesup 
North Pacific Expedition, Vol. II, p. 744). 


At the Cascades people were catching salmon , there 
was no snow there or at The Dalles. It snowed in one 
place. The people under the snow did not know that it 
was summer everywhere else. The way they found it 
out was this : - 

A little bird came with a strawberry in its bill to 
an air-hole they had made up out of the snow. They 
asked what it was that had brought such a storm, and 
at last discovered that one of the girls in their village 
had struck a bird. It was proved against the girl, and 
they offered her parents a great price for her. The par- 
ents would not sell her for a long time. At last the 
people bought her, and, putting her on the ice as it floated 
down the river, pushed the ice into the middle of the 
stream. In that way they got rid of the snow. A few 
days later a Chinook wind came bringing heat. The 
snow melted away at once, and things began to grow. 

The girl floated on, day and night, down the river. 
Five years she floated. At the end of that time she 
came back to the place where she had been put on the 
ice. When she returned, there was but a small bit of ice 
under her, just enough to hold her bones up. For she 
was almost gone, only skin and bones remained. They 
took her into the village. She died. She was no longer 
accustomed to the smell of people, and died from the 
odor of them. After a time she came to life, but it was, 
a year before she could eat much. 

Every summer after that she was nearly frozen to 
death, and went all bundled up ; but in winter she was 
too warm, would take off all her clothes, and go naked. 



There was an arrow-point maker on the right side of 
Columbia River, three miles below The Dalles. One day 
this man cut his finger with flint, so that it bled. He put 
his finger in his mouth, liked the taste of the blood, ate 
his finger off, then his hand, pulled the flesh from his 
arms, legs, and body, and ate it. At last he had only 
a little bit of flesh left that was below his shoulders on 
his back, where he could not reach it. He was a skele- 
ton now ; nothing but the bones were left, only his heart 
hung in his body. He went to the next village and ate 
all the people. They could not kill him, nothing would 
penetrate his bones. 

Now his wife, carrying a little son, escaped, went south, 
travelling on the grass, right on the tops of the blades 
of grass, so that he could not track her for a long time. 2 
At last he found the tracks. The moment he found them, 
his wife knew it. 

She travelled day and night in great fear. The hus- 
band gained on her, came nearer and nearer all the time. 
Far ahead of her was a blue mountain. She hurried on. 
When she reached the foot of the mountain, she saw a 
house, and went in. A very old man sat on one side 
making bows and arrows, his daughter sat on the other 
side making little tobacco-sacks. 

The woman called him by a kinship name, but the old 
man did not answer. The north wind, which had grown 

1 This tale is evidently a composite of two distinct stones. The first part 

f the tale as here given is a variant of the wide-spread Rolling Skull myth. 

See, for example, Curtin's Creation Myths of Primitive America, pp. 325-335, for 

x Yana parallel. The second part of the tale, the hunting of the Tobacco people 

as game, is only loosely joined on to the first. 

Travelling on the tops of blades of grass in order to avoid making tracks is 
a myth motive found also in Wishram (p. 71 of this volume). 


stronger, began to blow terribly, and almost carried the 
house away, threw down great trees. At last she begged 
so hard, that the old man said, "Hide behind me." That 
moment the skeleton came in with a frightful wind, walked 
around the fire, and stamped on the old man's arrows, 
which broke into bits. The old man seized a long arrow- 
point and thrust it into the skeleton's heart. That instant 
the skeleton fell to the ground - - a pile of bones. The 
wind stopped blowing when it fell. The old man said to 
the wife of the skeleton-man, "Come and throw these 
bones out doors." 

There was plenty of tobacco growing on the hill above 
the old man's house. He made arrow-points all the time; 
and when his quiver was full, he would start out and 
return with it empty, but with tobacco in his hand. The 
old man and his daughter lived on smoke, neither ate 
anything; they lived on smoke from the kind of pipe 
that is made straight. The old man always shot the 
tobacco ; those whom he shot were Tobacco people. 
When he brought home the tobacco, his daughter put it 
into the sacks, and they smoked till all was gone. Then 
he went again for another hunt of these people. 

The woman and child lived with the old man and his 
daughter a long time. When the boy got old enough, 
he hunted squirrels for his mother. One day when the 
old man went out, the boy followed him. He saw the 
old man shoot up at a bluff of high rocks. The Tobacco 
people all lived on these high rocks. He crept down, 
sat behind the old man, took an arrow, and wished it to 
hit the tobacco. The arrow left the bow at the same 
instant that the old man's arrow left his bow, and five 
bunches of tobacco came down. The old man was delight- 
ed, and danced for joy ; he had never shot so much in 
a whole day. "You are my son-in-law," said the old 


man, and went home. The daughter was glad that her 
father had so much tobacco. The old man said, "I don't 
know but that 'it is a death-sign." The boy laughed to 
himself. The old man said to his daughter, "This is your 
husband," and added, "The people of the future will be 
willing to give their daughters to a good hunter, and the 
girl must wait till the father and mother find such a man. 

The old man now rested, and the young man hunted 
tobacco for him. He filled the house with tobacco. The 
old man was satisfied. Then the young man, his wife 
and mother, came to Columbia River. When they came 
to the village where the young man's father had turned 
into a man-eater, they found only bones. The young 
man gathered up the bones, threw paint into the air five 
times, spoke five times to the sky, and the people all rose 
up as they were before the man-eater had devoured them. 

When the mother was old, she had food given her 
every day by her daughter-in-law. She grew weak fast, 
and her son said, "It will be the duty of a daughter-in- 
law to care for her mother-in-law among the people to 
come." The mother said, "My daughter and I will go 
south, and we will be guardian spirits to medicine-women, 
and will give authority to women to smoke. When a 
woman smokes, she will be a medicine-woman." The son 
said, "I will be a guardian spirit to help people. Those 
whom I help will be good hunters." 1 


There was a chief who lived near the mouth of Colum- 
bia River. His feet were three feet long, his whole body 

The last paragraph, in which arrangements are made for the world to come, 
helps to give this tale much of the character of a myth. 

:ompare Kathlamet Texts, pp. 158-165. The cognate Kathlamet tale begins 
'Uh the incident of a woman giving birth to dogs which later become human beings, 


was in proportion. He had a long house with five fire- 
places. The house was nicely fixed, with fish and animals 
carved around on every side. He had a hundred wives, - 
fifty beds on one side of the house, and fifty on the other. 
A short distance to one side he had a house in which 
lived one hundred slaves. These slaves took great bas- 
kets every evening at sundown, brought sand from a bank 
at the seashore, and scattered it around the chief's house 
for fifty yards in width. Then they smoothed the sand 
perfectly; not even a mouse could move around the chief 's 
house without leaving tracks. 

This big-footed man was chief of all the people about 
there. After nightfall nobody went near the chief's house. 
The chief went around his house every night to each 
one of his wives. About midnight he would be halfway 
around, and the sun would come when he was with the 
last wife. He had a great many daughters, but not one 

News came to Diabexwa'sxwas that there was a chief's 
daughter in the Wasco country, and he made up his mind 
to go and buy her. He had fifty canoes filled with pro- 
visions and men to take him up the river. They landed 
near Wasco and came on foot to the village. He brought 
fifty slaves to give for the chief's daughter, - - twenty-five 
men and twenty-five women. Nadaiet was the name of 
the girl he had come for. They camped beside a bluff 
of rocks. He bought the girl ; her people were willing 
to sell her, as he was a great chief. Whatever he asked 
for, he got. He took her home. Next morning, when 
he returned, he asked, "How many children were born 

when their dog-blankets are burned. This is evidently an absolutely distinct story 
in origin. The connection between the two tales is loosely established by having 
Tia'pexoacxoac, the Kathlamet correspondent of the Wasco Dia'bexwasxwas, woo 
one of the dog-children, a daughter, of the woman. 


while I was gone?" "Five girls." He had no sons, 
because he killed them as soon as they were born, for 
he did not want any one to be greater than himself. 1 

Nadaiet bore him a child in time. The slaves brought 
sand every evening; it was perfectly level, so that no 
person could come near to meddle with his wives. After 
her child was born, he asked, "What is it?" Five of the 
women had made a plan to deceive him, and they said, 
"It is a girl." They had been with their husband when 
he bought Nadaiet, and they sympathized with her. They 
put girl's clothes on the baby. The five women thought 
and cared for the child even more than the mother did. 
Word went out that the chief was killing all his sons. 
Everybody was angry. The boy grew fast. He was 
large and heavy, and began to look like a boy; he was 
very wise. The girls were very large; at three or four 
years of age they were as large as women. And it is 
from this that the Chinook people are so large and have 
such big feet. 

The mother of the boy, as he grew older and began 
to show by his behavior that he was a boy, began to cry. 
She felt very anxious. The chief noticed this, and thought 
that she was homesick. He said, "If you wish, you may 
take the child and go home to your father for a visit. 
I'll come for you." This was just what pleased the wo- 
men ; they got a canoe ready, and the five women went 
with her. They told all not to tell about the child, and 
they promised to keep the secret. As they got up the 
river out of sight of the old man, they took off the girl's 
clothes that the child was wearing, and put on a boy's. 
All that were with her were delighted, and said, "The 
old man shall not be our master any longer." The boy 
was named after his father. 

1 For the killing of one's male children, compare also Kathlamet Texts, p. 187. 


The others returned, the mother remained at Wasco. 
The mother told the boy about his father and how many 
boys he had killed. The boy was angry, and hunted in 
the mountains for guardian spirits, that he might get 
strength to fight his father. The fifth night he came 
home and said, "Mother, the five Thunders 1 and Light- 
nings have given me their strength." His mother said, 
"That is not enough." He went again, came home the 
fifth day, and said, "I have the strength of five bands of 
Grizzly Bears." "That is not enough." He went the 

third time, and said, "There are five bands of Elk, and 
the strength of them is mine-, they promised it." - "That 
is nothing, get more." 

The old chief was very bad among his people. He 
could walk on the water; when people were coming along 
on the water in a canoe, he could walk out and destroy 

Now the boy's mother wanted him to get the power 
of running on the water so that he might overcome his 
father. She said, "Do not seek power any longer on 
the mountains, but seek by the water." He went to the 
water and got the power of the five Whirlpools. His 
mother said, "That is not enough." When he came the 
fifth time, he said, "I have the power of the five long- 
legged Water-Spiders (tsia'xitilul). They said, l We will 
give you strength to run on the water, as we do.'" His 
mother went to the water and saw him run on it; he 
already had large feet. Now she told him, "You had 
better look for still another power of someting that runs 
on the water." He got the power of five bands of yel- 
low Flies running on the water (iqli'naxwixwi). His mother 
said, "This is enough." 

The old chief had not come for his wife and daughter, 

1 Compare, for the five Thunder brothers, Wishram, pp. 121-131 of this volume. 


as he had intended to. The young man was now half 
grown, and was larger and stronger than his father. He 
gathered fifty canoes and men and weapons, took his 
mother, and went down to make war on his father for 
killing all his half-brothers. They landed on the side of 
the river opposite the house of the old chief, who sent 
his servants to ferry them over. He did not yet know 
who the people were. The young man told the men to 
remain with him, and all were glad to do so. At night 
he walked over on the water to the other side, and got 
to the house just as his father rose up from one of the 
women. As his father went to the next woman, the 
young man lay down at the foot of the first woman's 
bed. All that night, as his father went from one woman 
to another, he followed him. The women all wondered 
how it was that he came a second time to their bed. 
They talked together and said, "It must be the young 
chief, our son, who has come." 

The second night he did the same. Next morning the 
chief saw tracks, measured them, and found that they 
were larger and broader than his own. 1 He now suspect- 
ed that he had a son, and told his people to get ready 
for war. The old chief brought fifty canoes with weapons 
and made an attack on the young man. He came with 
a Chinook Wind of great force, while the young chief 
brought the East Wind. The young man's canoes were 
urged forward by the East Wind, and the Chinook Wind 
drove onward those of the old man. When they met, 
there was a terrible crash; the canoes were broken and 
sunk. The young man drove the old chief all the way 
home, and a great many men were drowned. Four days 
they fought in this way, the East Wind driving the Chinook 

1 In the Kathlamet tale the son's feet are of the same length as his father's, 
but are broader. 


Wind. 1 The fifth day the old man's strength began to 
fail him. The father and son did not fight in the canoes, 
but on the water, hand to hand. As the old man's 
strength began to fail, he began to sink in the water; it 
would not hold him up any longer. He was overcome 
by his son and killed. The young chief liberated all his 
father's wives ; only ten he took for himself. His mother 
went back to the Wasco people and lived with them. 
The young chief ruled his people well. 


A chief of the ttqa'ditix 3 people lived about four miles 
below The Dalles. He had a daughter whom he prized 
beyond anything. One time a dog came and stole away 
this young woman's paint. She followed the dog for 
four days, and was nearly dead when she came out of 
the woods and saw a house at the farther end of a 
valley. She saw a fire there, went near, and saw a 
family of small dogs that were carrying fire from the 
house and making fires in the woods. She entered the 
house and found three old dogs there. One had a 
whole family of young dogs , another old dog lay on one 
side - - he had but one eye and both ears were cropped 
off-, and still another dog lay there. She saw a great 
deal of venison, and wished she had some. That moment 
a dog jumped up and put venison in front of her. She 
said, "You should not do that; they will say I stole it." 
Then she saw a nice buckskin, and thought, "I should like 

1 Compare, for a fight between the Chinook and East winds, Wishram, 
pp. 103-105 of this volume. 

2 Curtin's manuscript has Ickaditiq, to be read probably as Ilqa'ditix; iqa'ditix 
is the Wasco word for "cinnamon (?) bear." 


that." Another dog jumped up, pulled it down, and put 
it before her. She slapped him and said, "You should 
not do that; they will say I stole it." 

After sundown she woke up, - - she was so tired that 
she had fallen asleep. She heard talking, looked around, 
saw that the dogs were all gone. Young men were in 
the house now. One of them said, "We are afraid to 
give you anything you slap us so." (The dogs had 
all turned into young men when the sun went down.) 
This was the very one who had stolen her paint. She 
said, "I will stay here to-night, to-morrow I shall go home. 
I came for my paint." 

Now the young man who had stolen the paint lay down 
beside her. This was the marriage; he took her for his 
wife. She staid now all the time with her husband. 
After a while a son was born. The relatives of the man 
took the child, wrapped it up, opened the ashes carefully, 
put the baby in, covered it up, and roasted it. The 
mother was frightened. The husband, seeing this, said, 
"You can't take care of this boy, you are fond of sleep- 
ing. I have sent him to where his grandmother and 
grandfather are." 

Five days and five nights after the child was roasted 
to ashes, it walked out of the ashes. He could now 
walk around. He came to his mother and said, "Mother!" 
She could scarcely believe what she saw. The father 
said, "Didn't I tell you that it was well cared for?" 1 In 
time a girl was born. She was treated in like manner. 

When the children grew to be quite large, they seemed 
sad. The mother said, "They want to see their grand- 
parents, I have told them many times about the old 
people." The man told his relatives to pack plenty of 

1 Compare Boas, Chinook Texts, p. 189. The same kind of adventures are 
told by the Chinook of a woman who married the Salmon-Harpoon. 


dried meat. The woman wondered who could carry such 
a load. Her husband said, "You go ahead with the 
children , camp while the sun is still up. If you hear a 
great noise, pay no heed to it, don't look back." They 
started, travelled till near sunset, then camped. Soon she 
heard a great noise in the direction from which she had 
come ; it grew louder and louder. She did not look up. 
Great packs of meat rolled in and stacked themselves up 
around the fire, kept coming till all she had seen at home 
was there. 

The second day she camped near sunset, the meat 
came in the same way. Every evening, as soon as she 
camped, with a great roar and noise the meat came in 
and piled itself up around the fire. The fifth evening 
fresh venison came. The husband and several of his 
people came soon after. In the morning they all travelled 
on together; about night they reached her parents. The 
dried meat followed, and also fresh venison, newly killed. 

All the time she had been gone, her father and mother 
had cut off their hair and mourned for her. All rejoiced 
at her return ; she gave meat to every one. The fourth 
day after her return the woman called the people of the 
village together; all came into the house. 

The husband lay on a shelf or bed and watched his 
wife ; he was jealous. Two nice-looking men came in ; 
she chanced to look at them. Her husband was very 
angry. He didn't eat for five days and nights. The 
fifth day he took his son and started for home. At the 
gathering the woman had given a skin robe to each per- 
son, and meat to all. When the man started, these 
robes followed him, no matter where they were or what 
use they had been put to, and all the venison that had 
not been eaten rose up and left. 

When the woman's father found that her husband had 


gone, he questioned her. She said, "He left me because 
I looked at the two men who wished to buy me when 
I was a girl." The man, after getting home, lived many 
days and nights without eating; he was sorry for what 
he had done. At last he destroyed himself. 

Since that time, if an Indian leaves his wife, he takes 
all he has given her people. 


There was a man at Dog River, 2 in days gone by, 
whose wife was with child. Pretty soon she gave birth 
to the child. While she was sick, he carried wood, and 
one day a piece of bark fell on his forehead and cut 
him. When the boy was large enough to shoot, he 
killed birds and squirrels ; he was a good shot. One day 
the father said, "You don't do as I used to. I am 
ashamed to own you. When I was of your age, I used 
to catch young elks. One day when I caught a young 
one, the old one attacked me and made the scar you 
see on my forehead." 

The boy had a visit from an elk ; and the elk said, 
"If you will serve me and hear what I say, I will be 
your master and will help you in every necessity. You 
must not be proud. You must not kill too many of any 
kind of animal. I will be your guardian spirit." 

The young man became a great hunter, knew where 
every animal was, - - bear, elk, deer. He killed what he 
needed for himself, and no more. The old man, his 
father, said, "You are not doing enough. At your age 
I used to do more." The young man was grieved at 
his father's scolding. The elk, the young man's helper, 
was very angry at the old man. At last she caused the 
young man to kill five herds of elk. He killed all except 

1 The main point in the tales of this group is the more or less involuntary 
acquirement of supernatural power. No. I is at the same time a warning against 
the abuse of such power. The idea that moderation must be exercised in the 
use of magic comes out strongly also in several stories in Jones's Fox Texts, 
Vol. I of this series, pp. 183-193. 

2 Now generally known as Hood River, a southern tributary of the Columbia. 




his own elk, though he tried to kill even her. This elk 
went to a lake and pretended to be dead; the young 
man went into the water to draw the elk out, but as 
soon as he touched it, both sank. 

After touching bottom, the young man woke as from 
a sleep, and saw bears, deer, and elks without number, 
and they were all persons. Those that he had killed 
were there too, and they groaned. A voice called, "Draw 
him in." Each time the voice was heard, he was drawn 
nearer his master, the Elk, till he was at his side. Then 
the great Elk said, "Why did you go beyond what I 
commanded? Your father required more of you than he 
himself ever did. Do you see our people on both sides? 
These are they whom you have killed. You have inflict- 
ed many needless wounds on our people. Your father 
lied to you. He never saw my father, as he falsely told 
you, saying that my father had met him. He also said 
that my father gave him a scar. That is not true ; he 
was carrying fire-wood when you were born, and a piece 
of bark fell on him and cut him. He has misled you. 
Now I shall leave you, and never be your guardian 
spirit again." 

When the Elk had finished, a voice was heard saying 
five times, "Cast him out." The young man went home. 
The old man was talking, feeling well. The young man 
told his two wives to fix a bed for him. They did so. 
He lay there five days and nights, and then told his wives, 
"Heat water to wash me, also call my friends so that I 
may talk to them. Bring five elk-skins." All this was 
done. The people came together, and he told them, 
"My father was dissatisfied because, as he said, I did 
not do as he had done. What my father wanted grieved 
the guardian spirit which visited and aided me. My 
father deceived me. He said that he had been scarred 


on the head by an elk while taking the young one away. 
He said that I was a disgrace to him. He wanted me 
to kill more than was needed. The spirit has left me, 
and I die." 1 


The Chinook people, who lived at the mouth of Co- 
lumbia River, moved some distance to the east. At the 
end of the first day's journey they camped on the shore. 
One of the men had a little boy. After they had fixed 
the camp, he went with the boy to mend his canoe. 
After a while the boy disappeared. The father thought 
he had gone back to the camp, When he had finished 
the canoe, he went to the camp and asked his wife where 
the boy was. She had not seen him. They went to the 
river, tracked him to the water, and all said that he was 
drowned. Next morning the people moved on still farther 
up the river. The parents hunted everywhere for the child, 
but at last they too went ; they could not find the child. 

Two or three years after this another party went up 
the river. On an island in the river there were a great 
many seals, and among them a boy. Word was sent to 
the parents of the boy. People went out and watched 
for the seals to come to land, so that they might see 
the boy. They watched till the seals came up on the 
island, one by one, and soon the island was covered. 

1 The fact that the young man divulges his guardian spirit is itself indicative 
of approaching death, for only upon the death-bed was it customary to communi- 
cate this, the greatest secret of one's life. 

2 The visit of human beings to the land of the whales, seals, or other food- 
animals, and their return to the people of this earth, to whom they grant power 
to obtain a large food-supply, is a characteristic type of tale or myth among 
the Coos of Oregon (Journal of American Folk-Lore, Vol. XXI T, pp. 25-41). 
Compare also Swanton's Haida Texts and Myths (Bulletin 29 of Bureau of American 
Ethnology), pp. 714, for a similar tale of a visit to the salmon. 


At last the boy came up out of the water and lay down 
by the seals. The people crept up, caught the boy, and 
took him to shore by force. He struggled to get away 
from them, and tried to return to the water. At first he 
refused to eat anything but raw salmon and other fish, 
and he would not talk ; but by degrees he came to act 
like other human beings. Finally his parents got him 
back to his right mind, and he became very industrious. 
He carved bows and arrows and worked all the time. 

As he grew up, he used to tell many stories of how 
he had lived down with the seals. He said that seals 
were just like people ; they moved from place to place, 
camped at night, and would go as far as The Dalles. 
They moved around as the Indians did on land. The 
people had to watch him when he was in a canoe, for 
fear he would go back to the seals. The seals were al- 
ways floating around when he was near. He always 
called them by name. His parents always covered his 
head when he was in a canoe. One day he threw the 
cover off, saw the seals, called them by name, said, "I 
am going, 75 and jumped into the water. He came to the 
surface far out, and said to his father and mother, who 
were in the canoe, "I have a home down in the water. 
I will remain there hereafter." 1 



There was a village opposite The Dalles, and in the 
village lived a boy who was very quarrelsome. He 

1 The implication doubtless is that he becomes a guardian spirit for seal-hun- 
Compare the end of the tale in Boas's Kathlamet Texts, pp. 166-174. 
Compare Wishram tale, pp. 139-145 of this volume (The Deserted Boy). 
Itcli'xyan is the protector of fishermen and hunters of water-animals. Compare 
also Boas's Chinook Texts, p. 221. 

26 1 

whipped the other boys, killed one or two. At last the 
chief told the boys to take this bad one away to some 
distance, leave him, slip off, and come home ; then they 
were all to move away. The bad boy had two grand- 
mothers who had reared him. The boys took him off 
to the place agreed upon, then slipped off and left him. 
He staid till sundown, then began to shout to the boys 
that it was time to go home. The boys had left their 
voices there to answer for them, and they said, "No, it 
is not time yet." It was then almost dark. 

The two grandmothers had left fire for him between 
two mussel-shells hid in the ashes, a deer-rib which the 
Indians used to make fish-hooks out of, and ten wild- 
potatoes. They did not want to go and leave him, but 
the people forced them to go. Now the boy discovered 
that he had been left, and he ran home as fast as he 
could, found the village gone, the place cleared off. He 
looked across to the other side of the river, and saw the 
whole village camped there. He felt very lonely, and 
every now and then began to cry. He searched around 
where his grandmothers had lived, and found the fire 
and rib. 

In the morning a great many magpies came around. 
He set a trap and caught three of them. He skinned 
them and made a robe, which he spread over his breast 
at night. Next day he caught three more. He ate one 
potato a day as long as they lasted. Each day he caught 
three magpies. On the fourth day he had twelve skins, 
his blanket now came to his knees. He made a fish- 
line out of his trap-strings and went fishing. He threw 
his line out, and said to the river, "Give me all kinds of. 
food." He fished five days, caught a fish each day. 
The people saw him from the other side. 

All at once, on the fifth day, he jumped up and ran 


back and forth from the bank to the water. Then he 
danced along the river and sang very loud. The words 
he sang were, "Now I'll make my magpie robe fly, now 
I'll make my magpie robe fly." They heard his words 
on the other side. They watched, and saw him draw 
something long and white out of the water. He threw 
it on his back and went to his camp. The bundle was 
made of different kinds of wood, and was full of roots, 
salmon, and all kinds of Indian food. Towards evening 
the people saw that he had a large fire and was eating. 

That night he slept warm and well. After a time he 
felt something cold under his head, and then something 
cold between his feet. He woke up, and felt a person 
lying at his side. The person said, "Are you awake?" 
"Yes." He raised up his robe, thinking that it was 
his robe. As he raised it, he found he had a blanket of 
mountain-sheep skin over him, the blanket of the chiefs 
daughter. He looked, and found a woman at his side. 
He was in a house, and everything was beautiful with 
skin and carving around him. 

Early next morning the people on the other side went 
out, and, looking across the river, saw that the boy had 
a nice house where their village had been. Itcli'xyan's 
daughter had come out of the water in the night, while 
he slept, made the house, and lain down by his side. 
Towards sunrise he and she arose. His people saw all 
this; and the chief called the people together and told 
them to go over and see the young woman, and say, 

The chief of the village had a purpose in leaving you. 
He left you so that you might get this house. Now that 
you have the house, he will come back." 

When the messengers came, they were astonished at 
what they saw. The house was much greater than they 
had expected. While Itcii'xyan's daughter was sleeping 

with the young man that one night, food was brought 
out of the river. "All right!" said the boy. "Let him 
come with his people, but he must come last." The next 
day the boy's two grandmothers came, then the whole 
village, and last of all the chief; but as he was crossing 
the river, the young man raised a storm and drowned 
him. The young man then became chief and fed all the 
people for years with the food which came out of the 
river for his wife. 

Even now the Indians on Columbia River send their 
boys to fish after dark to get the spirit of Itdi'xyan. She 
lives in the water and helps people yet. 



i. Eagle's grandfather was Coyote. Eagle was hunting 
most of the time in the mountains, and when he came 
home one day, Coyote said to him, "I have found some- 
thing for you, a nest of eagles on a rock, They 
have nice feathers for arrows." 

Next day they went out to a rock, and Coyote said, 
"Take off your clothes." Eagle was handsomely dressed 
in beads, had long shells all over his leggings and robe. 
He took off his clothes and went up the rock. He pulled 
the feathers out, tied them in a bundle, put the bundle 
on his back, then looked down and saw that he was very 
high up ; the rock had gone up nearly to the sky. Then 

1 In these myths Coyote appears in his dual capacity of culture-hero and un- 
successful trickster. With them are to be compared Chinook Texts, pp. 101-106, 
110-112; Kathlamet Texts, pp. 45-49, 79-89, 148-154; Wishram, pp. 3-49, 
49-5', 67-75, 95-99, 99-103, 105-107, 107-117, 123-127, 133-139, I45-M7, 
I 49~ I 53, 161, of this volume. It will be seen that the mythological importance of 
Coyote increases as we ascend the Columbia and approach the Great Basin area, 
his place on the coast (Chinook and Quinault) being largely taken by Bluejay. A 
few of the incidents that in Wishram appear woven into a loosely jointed culture- 
hero composite are here found as separate myths or amalgamated with quite differ- 
ent elements; compare Wishram, pp. 3-7 and 41-43 of this volume, with the second 
part of this story and with Story 2, p. 267. 

2 Two absolutely distinct myths have here been welded into one. For the 
first part, compare Gatschet, The Klamath Indians of Southwestern Oregon, Con- 
tributions to North American Ethnology, Vol. 2, Pt. I, pp. 94-97 (Eagle and his 
grandfather Coyote respectively correspond to A'ishish and his father K'mukamtch 
of the Klamath myth) ; Teit, Traditions of the Thompson River Indians, p. 2 1 ; 
Teit, The Shuswap (Publications of the Jesup Expedition, Vol. II, pp. 622, 737). 
This is distinctly a myth of the Plateau region, and presumably adapted by the 
Wasco to the Coyote and Eagle cycle. For the second part, compare Wishram, 
pp. 3-7 of this volume; Spinden, Myths of the Nez Perc6 Indians (Journal of 
American Folk-Lore, Vol. XXI, pp. 15, 16). 

2 6 5 

he looked at the feathers on his back; they were not 
eagle-feathers at all, but coyote entrails. 

Coyote had already put on Eagle's clothes, made him- 
self look like Eagle, and gone home. He had Eagle's 
flute, and played on it. When he entered the house, he 
said, "I wonder why my grandfather does not come, I 
told him to come quickly." At bed-time Coyote lay 
between two of Eagle's wives, Mouse and Woodpecker. 
Next morning Coyote moved away to another place, said 
nothing more about his grandfather. Every day he moved 
his camp. 

Eagle spent many days on the high rock, and grew 
thin. At last old Thunder came and split the rock; 
along the split came brush and sticks. By means of 
these Eagle came to the ground. Then he followed his 
grandfather. Two of the wives had not gone with Coyote. 
They knew he was not Eagle, but they followed on be- 
hind. One of these two wives cried all the time, "My 
husband, my husband !" Eagle found every day the ashes 
of a camp. One day he found the ashes warm, and said, 
"To-morrow I'll catch up with them." Next day he over- 
took the two wives, and they told him everything. He 
said, "Go to-night and camp with Coyote. I shall be 
there." He came. Old Coyote saw him, and began to 
cry, took off his clothes. Eagle said, "I don't want them 
now." Coyote said, "I have been crying all the time; 
I thought you were dead." Eagle said, "All right! Keep 
my clothes and keep my two wives." The old man was 
very glad. They lived together many days, and Eagle 

One day he said to Coyote, "I killed two nice bucks; 
to-morrow I'll show you where they are." Next day they 
started, went down five gulches, and saw the bucks. The 
old man said, "Til stay here to-night, to-morrow I'll cut 


up the meat." He made a fire and lay down to sleep. 
It began to rain, rained all night. Next morning the old 
man woke up and found that his bucks were nothing but 
hanging bushes. He said, "I see, I did this. This is my 
fault. My grandson has paid me back." He did not 
feel badly, and started home. He passed the first gulch, 
full of deep roaring water; he swam way down to the 
next one the water was still higher there; came to 

the third, the fourth; there always more water. The 
fifth he could not cross. 

2. He was carried down to the great ocean. There 
he saw two women with a large canoe. They were very 
bright, shone more brightly than the sun; their paddles 
were of white wood, very beautiful. The women staid 
there, and kept the fish from leaving the sea and going 
into the river; they worked there every day. Coyote 
thought to himself, "How can I manage so that these 
women will take me into their canoe?" He turned him- 
self into a piece of wood and floated down. The elder 
woman said, "Oh, that is very nice wood; catch it, catch 
it!" but the younger one said, "Don't touch it, don't 
touch it!" and they let it pass. 

Now he turned himself into beautiful white wood, and 
floated along. The elder sister said, "Oh, catch that!" 
The younger one said, "No, no! let it pass." It passed. 
He turned into a different kind of wood. Every time 
the elder one wanted to catch it; but the younger one 
said, "No, let it pass." After the fourth time he turned 
himself into a little baby on a cradle-board. As it floated 
down, crying and rolling on the water, the elder sister 
said, 'See that little boy! Catch it, catch it! Its father 
and mother must be dead; we must save the baby." 

The younger sister had grown tired of talking. The 
elder sister took the baby and carried it to their house. 


They had all kinds of fish. The elder sister put an eel's 
tail in the baby's mouth for it to suck. They went for 
wood, and left the baby. While they were gone, Coyote 
cooked himself all kinds of fish, ate a great deal. When 
they came home, he was a baby again, sucking the eel's 
tail. Next day, while the sisters were gone, he made a 
long stick to dig roots. When they got home, he was 
a baby sucking the eel's tail. 

Next day, when they went off, he went out to dig roots. 
He told his stick to be strong ; but when he dug into 
the ground, it broke. The next day he made another 
stick, dug deeper. With the last stick he broke down 
the dam the sisters had made to keep the fish, and all 
the salmon crowded up Columbia River. Then Coyote 
took ashes and blew on the sisters, 1 saying, "Hereafter 
you will be birds. People will soon come who will want 
these salmon. You will be birds henceforth." 


Over at Nixlu'idix, where the Wi'cxam village now stands, 
Coyote was going east up the river. He looked north 
at the hills, and saw five men running down towards him. 
They said, "Old man, don't you go up along the river; 
go by the hills. If you go along the river, you will be 

"W T ho will swallow me?" 


"Oh, I'll run away; he can't swallow me. I run like 
the wind." Coyote went on. Finally he thought, "Per- 
haps there is such a thing that can swallow me." Then, 

1 For the throwing of ashes or dust in transformation, compare Wishram, p. 45 
of this volume. 

2 Compare Wishram, pp. 41-43 of this volume. 


thinking awhile, he said, "I'll go up on the hill and get 
a long log and put it across my shoulders ; then Itdi'xyan 
won't be able to swallow me." 

He got the log, came down, and travelled up the river. 
As he went, he called out, "Itdi'xyan, swallow me!" 
He plagued Itdi'xyan. At last Coyote lost consciousness; 
he did not know anything. When he revived, he found 
himself in a dark place. He wondered where he was ; 
could it be that Itdi'xyan had swallowed him? He heard 
a sound as of a bell a little way off, and the voices of 
people whispering. He sat with the log on his back, and 
said, "People, make a fire, and I'll stay all night." He 
felt around, and found, as he thought, grass and pieces 
of wood, and said again, "Why don't you make a fire?" 
No one answered. What he took for grass was people's 
hair, the large pieces of wood their bodies, the smaller 
pieces of wood their bones, which had been there for years. 

Coyote didn't yet know where he was. So he sat 
down, brought out his two sisters, the two Cayuse girls, 
as he called them, two pieces of his own excrement, and 
said, "My sisters, what is the matter? Where am I?" 
"Oh, we won't tell you. You are such a man that if 
we tell you, you will say, 'Oh, yes! I knew that before, 
but forgot it for a moment.'" Coyote began to throw 
up spittle with his hand, and said, "Here, let rain come." 

a Oh, don't, don't do that! we will tell you. You were 
warned by the five men not to go up along the river, but 
you would go; you wouldn't listen to advice. Now you 
are in the belly of Itdi'xyan." 

"That's just what I thought," said Coyote. He put 
away his sisters where they were before. 1 Then he took 

3ther instances of Coyote asking advice of his excrement sisters are to be 
in Wishram, pp. 73-75, IO i, 103, of this volume. Compare also Boas, Kath- 
Us, pp. 45-49; Chinook Texts, pp. 101-106. On the coast of British 
Columbia similar acts are told of the raven. 


his fire-drill and made a fire, taking pitch from the log 
on his back. When there was light, he saw the remains 
of all the people, some with canoes, others without. He 
called to the fire all that were able to come to warm 
themselves. Eagle came, also Weasel, his younger 
brother. 1 

Itcli'xyan now said, "Come out, Coyote, I didn't want 
to swallow you." "How can I come out? There is 

no door," said Coyote. He looked up and saw something 
moving above his head, breathing, growing larger and 
smaller. This was Itcli'xyan's heart. "It is too high to 
reach," thought Coyote. He made a ladder of two canoes, 
went up, and with his flint knife cut at the root of the 

Itcli'xyan said, "Get out of me, Coyote! I didn't try to 
swallow you. I don't want you." 

Coyote said, "I don't know how to get out." Then 
he told all the people to lock arms. When Itdi'xyan's 
heart was cut and dropped, he blew a tremendous breath, 
and threw all the people out near Celilo, but Coyote 
about six miles farther south over the Celilo hills. 

Eagle went west, and Coyote east. 



i. Coyote was hungry. He ran down the river where 
Fish-Hawk and his wife lived, and asked for something 
to eat. They gave him a good deal of food. He was 
not satisfied ; then they gave him food five times, and at 

1 Eagle and Weasel are elder and younger brothers also in Wishram, pp. 
117-121 of this volume. 

* This again is a composite myth. The first part consists of two episodes of 
the wide-spread story of the unsuccessful imitation of the host 5 the second part is 
a string of four loosely connected Coyote anecdotes. 


last asked, "When are you going home?" - "Oh, soon." 
Fish-Hawk said, "Come down to the creek with me." 
There was a tall stump by the water, and a hole in the ice. 
Fish-Hawk jumped on to the stump, and from that into 
the water. Coyote was terribly frightened, and ran around 
crying, "My grandson is drowned!" But soon Fish-Hawk 
came out with five different kinds of fish, and gave them 
to Coyote; he told him to carry them home. Coyote 
took them, and said to Fish-Hawk, "Come and visit me." 
"Very well, I'll come some time." 

One day Fish-Hawk remembered Coyote's invitation, 
and went to his house. Coyote was glad to see him, and 
said, "When you are ready to go home, let me know." 
Soon Fish-Hawk said, "Now I am going home." Coyote 
said, "Come down to the creek with me." Coyote climbed 
up on a stump near the place where he used to get 
water from under the ice. Fish-Hawk smiled and won- 
dered. Coyote began to shout as Fish- Hawk had ; then 
he jumped, hit his head on the ice, and was stunned. 
Fish-Hawk was sorry for him, and called his wife. She 
came, and said, "He will do anything that he sees others 
do. He told me that you jumped in and got fish for 
him." Now Fish-Hawk sprang on to the stump, dived 
down, and brought out fish. He gave them to the woman 
and went home. Coyote had not come to his senses yet. 
About evening he recovered-, she helped him up. He 
was as angry as he could be. 1 

A few days later Coyote got hungry, and went to visit 
Mountain-Sheep and his wife, who lived by the bluff. 
He met Mountain-Sheep, who said, " My wife is at home. 
I'll come soon." Coyote went into the house. The man 

With this episode compare Jones, Fox Texts, pp. 263-267. Kingfisher and 
kster Wlsa c ka of the Fox myth closely correspond to the Wasco Fish-Hawk 
and Coyote. Compare also Boas, Kwakiutl Texts (Publications of the Jesup Expe- 
dition, Vol. X, p. 153). 

soon came, and said, "I'll get you something to eat." 
He took his wife by the nose and stuck a straw into it; 
blood, fat, and meat streamed out. They cooked all that 
came out of her nose. Coyote ate it, and thought it very 
nice. When he had finished eating, he said, "I'm ready 
to go home. I want you to come and visit me." - "All 
right! I'll come." As Coyote started, Mountain-Sheep 
took his knife, cut pieces of meat off his wife's sides, and 
gave them to Coyote, who was very glad, and said, "Be 
sure and come to my house." 

One day Mountain-Sheep went to visit Coyote. They 
had a good talk. Then Coyote thought he would cook 
something for Mountain-Sheep. He got his bucket, made 
a fire, then took hold of his wife and ran a straw up 
her nose. She sneezed, struggled, and ran away. Coyote 
went outside, as angry as he could be. Mountain-Sheep 
said, "I'm not hungry. I only came to visit." He took 
a knife and cut off meat from his own two sides, put it 
down by Coyote's wife, and went home. Coyote had 
gone off angry. When Coyote came home, he saw the 
meat and was glad. 1 

2. Some time after this, Coyote got hungry, and deter- 
mined to move out near the Deer people. The Deer 
people were glad to have him come. He got there in 
the evening, and they brought him food. He began to 
tell his adventures to them, and said, "Friends, I am 
alarmed; you and I are in danger. I see the tracks of 
the Wala'lap out here. These people always feather 
their arrows with the tail-feather of an eagle. We must 
be on the watch ; I'm afraid they will kill some of us." 
Next morning Coyote slipped out, and lay hidden by the 

1 Compare the Wishram tale, pp. 145-147 of this volume, and Chinook Texts, 
p. 1 80, for a similar procuring of food from one's own nose and body. Mountain- 
Sheep is in these replaced by Deer and Black-Bear. 


path where the deer went to hunt. When the largest 
one came along, he shot, killed him, and took his carcass 
home. In this way, as he needed meat, he killed the 
five brothers. The whole family consisted of five Deer. 1 

He now decided to visit the Wolves. When he got 
to the Wolf house, they made him a servant to carry 
wood and water. He got very angry at this. A race 
was arranged. Coyote decided to go, so he made a 
couple of running dogs with horns on them. The Wolves 
ran on one side, and the dogs were with the party coming 
back ; the dogs beat, won the race, and after that Coyote 
ran away from the Wolves. 

After a time he came to an empty house ; he went 
on. As he travelled, he heard a noise, looked back, and 
saw a rock as large as a house rolling after him. He 
wondered what this could mean. Soon the rock was al- 
most on him. He ran with all his might, the rock came 
on all the faster. It hit Coyote and knocked him sense- 
less. Towards daybreak- of the next morning he came 
to his senses, and remembered that the rock had struck 
him. "I'll run away from it," said Coyote. He jumped 
up, stole off, and ran with all his might ; but about noon 
he heard a great noise, and again the rock was pursuing 
him. Wherever he ran, the rock followed, gained on 
him continually. He did not know where to go. At 
last he came to a soft muddy bottom between hills, and 
thought, "I'll go there. Let it follow if it can." The 
rock rolled on, got stuck in the mud, and Coyote es- 
caped. 2 

* Compare Kathlamet Texts, pp. 152-153; and Wishram, p. 160, note 2, of 
this volume. The Wasco wata'lap corresponds to the Wishram wala'lap, and Kath- 
lamet wa'LaxLax. 

This rolling-rock episode is oerhaps to be considered a variant of the rolling- 
skull myth. Compare Grinnell, Kackfoot Lodge Tales, p. 165; Lowie, The Northern 
Shoshone, pp. 262-265. 


He went on towards the east, and came to a great 
pile of buffalo-bones. He thought, "Oh, I am so hungry! 
I'll take these bones and carry them till I camp, then 
gnaw them," but he decided not to take them. Soon he 
heard a noise, looked back, and saw a buffalo-cow behind 
him. She came up and said, "I'll give you meat. Those 
bones back there were my bones. You did not take 
them ; I'll give you meat now." She cut off flesh all 
around her body, and gave it to him. He ate, was satis- 
fied, and remained some time. At last he said, "I can't 
stay here, I must travel to the east." He started off, 
and still he travels. 




Two Ikinickwai 2 children went out to gather flint. A 
boy and his sister went every day for this purpose. They 
had each five good paddles, the sixth was full of holes 
its entire length. The little girl said, "Hurry and pick 
up the flints; the At!at!a'tia may come." And sure enough, 
she was right there. The moment the words were out 
of the girl's mouth, she looked behind, and there was the 
Atlatla'lia. The brother and sister ran with all their 
might. The boy had one of the flints in his hand; he 
held it tight. 

The At!at!a'iia caught them, put them in her great 
basket, and tied the mouth of it with buckskin strings. 
She was all spotted and striped, a terribly ugly-looking 
creature, and very large. She lived on people, and was 
especially fond of eating children. She hurried along with 
the two children. The girl was larger than the boy ; she 
sat on his foot in the basket. His foot was tender from 
the itch which he had had on it ; she hurt him greatly, 
and he said, "Sister, you hurt my foot where I had the 
itch." The woman said, "What is the matter? My chil- 
dren are burning up, surely." The girl heard what she 
said, and felt that she could frighten her. She repeated 

i These five myths show that the At'.at'.a'lia story, the story of the stupid, child- 
stealing ogress, who at the end has the tables turned on her, is a well-marked 
Upper Chinook type, similar in content to the familiar ogre fairy-tales of European 
folk-lore. The Atlatla'tia is characterized by her immense size, striped body, fondness 
for children's flesh, and stupidity; her own children she feeds on frogs, lizards, and 
such other food. Her Kathlamet correspondent is called Aq'.asxe'nasxena. Compare 
Kathlamet Texts, pp. 9-11; Wishram, pp. 35-39, 165-171, of this volume. 

* Translated by Curtin as a kind of fish." 



the A t!at .'aria's words: "Your children are burning up, sure- 
ly." The woman was terrified at this, and said, "Somebody 
tells me my children are burning up." She called over 
their names on her fingers. The fourth time the girl 
called out very loud, "Your children are burning up!" 
The woman put down the basket and ran towards home ; 
but she came back, and hung the basket up on an oak 
tree, one of the trees near The Dalles on the Wi'cxam 
side. The two children were hung up, could not get out 
of the basket. The boy gave his sister the flint. She 
cut the strings of the cover, and they got out. They 
filled the basket with stones and dirt, and hung it up 
again ; then they ran to the river. 

The woman hurried home, found her children all safe, 
and said, "Oh, I thought you were burned to ashes! I 
have a nice pair of children out here," and she told how 
she had got them. Then she started to bring the brother 
and sister. She pulled down the basket; it was heavy. 
She put it on her back, went home, and took off the 
basket. All her children got around it. She unstrapped 
it. Behold! there was nothing but stones and dirt. She 
knew they had got out and run away. She put the 
basket on her back and started after them. 

The boy now made five rivers, for he was very powerful. 
The old woman jumped over the first river; she went 
over so nicely that she said, "I must try that again." 
She jumped over the first river five times. When she 
came to the second, she leaped over that too ; high in 
the air she jumped this river five times. She jumped the 
third river five times ; the fourth river the same way, 
also the fifth. 

She saw the children now about a mile ahead. She 
drew in her breath, and the children came in with it. 
They were almost in her jaws when she stopped, for she 

had to blow out again. That sent the children off about 
as far as they were before. She drew in her breath ; 
they were nearly at her mouth, but she could not draw 
in another bit. She had to blow them away. 

They reached Columbia River, jumped into a canoe, 
and pushed it way out. They told the crawfish, the 
turtles, and all the fish in the water, to eat her, and the 
big rocks to roll on to her. When the old woman came 
to the river-bank, she drew in her breath, and the canoe 
came almost to her hand ; then she had to blow out, and 
it went far out again. She tried many times to draw 
them in, but her breath was not long enough. Then 
she ran into the water and waded out part of the way. 
The fish began to eat her body all over, and the rocks 
came rolling down from the cliffs on to her. At last, 
barely alive, she waded out of the water, and the chil- 
dren escaped. 


On the right side of Columbia River, fifteen miles below 
The Dalles, lived a woman who had a child. She had 
also five sisters-in-law who lived in another house. The 
woman sang every night. When the sisters-in-law heard 
the singing, they took the child, carried it home, and 
kept it till morning. 

Now five At!at!a'lia sisters said, "If we pretend to be 
the sisters-in-law, we can get the child." These five 
sisters could not speak Wasco well. They had their own 
language, but nobody knows what it was. All tried, and 
at last the youngest could speak best. They heard the 

1 Compare Kathlamet Texts, pp. 9-19; Wishram, pp. 165-173 of this volume. 
The last part of the Kathlamet- Wishram myth, evidently a distinct story in origin, 
is closely related to a seperate tale of Curtin's Wasco series (p. 303 of this volume). 


mother singing. The youngest went to the door, and 
without showing her face called out, "I want the child." 
The child was given to her, and the five went off; they 
were hardly out of sight when the sisters-in-law came and 
said, "Give us the child." "You have it already," was 
the answer. "No, we have not." 

They struck a fire and looked at the tracks. They 
were the tracks of the five At!at!a'h'a sisters. While 
running off, the four sisters tried to get the child from 
the youngest sister, but she held to it ; they wanted to 
eat it as they ran. When they were home, the eldest 
sisters would often beg to eat the boy, but the youngest 
kept them off, and the boy grew up with her. The 
mother mourned long for her son. 

He grew to be about twelve years old ; he used to go 
hunting, and brought in rabbits, squirrels, and other game. 
The woman liked him more and more. The other sisters 
wanted to feed him on frogs and snakes, such as they 
gave their own children to eat and ate themselves, but 
she always gave him good food. They often begged of 
her to let them eat him, but she would say, "No, he 
brings food ; you'll eat me first." At last they all called 
him son. He began to wonder why the other children 
were striped and spotted. An old man, Sandhill Crane, 
lived near the five sisters. He knew all about this, and 
it troubled him. 

Once in a while the woman gave the boy snakes, and 
he ate them. One day the woman said, "You may hunt 
on every side except the north." Old Crane lived in the 
north not far away. 

One day the boy determined to go north and see why 
they did not want him to go there. He came to a creek, 
and on the other side he saw a tall old man. The man 
called to him, "Come over here!" "I can't," said the 

2 7 8 

boy, "I have no way to cross." The old man sat down 
and stretched his leg across the river. It was a wide 
stream. He said, "Now cross, but don't step on my 
knee. If you do, you will slip." 

The boy went over, and old Crane told him that he 
did not belong to that people, but to one that lived far 
away. "Now you must escape," said the old man. "Make 
five creeks, and at the last creek make choke-cherry bushes, 
very thick and covered with berries. Go on a little farther 
and you will find hung on a tree the board on which you 
were when a baby, and your little blanket. Take them 
and go on." 

That night he went back and told the sisters that he 
had found a creek and lots of berries. While the boy 
was on his way back to them that day, the eldest sister 
said, "I told you that that boy should be eaten. Now 
he has gone north." The youngest sister said nothing. 
At dusk the boy came in loaded with choke-cherries on 
the boughs, and told the sisters where he had found them. 

Next morning they started; he remained at home. 
They crossed the five creeks, found the berries, and ate 
so many that they could hardly move. They began to 
spit blood. They looked in their baskets to see how 
many cherries they had gathered. The baskets were full 
of blood. They had put cherries on their blankets ; they 
found only a mass of blood. Blood ran out of their 

The boy made the sun very hot, and when they start- 
ed to return home, all the streams dried up. They had 
to go up and down the deep sides of canyons. Four of 
the sisters died one after another. Only the youngest 
reached the house; she found the house burned and her 
boy gone. She put the blame on old Crane, and hurried 
to his house. She came to the bank and accused Crane. 


After quarrelling a long time, she wanted to be reconciled, 
and asked him to ferry her over. U A11 right, if you are 
not afraid." (She intended to eat him and then follow 
the boy.) Crane said, "Step on my knee when you come 
over." She started, then drew back ; she did this two or 
three times. Old Crane got very angry, threatened to 
take his leg away. Then she started, and in the middle 
of the stream she stepped on his knee. He turned his 
leg; she fell into the river and was drowned. 


A Jack-Rabbit boy once played below Wasco near a 
sand-bank. He played around in this way for four days. 
The fifth day he went off some distance from the house, 
playing and jumping. At last he ran against a woman 
all painted in stripes. She was a human being, and acted 
like one, but lived on people. She was three times as 
large as men are at the present day. When the boy 
ran against her, she reached out to catch him ; but he 
ran away from her as fast as he could, ran towards home. 
She followed him. 

When he came to a rock, he ran around it. On the 
rock was a mountain-sheep's horn. He ran into this 
horn, and she ran on. She ran around the rock, looked 
into the horn, saw the boy's eye, and thinking, "I'll 
get you," put in her hand, but couldn't reach him. 
Then she sat down with her back to the sun and waited. 
The sun was getting hot. She felt something on one 
side of her neck, and put her hand on the place ; it was 
a wood-tick. She pulled it off. Then there was one 
on the other side. At last she felt ticks all over her 
body. She pulled off her buckskin robe ; inside it was 


a mass of wood-ticks. While pulling off the ticks, she 
would often look at the horn. 

At last the' boy put his hair up on top of his head, 
blackened his nose, and came to the opening of the 
sheep's horn. He looked at her and rushed back into 
the horn. She roared with laughter, and said, "Have I 
ever seen so ugly a boy!" and she rolled and laughed. 
Then she said to the boy, "If you could look worse than 
that, I should die." 

He pulled his hair over his face , it came to his breast, 
and his great eyes were looking through the hair. He 
came to the opening of the horn again. She laughed 
harder than ever, took her dress, made a hole in it, and 
put it over the horn, so that if he came out, she could 
catch him. While she was laughing, he came out and 
ran away with her dress. The boy and dress were gone 
before she knew it. 

The woman called loudly, but the boy would not stop. 
She shouted and screamed, "I'll let you off, if you will 
bring back my dress." The boy went on till he came 
to a lake. He made ice over the whole lake, then walked 
over. Soon the woman came in pursuit, he threw the 
dress away in the middle of the lake. She tried to cross, 
put her foot on the ice. It cracked. She stood on the 
other side and teased him to get her dress for her, made 
all sorts of promises. He said, "The ice is strong." He 
threw two great rocks on the ice; the rocks broke, 
the ice was so hard. This convinced the woman. She 
crept onto it, went out into the lake, and got near her 
dress. The boy caused the ice to grow thin and break. 
She sank in the water and was drowned. This woman 
was a man-eater. 



At Wasco there was a boy who cried all the time; 
nobody could quiet him. At last everybody got tired of 
him and went to bed, left him. He was near the fire. 
The others had gone up on the beds, and were trying 
to sleep. The boy cried away till at last he grew quiet; 
he saw an arm reaching out for him, all striped and 
painted. As it caught hold of him, he screamed with all 
his might, "Something has got me." The arm reached 
down through the smoke-hole to the ground. He strug- 
gled and struggled and screamed. At last he pulled the 
striped, painted arm off, threw it down by the fire, and 
said, "I've pulled off somebody's arm." They got up 
then and saw the arm. The old At!at!a'h'a ran to tell 
her four sisters that she had lost her arm. Now all the 
people living around came to the house where the crying 
boy was, to see the arm. 

Two or three mornings after that, Coyote said to the 
boy's parents, "Let us have a great dance." On the 
night of the dance the five Atlatla'h'as came - - one of 
them had lost an arm ; - - with the five were two little 
At!at!a x h'as. Coyote hired Bat, Ground-Squirrel, and 
Gray-Squirrel to put dry grass around the house and 
smear it with pitch. When the house was ready, the five 
sisters came, but the two young ones would not go in. 
They came because they saw the people assembled. 
Coyote went out and invited them in ; he urged them to 
dance first. Thy danced and sang. One sang, "Give 
me my arm." 

Now Coyote told the little boy to run and get the arm. 
All the people slipped out. The boy brought the arm 
and put it on the woman. Then all five of the women 
got excited dancing, and did not notice that the people 


had gone out. They were shut in tight. Then Coyote 
set fire to the house. As it blazed up, they still danced. 
The two Atlatla'fia girls outside screamed, "Oh, you are 
burning!" Coyote slapped their tongues with his hand 
and cut them off; they could not scream then. As the 
flames went higher and higher, the women danced. The 
house fell in, and they were burned up. The two girls 
went home. 1 


A Wasco man went to a dance. A Celilo woman 
followed him home, so they were married. One time, 
towards spring, the man and his four brothers killed many 
ducks, more than they could use. The man's mother 
said to the wife, "If you have any people, you had bet- 
ter take these ducks to them." 

She packed a large number of ducks, and started off 
northward. She had two sons, whom she left with her 
mother-in-law. She travelled till she came to a lake. 
The ground around it was dry and cracked up ; it looked 
like Indian bread made of roots. She thought, "I'll eat 
the ducks, and carry this dirt to my father and mother 
and give it to them for bread." She ate all the ducks, 
and carried a load of the dirt. When she reached home, 
she gave them the bread, and they ate it all. This wo- 
man was an At!at!a x lia. 

She went back to her mother-in-law, and said, "My 
mother was very glad because of the ducks ; she wants 
more." The hunters went out and killed more ducks. 
She went with another load ; she did just as before. She 

1 The burning of the At'.atla'tia women by Coyote finds its nearest published 
analogy in Wishram Texts, pp. 35-39 of this volume. 


started the third time with ducks; she did as before, 
ate the ducks and carried dirt to her father and mother. 
She went the fourth time, and came home late in the 
evening. Early in the morning her husband arose. She 
was still sleeping. Her mouth was open; he looked in, 
and saw that her teeth were full of meat and feathers. 
He thought, "This is very strange," and told his brother 
to follow her and see what she did. 

He followed, saw her eat the ducks ; if even a feather 
escaped, she ran after it and ate it. The boy came 
home and told what he had seen, but the husband said 
nothing. The next time she went she carried a larger 
load than ever. The husband said, "Follow her, brothers, 
and see what she does with the ducks." All four brothers 
followed her. When she reached the lake, the boys went 
around to the opposite side and watched. Now the eldest 
brother called out, "Our sister-in-law is going to kill her- 
self eating." As he said this, the woman stopped eating 
and listened. Then she went on eating again. He called 
out in the same words, louder than before. She stopped 
and listened, but ate again. The fourth time he called 
she began to change form, turned into a grizzly bear, 
and ran after them. Soon she overtook the youngest 
and ate him up; then she caught the next in age and 
ate him. She ate the third; but the fourth got into the 
village, and told the people that his sister-in-law was run- 
ning after him and was going to eat them all up. 

Now the people of the village turned out and tried to 
kill the woman bear, but she ate them as fast as she 
could; nothing could kill her. At last she had eaten all 
the people except her husband ; he turned himself into a 
decrepit old man. Finally she thought of her two chil- 
dren ; they were already off some distance, running away 
from her. She left the old man and ran after them. 


She was almost upon them, when the younger one said 
to the elder, "What shall we do?" "We will make 

a village here to deceive her, and all the people will be 
dancing around a pole." They made the village. There 
were many frogs; these they turned into people, and the 
two boys were in the midst of the frogs dancing. When 
she came in sight, she said, " Yonder is Weditc, my elder 
son, and Wilu, my younger son." She was delighted to 
see such a crowd of people. She began to dance with 
them, danced a long time. When she came to her mind, 
she found herself in the middle of a swamp surrounded 
by frogs, up to her waist in mud and water. The boys 
had run far away. 

She followed her sons a second time, and was nearly 
upon them, when the younger said, "It is time for us to 
do something." - "All right! We'll make a village, and 
make it appear to our mother that we are dancing." 
They did so. As she got near, she saw her two boys, 
joined in the crowd, and began dancing. Now this was 
at the swampy side of a lake, and the people were grass 
and frogs. They seemed to her real people dancing, the 
grass waved back and forth in the dance, the frogs sang. 
At last the deception ceased, and she found herself in the 
swamp up to her neck, with reeds and grass and frogs 
all around her. 

She ran after the boys a third time, and was about to 
catch them. They made a village of people ; two parties 
were gambling. She took part in the gambling. These 
were frogs -, half sat on one log, a long line of frogs, and 
opposite was another log full of frogs, but they seemed 
to the woman like men. After a time she saw things 
as they were, and got out of the swamp. The fifth time 
she was about to catch her sons, when they made it 
appear that a crowd of people were playing ball on a 

flat. At one end she saw her elder boy, and at the other 
her younger. The valley seemed full of men. She joined 
in the play herself. When the deception ceased, she saw 
that the leaves of the trees, carried along by the wind, 
were what seemed people to her. 

The boys ran on, and met Coyote, who said, "My 
grandsons, why do you run so fast?" They said, "We 
are running away from our mother, who is an Atlatla'lia." 
Coyote said, "Run on up the hill. I'll meet her." He 
picked up a lot of mussel-shells, broke them into bits, 
and put them into his leggings, tying the leggings tight 
at the ankle and below the knee. Then he began to 
beat time with his leg, the shells making an excellent 
rattle. He saw her coming, and began singing and dan- 
cing towards her. She wondered what it was that rattled 
so about that man. He came along on the trail, came 
near going over her, pretended not to see her. She 
stepped off the trail, and asked, "What is the matter 
with you?" "Oh, I've killed two children." "You 

have killed two children?" repeated the woman. "Why, I 
have been following those children a long time." 
"Well, I ate them long ago." He went on. 

"Wait," she called, "and tell me what rattles so." He 
danced on, she followed, and insisted on knowing how he 
rattled. At last he said, "I met a man who told me 
that he broke his leg-bone on a great rock, and then 
it rattled, and still it had the same strength." - - "Oh, 
fix mine as you did yours." "No, you haven't strength 
enough ; it would hurt, and you would run off." But she 
insisted, and at last Coyote took her to a rock, and, 
taking a great stone, was about to throw it on her leg, 
when she drew back and said, "Oh, I can't stand it!" He 
danced off again, saying, "I knew you couldn't stand 
it-, only great men have endured it, great chiefs." She 


begged him to come back again. He came back, she 
straightened out her leg. He took as heavy a rock as 
he could lift and broke her leg into pieces. Then he 
danced off. She tried to follow, but fell down. Coyote 
called to her, "You've got your rattles, haven't you? and 
now you are satisfied." 1 He turned her into a large 
rock on the north side of Columbia River. She leans 
up against a bluff, as she stood when he changed her. 

1 The rattling-ruse here employed by Coyote is paralleled in Wishram Texts, 
pp. 35-39 of this volume. 


i. Fish-Hawk was a great hunter and fisherman. He 
used to make holes in the ice, dive down, and catch fish 
all winter. He was married to Coyote's daughter. Now 
Eagle came to The Dalles and got married. Coyote was 
proud of his son-in-law, and arranged for a race. He 
invited Eagle. Eagle said, "I don't know anything about 
running; but if Coyote wants me to run with his son-in- 
law, he must come to me." But Eagle began to practise. 
Every evening before daybreak he would go up the 
mountain and drive down a whole band of deer, and kill 
them all. 

Coyote and his party came to invite Eagle. It was 
now given out that a man would try before any one ran, 
just to show himself. A man came out with a quiver 
on his back and a spotted robe on-, he danced around 
a while, and then, in the presence of all, he disappeared. 
Every one looked around for him. Eagle said, "He is 

1 Under this head have been included such myths as make up the larger part 
of many American Indian mythologies, stories of powerful animal heroes, and tales 
of supernatural adventures; they are difficult to classify satisfactorily. Nos. 1-3 
deal with the deeds of Eagle, one of the favorite characters of Wishram and Wasco 
mythology (cf. p. 264 and Wishram Texts, pp. 75~93, 107-117, 117-121, 133-139). 
Nos. 4 and 5 tell of the defeat of the dreaded Grizzlies. Nos. 6-8 may be 
considered as forming a group of Sky Stories; they contain such well-known myth 
elements as the star husbands, the ascent to the sky on an arrow-chain, the origin 
of sun and moon. No. 9 seems to be in a class by itself; its complete under- 
standing evidently requires a knowledge of the ceremonial side of Wasco life. 

2 Here again two evidently distinct myths have been connected into one. The 
first part, Eagle's successful contests with Fisk-Hawk, is paralleled in Wishram Texts, 
pp. 133-139, especially p. 135, of this volume, where a foot-race takes place be- 
tween Fish-Hawk and Jack-Rabbit, one of Eagle's men. The second part deals 
with Eagle's generous treatment of poor Skunk, who makes himself ridiculous in 
his attempt to imitate the dancing and hunting feats of Eagle. 



there outside," and Eagle increased the heat of the sun 
on the spot where the man was, so that he burst imme- 
diately. It was a body-louse that had put on the form 
of a man, danced, then taken its natural form, and disap- 
peared nobody knew whither, and no man was able to 
find out who he was till Eagle killed him with the heat 
of the sun. He had often been to dances and shown 
himself in this way, for a living. 

Now Eagle and Fish-Hawk went out on the ground 
to run. The sun began to grow hot; they ran together 
to the place where they turned, and got halfway back. 
Then Eagle brought on a rain-storm, and it grew too 
muddy for Fish-Hawk ; he got all wet, and Eagle ran 
away from him. Old Coyote had to bring his son-in-law 
home; he was almost dead. 

About the middle of the winter, Coyote wanted Eagle 
to dive with Fish-Hawk. Eagle said, "I don't know 
anything about diving, but I'll try." 1 Coyote and his 
son-in-law came to the water. Coyote had five withes 
stuck under his belt, which he was going to give to Fish- 
Hawk. Eagle came bringing his five withes in his hand. 
Each had a place open in the ice; both went far up in 
the air, then dived down. Eagle struck the hole and went 
under the ice; but he had caused Fish-Hawk's place to 
fill with ice, so that Fish-Hawk struck his head and 
nearly killed himself. Coyote raised him up, and he was 
just coming to his senses when Eagle came from under 
the ice with five strings of salmon and other fish. Eagle 
went home and sang part of the night. The feathers he 
wore for ornament fell through the bed ; he told his broth- 
ers to hunt for them, then he gave the feathers to them. 

1 This characteristic modesty of Eagle in laying no claim to great running or 
iving prowess, although he wins out in the sequel, is illustrated also in Wishram 
Texts, p. 8 1 of this volume, where Eagle claims to have no power in gambling, 
yet defeats his opponents. 


2. Skunk was living in Eagle's village; he heard Eagle 
singing, heard his words. Next night Skunk sang, then 
said, "Brother-in-law, look and see what has fallen." The 
brother-in-law lighted a fire, found a bundle of fish-bones, 
and asked, "Are these your weapons?" and he threw 
them to his youngest brother. Eagle had heard what 
Skunk sang. As he was sitting outside next day, Skunk 
came along. Now Eagle was sorry for him, and, pulling 
out five of his tail-feathers, gave them to Skunk and said, 
"To-night you can sing and drop these." Skunk was 
happy. He went home, and at dark began to sing. 
Finally he said, "Brother-in-law, light the fire and look 
under the bed." One after another refused. At last they 
threw out the youngest brother; he lighted a fire and 
found the feathers. Then all began to fight for them ; 
the eldest brother got them, and the youngest cried. 

After this Eagle went hunting. He always brought 
the breast of the deer home, but threw the rest away. 
His wife rubbed his neck, the load was so heavy. 

Now Skunk imitated Eagle; he killed a little fawn, ate 
the flesh, brought home the upper jaw, and made his 
wife rub his neck. He had heard that Eagle brought 
the breast, and he mistook the jaw for the breast. His ' 
wife opened the bundle and was disappointed ; she didn't 
give him anything to eat, and would not let him sleep 
with her. 

Next day Eagle met him, and said, "To-morrow go 
with me, and I'll drive deer to you." Eagle killed many 
deer, put the breasts aside, packed the carcasses up, and 
made the pack become small and very light ; then he 
gave it to Skunk. When Skunk got home, he threw his 
bundle down outside, and asked his wife to rub his neck. 
She was very angry, and pushed him off. A voice from 
outside said, "The meat is being carried off." The old 



woman sent the boys out to see. They said, "There is 
a great deal of fat meat here." Now she was very kind 
to her husband, but he drove her off. It took a long 
time to bring the meat in, there was so much. His 
wife never refused again to rub his neck. The next time 
he saw Eagle, Eagle said, "You can always go hunting 
with me." Skunk was now better liked, and his wife 
always had meat to give away. 


There was a young Abu'mat 1 girl at The Dalles who 
always carried rattles in her hands. She could throw 
everybody. It was agreed that whoever could throw her 
should have her. Coyote came and began to wrestle 
with her; she threw him in a flash. He tried time after 
time, and kept saying to her, "All the people say that 
Coyote ought to have you." As they wrestled, he would 
whisper, "Let me try again. Do now fall down. I'll 
not throw you hard; do fall." The woman wouldn't 
listen, but continued to throw him on his back every time. 
'Coyote would jump up, run to the people, and say, "She 
says that after she has thrown you all, I shall be able 
to throw her. Make haste to wrestle with her." 

The fifth day Eagle saw that the girl was throwing 
everybody. He didn't know what to do, he was afraid 
to wrestle with her himself. As he came down the creek, 
he saw a willow waving, swaying back and forth. He 
decided to pull up this willow, which had a long root. 
He pulled it out of the ground and caused it to be a 
man. Then he said, "I have made you a man to wrestle 
with that girl. Now I'll put you in the water for five 

1 Translated by Curtin as tt a root;" the species is not known. 


days and nights, and you will be a strong man." The 
sixth day Eagle went for the young man, drew him out 
of the water. The willow said, "I'll go to-day and try." 
Eagle said, "All right." They started off, and went along 
the side of a hill. Eagle said, "We aught to have more 
company." Thereupon ( he pulled out his pipe, scraped 
the inside of the bowl, and held it in his hand. He 
worked it till it got to be quite a long piece, then he put 
it down on the ground. Soon it rose up a man, and 
stood at his side. He called him Ika'inkainus. 1 

The three walked along till they came to a nice sandy 
place, when Eagle said, "Let us see who is strongest." 
They wrestled a long time. At last Willow threw Ika'in- 
kainus ; he fell heavily to the ground and broke in pieces. 
Eagle asked, "Why did you throw your brother so hard?" 
Then he gathered up the pieces and rolled them between 
his hands, and again Ika'inkainus was a living man. 
They came to the wrestling-place, and found Coyote still 
wrestling with the girl, teasing her to fall. He saw 
Eagle and the two men coming, ran up to them, and 
said, "Come and wrestle." "No," replied Eagle, "I 

have only come to look on." 

At last he agreed to try his men. He told Ika'in- 
kainus to try. He arose, took off his robe, stripped, and 
went on the ground. They locked arms and struggled. 
After a while she said, "You are making me sway." 
"No, you are swaying yourself." At last the ground 
began to move, and the woman said, "I am afraid you 
will throw me." Then she hurled him in the air ; he 
struck the ground, and broke in pieces. When the dust 
cleared up, nothing could be seen of him. Eagle picked 
up the bits, dust and all, put them in a bundle, took 

1 Translated by Curtin as "Tobacco-Man," but this can hardly be the literal 
meaning of the name. 

them out of sight, worked them between his hands, and 
made them a living man again. He made this man to 
amuse the people. Willow began to wrestle with the 
girl. He twisted her around, and at last broke some of 
the outside roots of her body. She said, "You will throw 
me, and then you will be my husband." The fifth time 
he twisted her, he broke every root that she had. Coyote 
was very angry at this, and wanted to make war. 

The woman rose up, and went away with Willow. 
Eagle went home. He said to Ika'inkainus, "You will 
remain here and become a great spirit for future people. 
Those who seek you will become medicine-men." Eagle 
took Willow, put him where he had found him, and 
turned him back into his old form. Then Eagle and the 
girl went to the mountains, and Coyote was not able to 



Eagle was a Klamath man, and he came to Columbia 
River on a sporting expedition, to gamble. At first he 
won all the games. He gambled with Crab, Crow, Hawk, 
Raven, and many other people. Towards the end, luck 
turned against him. Crab was called on to take part in 
the game. After that Eagle lost everything that he had 
won and all that he had brought with him. He gambled 
off his buckskin dress, his moccasins, arrows, everything. 
Then he bet one arm, lost; lost the other arm; bet one 
leg, lost; bet the other leg, lost. He lost one whole 
side of his body, one eye, one ear, all of one half of 
himself. Then he played and lost the other half of his 
body. His life was now in the hands of those with whom 

1 Essentially the same myth is found in Boas, Chinook Texts, pp. 35-36. 


he gambled. They cut off his head, and then his people 
at home just discovered where he was and what had be- 
come of him. 

He had two sons and they looked for guardian spirits 
to get supernatural power to help them avenge their 
father. The younger brother received the strength of 
twenty-five grizzly bears, and the elder received the power 
of five double fires (five two abreast, ten in all). They 
started with these powers and hunted for their father's 
tracks. After five years they found them, and followed 
them to The Dalles. They stood on the hill overlooking 
the village, saw their father's head stuck on a pole. They 
saw a house at one end of the village. "We will go 
there," they said. They reached the house, where they 
found two old women. The young men asked, "Who 
is the chief of the village?" The old women said, "We 
must not tell you. If we mention his name, that moment 
he will sneeze and say, 'My name is mentioned in the 
old house at the end of the village,' and he will send to 
see who is here," but the brothers insisted. At last the 
old women told him, and that instant the chief sneezed 
and sent to the house. The first messenger came. In 
an instant his face was burned from the power of the 
elder brother. Five came ; all were served in the same 
way. Then the chief sent and invited the young men to 
come and gamble with him. (And this is one of the 
sayings of the Indians now, from this story. If a person 
sneezes, he says, "Somebody is talking about me." 1 ) 

They played and won back all their father's body, and 
brought him to life by putting the pieces together and 
stepping over them five times. The people now wanted 
to fight with them. They agreed. The brothers placed 

1 Compare Sapir, Religious Ideas of the Takelma Indians of Southwestern Oregon 
(Journal of American Folk-Lore, Vol. XX, p. 40). 


the five double fires on one side of the village, and the 
twenty-five grizzly bears on the other side. Not one per- 
son escaped; all were killed and burned to ashes. The 
father and sons went home. They scattered the grizzly 
bears over all. the mountains. When they came home 
to Klamath, they lived happily and well. 


Panther and Wildcat lived together about two miles 
and a half below The Dalles, in Oregon. Wildcat staid 
at home, kept house all the time. When Wildcat grew 
large enough to hunt, he killed rabbits with bow and 
arrow not far from home. One summer Panther brought 
in a buck shin-bone, hung it up, and said to Wildcat, 
"No matter how hungry you may be, don't eat that 
shin-bone." - - "All right," said Wildcat. Panther was out 
late one day hunting. Wildcat was lying down hungry 
at home, looked, and saw the shin-bone. He took it 
down, and, placing it across one stave, struck it with 
another. The bone broke, the marrow flew out and 
quenched the fire, and there was no more fire near. 

Wildcat looked, and saw a fire on the other side of 
Columbia River, but could not find a boat. Then he swam 
across and found a house, went in, and found two old 
blind sisters, who had each five large fire-brands which 
they kept counting over and over. Wildcat took one of 
them. She found only four, and accused her sister of 
stealing. "Oh, no!" said the other. Wildcat put back 
the brand. She counted again, found the number to be 
right, and said, "O sister! I was mistaken. All is right." 
Wildcat laughed. Then he tried the sister on the left 
hand in the same way, with the same results. Wildcat 

1 Compare Kathlamet Texts, pp. 90-97, for a close cognate of this myth. 


laughed to himself. He went out and got some cedar, 
and tied it up in bundles the same size as the fire-brands, 
set them afire, and substituted them. He took two fire- 
brands, and, going up the river to a large stone at the 
bank, tied them upright to his ears, so that they stood 
up like asses' ears, swam across, and took them home. 

When two-thirds of the way across, the ears got hot; 
when almost there, he could hardly stand it; and when 
he had reached the bank, he hurled the brands away 
and washed his ears. Then he picked up the fire again, 
and went home and made a new fire. On the instant 
that he was starting the fire, Panther was drawing his 
arrow on a deer, the bow broke, and blood streamed. 
Panther knew at once that something was wrong at home ; 
he thought Wildcat had been at work. He returned 
home and asked, "What have you been doing?" "The 
fire went out." "Where did you get it?" - "From 

the old women across the river." "They will attack 
us now," said Panther. "Get our aksku'tcian." 1 Wildcat 
got it, and they sharpened it very sharp ; they cut a tree 
with four blows, then three, then two, then one. Then, 
by showing it, a great cottonwood-tree fell. Panther 
now stripped, painted himself yellow, red, and black. 
Wildcat had the aksku'tcian. Panther had only his breech- 
clout, and was going to fight with his hands. 

Presently they heard the cry, "Hoig, hoig, hoig!" The 
ground trembled, a great storm was rising, hail and rain 
then followed; this was the old Grizzly, who said, "Who 
has stolen our fire?" He called out five times, "Who is 
it that has stolen our fire?" And every time he cried 

1 This word is evidently the same, though different in gender, as the Wishram 
ikcku'tcien ("adze"); perhaps it is to be read as aksk'.u'tsian, the diminutive form 
of the word (see Wishram Texts, p. 162, line 13). In the Kathlamet myth, Lynx 
(ipu'koa, cognate with Wasco ipkvva' ("wildcat") uses an instrument called e'qa-itk 
(translated "adze"). 


out, the storm would come heavier and heavier. Now 
old Grizzly came to the house, smashed one end of it in, 
and Panther and Grizzly clinched. Panther said to Wild- 
cat, "Brother, hit him with your weapon." Bear would 
say, "Here, what are you doing?" and Wildcat would get 
afraid and run up the smoke-hole. But Panther would 
say, "Come and strike him with your weapon;" and 
Wildcat would come down again and be about to strike, 
when the Bear would call out to him gruffly, and he 
would run away again frightened. At last Panther said, 
"Strike, my strength is giving out." Then Wildcat struck 
and cut off the hind-legs of the Bear; he died, and they 
threw him out and covered him up. 

Now the second Grizzly came with a greater noise and 
a heavier storm. And wherever the hail would hit Wild- 
cat when he came to the door to look out, it would cut 
right into him. That is the reason his head is all covered 
with black spots. The second came striking the ground, 
and pushed in the end of the house and roared the while. 
Now Wildcat was not frightened so much this time. 
When the Bear came in and he was called on, he would 
come down. Panther and Bear began to fight. Then 
Panther called on Wildcat, and he came and cut off the 
Bear's hind-legs and threw him out. Now the third came 
with rain, hail, and wind. (The three Bears were as white 
as snow.) The earth shook with the storm he brought. 
They had just got their house up again. When the third 
Bear came and nearly threw it over, only the part was 
left where Wildcat was. Panther wrestled with the third 
Bear, and was thrown and nearly killed. Then he called 
on Wildcat, "Come, brother, I'm nearly gone." Wildcat 
cut off the Bear's hind-legs and killed him. 

The fourth Bear came with the like noise of thunder 
and with lightning, and the wind blew so that it carried 


great rocks with it. Panther was thrown four times now, 
and Wildcat waited and watched to be called on. At 
last Panther screamed out, "Come down, I'm nearly 
killed." Wildcat jumped down quickly, but the Bear roared 
out so terribly that it scared him, and he went back again. 
He came down three times. Each time the Bear would 
turn on him and throw up dust and roar so, that he ran 
back. At last he got down and cut off Bear's hind-legs, 
and the Bear died. 

Now the fifth Bear came. The earth trembled as he 
came with thunder, lightning, hail, and rain, and he threw 
the house to the ground. Now the Bear began to fight 
with Panther, fought terribly. At last they went up into 
the air, fighting out of sight, and great pieces of flesh 
would fall, piece after piece. Panther was white, Bear 
rather dark. Now Wildcat built a fire and burned the 
flesh of Bear, but saved that of Panther. About sun- 
down Wildcat saw them coming down little by little, still 
clinched in a death struggle, nothing but bones with the 
heart of each one hanging on to him. All the flesh and 
intestines were gone. Now as they came to the ground, 
Bear was at the bottom ; and Wildcat burned Bear's body 
and heart, and put Panther in the water. 1 

Now five days and nights passed, and Wildcat was very 
lonesome. On the sixth morning Panther called out, 
"Brother, are you awake?" Wildcat sprang up quickly 
he was so glad that Panther was alive again. He 
built a fire without delay, and cooked for Panther. When 
he had eaten, Panther moved the house and took the dead 
bodies of the five Bears, threw them across the river, and 
turned them into great rocks. These rocks are there to 

1 For a similar fight up in the air between Eagle and Buzzard, who hold on 
to each other until each is nothing but a mass of bones, compare Wishram Texts, 
pp. 89-93 f this volume; Panther and Owl, (Boas, Kathlamet Texts, pp. 138-141). 


this day. The fifth was burned. (These rocks are called 
the great bears and the wolves. On each of these four 
rocks there is a hollow top. In early days the Indians 
would send their children to sleep on these, one night 
on each rock, till they had slept on all the four, in order 
that they might receive strength from the spirit of the 

After Panther had done this, he said, "We must sepa- 
rate here and take our second form. What help will you 
be to people?" Wildcat said, "I shall live near the river-, 
and if any young man will obey me, I will make him a 
great hunter." Panther said, "I'll go to the Cascade 
Range ; and if any young man will obey my word, I shall 
make him a great warrior and a great hunter." 


In La'daxat 2 lived five brothers who were known far 
and near. One evening about dark they heard the voice 
of an old man, who asked, "Have the young men of this 
village gone to bed? If they have not, I'll tell them 
something which has happened to day." The young men 
answered, "We are all awake." "A great bear came 
on our island to-day," said the old man, "and I want you 
all to come and hunt that bear to-morrow." All the 
young men were willing. 

Next day they went out. The chief of the village 
stood on the very spot on the island where the bear had 
first -been seen. He had all his feathers on, had his 

1 This myth corresponds fairly well to Kathlamet Texts, pp. 58-66, where a 
monster disguised as an elk takes the place of the grizzly bear of the Wasco myth. 

1 La'daxat was a winter village of the Wishrams, situated on the Washington 
side of the Columbia about ten miles below The Dalles, a short distance above 
Memaloose Island, an Indian burial-ground. Many suckers were caught at La'daxa 
in the winter. 


shield and his quiver full of arrows , he looked very well. 
The evening before, the old man had given them arrow- 
points, had told the chief to use them and give them to 
his men. He did so. The people saw the bear, and 
drove it towards the chief, who was the eldest of the five 
brothers. He shot at the bear, but the arrow did not 
penetrate, and the bear devoured the chief. All the people 
went home, left the bear on the island. 

The brothers sweated five days and nights, for that 
was the custom if a relative died. Then they were ready 
for another attack on the bear. The fifth night the voice 
of the old man cried out and asked, "Are the young 
men ready to hunt the great bear again? A still whiter 
one has been seen on the island to-day. Have they arrow- 
points enough ?" Now this voice was the voice of the 
great bear himself, who was deceiving the people, and 
the first arrow-points were the points of fern-leaves that 
looked like arrow-points; the great bear made them look 
so. The old man brought another bundle of arrow-points. 
He was very old, and as he gave them he cried. These 
second points were made of the leaves of the wild grape, 
and had been turned into points by the bear. The people 
were mourning more and more. All kinds of birds came and 
received arrow-points, and were helping the brothers. All 
shot at the bear. The second brother stood on the trail, 
the others drove up the bear. He shot; the bear fell 
and pretended to be dead. As the brother went towards 
him, he sprang up and swallowed him. 

They sweated five days for the second brother. Then 
the old man's voice was heard. It was low, and seemed 
to be drowned in tears, it trembled with sorrow, and at 
last, choked with tears, he cried so loud that the whole 
village heard him. He brought a great bundle of arrow- 
points to the three chiefs, poured them down and wept. 


This time the points were made of dried grape-leaves. 
The people were rejoiced to get them, they seemed so 
beautiful and sharp. 

They went out the third day. The third chief was 
killed, though all the birds of the air came to assist him, 
and all shot at the bear. The chief shot at him, he fell 
over. The chief went up and pushed him with his bow; 
the bear sprang up and devoured him. Again they 
sweated for five days and nights. The voice of the old 
man was heard on the fifth night; it seemed weaker and 
sadder. Another bear had been seen. The old man 
brought another bundle of arrow-points, and he cried all 
the time. They were long, sharp, and beautiful, they were 
made of willow-leaves turned yellow. The fourth brother 
was killed as the third had been. Only the youngest 
was left. 

He sweated five days and nights. He was going around 
mourning for his brothers, when he came upon the leg- 
bone of a meadow-lark. He couldn't step over it or 
crawl under it, finally he slipped on it and broke it. 1 
Then Meadow-Lark appeared to him, and told him that 
the bears did not come to the island, that it was their 
home, that the arrow-points were nothing but leaves, and 
that the old man who brought them was himself one of 
the bears. "Go to your grandfathers way over on that 
mountain," she pointed southward, "they will give you 
arrow-points there that are real points. And when you 
go to fight, put a stump on the place where your brothers 
were killed. Put feathers on it as on a man, then stand 
on it, and when the bear rushes up, shoot him." 

The young man went to the mountain, and from the 
rattlesnakes received their teeth made into arrow-points. 

1 For advice given by a bone or stick which refuses to let a person pass and 
is finally broken, cf. Wishram Texts, p. 169 of this volume. 


He came home and gave them to his men. Now the old 
man called out again, and asked if they had arrow-points. 
They said, "We have none." He brought a bundle and 
gave them to them ; they were made of cottonwood-leaves. 
The old man cried bitterly as he gave them. As soon as 
he left, the young man threw them into the fire, and they 
burned up. Sure enough, they were nothing but leaves. 

Next day all went out, drove the bear as before. All 
the birds screamed and whooped and shot at the bear. 
This time he felt every arrow, for the points were made 
of the teeth of rattlesnakes. His nose and eyes puffed 
up, and he went into the water and lay down. He drank 
much water; a fish with long sharp fins behind his head 
came there and was swallowed, and he cut through the 
bear's stomach. The bear came out of the water, and 
again the birds shot at him, and each said, "I've hit him, 
I've hit him." Razor-Snake said, "I am doing the best 
I can under his feet." Frog said, "I have done best. I 
jumped on his foot and frightened him." At this moment 
the young chief, the fifth brother, shot and killed him. 

All the people came together around the dead bear, 
the chief at the head. He said, "Give five whoops!" 
They did so and then skinned the bear. The white part 
of the skin the chief took, and also the front claws. Then 
the people took the meat and went home. A small bird, 
the smallest of all, found a drop of the bear's blood on 
a leaf; he took that for his share. The chief said, "Take 
a shoulder to the old man Grizzly Bear." There were 
five of these bear brothers. Bluejay said, "I'll take it." 
He threw it over his shoulder and went to the house of 
the five brothers. They were crying. Bluejay pushed 
the door open and said, "Here, old man, take this," and 
he threw the shoulder in. They said, "Oh, our house 
smokes terribly. We can scarcely see." 



One night, after going to bed, five girls were looking 
up at five stars. The eldest said, "I should like to have 
that star for a husband," picking out the largest. "I 
should like to have that one," said the second, pointing 
out a smaller one. "And I that one," said a third, till 
the youngest said, "I should like to have that one," 
pointing to the smallest one ; it was so small as to be 
scarcely visible. These same five stars had visited the 
girls the night before, but they did not know it. As 
they talked, the youngest said, "Mine is the prettiest, it 
is so dim and small." The girls fell asleep, talking of 
the stars. 

That night all five stars came down. This was when 
the stars were people and could go anywhere. In the 
morning the stars arose and left the girls. The one who 
looked smallest was in reality the largest and heaviest of 
them all. When his brothers arose and left, he could 
not go he had become so weary with coming and 

going night after night. In the morning, when the girls 
woke up, they found the old gray-headed man lying by 
the youngest girl. When she saw the old man by her 
side, she jumped up and ran away ; she did not want 
such an old man for a husband. 

When the people found out, because of the old man's 
being left behind, that the stars were coming down and 
staying nights with the girls, the stars said, "We shall 
never go to the earth any more;" and the old man said, 

1 Compare Riggs, Dakota Grammar, Texts, and Ethnography (Contributions to 
North American Ethnology, Vol. IX, p. 90). The Wasco myth, as here given, is 
evidently a mere fragment of a fuller myth that filtered in from the east. It is 
known from the Pacific coast from southern Vancouver Island (Boas, Indianische 
Sagen, p. 62) and southern Alaska (Boas, Traditions of the Ts'Ets'a'ut, Journ. Am. 
Folk-Lore, Vol. X, p. 39). 


" It shall be this way with the people to come. Whenever 
an old man marries a young girl, she will not like him, 
and will run away." And so it has been ever since. 

Now the old star man turned himself into a bright, 
white, flint rock, very large, thick, and round; and the 
place where he lay was by the river, a great gathering- 
place for all tribes who lived near. Every one knew this 
star. Once, when the tribe that lived around the place 
of the star were camping away in the summer, their 
enemies came and threw the stone into the river. The 
people who lived around the star were on the right bank 
of Columbia River. When they returned and found the 
star rock destroyed, they crossed the river and almost 
destroyed the Wasco cup. It was once very deep and 
large-, now the cup is small. 1 After this star was lost, 
the tribe that possessed it lost the name of Star tribe, 
and became very common people. 


There was once a boy who was told by his mother 
never to shoot high up in the air. But this made him 
wish to shoot up, and at last he did shoot. His arrow 
stuck in the sky; then, in trying to shoot it down, he 
hit that arrow in the end, shot again and hit the second 
in the end, and so he kept shooting till his last arrow 
was near the ground. He stood and thought a while, then 
climbed up on the arrows, and went the other side of 
the sky. He looked around and saw tracks everywhere 
and a nice road. "I'll follow this road," thought he, and 
went on. 

1 For the Wasco cup see note on p. 240. 

2 Compare Kathlamet Texts, pp. 11-19; Wishram Texts, pp. 171-173 of this 
volume. The first part of the Kathlamet-Wishram myth is given by Curtin as a 
separate myth (see pp. 276-279). 


At last he saw a crowd of persons rolling along. He 
called out to them and asked, "What are you doing 
there, where are you going?" - "We are going into the 
heads of Indians down below." These people were Nits, 
all old white-headed people. He went farther, saw a 
great crowd of people coming, and asked, "Where are 
you going?" "Oh, we are going below to eat the 
blood of people." These were Body-Lice. Soon after 
he met a crowd of red people, and asked, "Where are 
you going?" "Below, to eat the blood of people." 

These were Flea people. "What are you carrying on 
your backs?" "Oh, those are our humps." Soon 

another crowd appeared, each with a pack. He asked, 
"Where are you going?" "Down below." "What 

have you got in your bundles? I am hungry." "We 
have nothing to eat." "Well, open your bundles; let 
me see." One put down his bundle ; the boy opened it. 
That moment everything was filled with darkness; the 
boy begged them to tie up the bundle. They did so, 
and there was light again. These were Ground-Squirrel 
people, and there was a vast number of them. They 
said to the boy, "The people below have nothing but 
light now. When we get there, one of us will open his 
bundle, and while it lasts it will be dark. Then light 
will come ; and when we are tired of light, another of us 
will open his bundle, and there will be darkness." They 
passed on. 

Soon he saw a man coming with an arrow through 
his body. As he passed the boy, he fell dead. Straight- 
way another man came along with his hair tied up on 
his head; he had a bow and arrows in a quiver on his 
back. "Have you passed a man," asked he, "with an 
arrow through his body?" "Yes," answered the boy, 

"and he fell a short distance behind you." "You are 


my son-in-law," said the man. "Go on, you will come to 
my house. When you do, go in." The boy went on his 
way, saw a mountain-sheep with an arrow through it. 
It just passed and fell dead. Soon a man came up with 
an arrow and asked, "Did you see a sheep?" "Yes, 
it fell a little way from here." The man said, "You are 
my son-in-law." The boy did not answer ; he did not 
know what to say. The man said, "As you travel this 
road, you will see a great many feathers and much paint. 
Keep on, you'll come to my house." 

After a time the boy came to a house. It shone very 
brightly, but near by was a black house, black smoke 
coming out of it. He opened the door of the bright 
house and went in. Everything shone in the house. They 
cooked huckleberry-roots and other food for him. He 
saw a young woman sitting there, and his heart failed 
him, - - she was so beautiful. Now the people from the 
black house came over and tried to steal him ; they sur- 
rounded the place, but they could not get in, and he 
would not go outside. At last the people hid him in the 
house. This was Sun's house; the girl was the First- 
Blush-of- Morning, and she was bright and beautiful. The 
boy had her for his wife. The man who was following 
the mountain-sheep was old Sun himself; he was on a 
journey. The first person, who was after the man who 
was shot through, was Death. His people lived in the 
black house and tried to get the boy. 

After a time First-Blush-of-Morning bore two children 
which were fastened together, boys. The young man 
said to his wife, "We will go to the river and wash our 
heads." After they had washed their heads, she sat down, 
and he put his head in her lap. As he lay there, he 
scratched on the ground and made a little hole. Through 
this hole he looked down to the world below, and saw 



his sister mourning, going from the spring to the house. 
Bluejay ran up to her and said, "I am your brother, 
I've come to life." He would run against her and almost 
push her over, for she was nearly blind from mourning. 
All the people of the place were mourning. The men 
were coming home with bundles of bones , they had been 
everywhere hunting for his bones, and had collected many 
of all kinds. The young man cried at what he saw. 
Then he rose up and went home with his wife. He lay 
on the bed five days and nights. They did not know 
what the trouble was. 

Old Sun asked his daughter if she had abused him. 
She said, "No." Then he said, "He must have seen his 
old home below. Let us take him back." Sun's wife 
told her daughter to get some of old woman Spider's 
cords to make a basket. She got the rope and a bas- 
ket. They told him they were getting ready to send 
him home. His boys were already well grown. They 
brought him food of all kinds, all kinds of berries that 
are picked on trees above, all kinds of vegetables that 
the ground above produced; at that time there was no 
fruit or vegetables here below. When all was ready, they 
went to the hole that the young man had made by pull- 
ing up grass by the roots and scratching the ground. 
They lowered the basket through the hole with the father, 
boys, and mother in it. Old woman Spider came, and 
they spliced the rope whenever it was giving out. They 
lowered it gradually till it came to the ground on a hill 
half a mile above the Wasco spring. (To this day the 
place can be seen where the basket came down. There 
is a hollow or basin in the hill.) 

The man got out of the basket and ran to the house 
just as his sister started for the spring. Bluejay came 
up, snatched her bucket, and said, "I'm your broth- 


er." The man now came to her. He took hold of her 
hand and said, "I have come. Tell our father and mother 
to clean out the house five times and burn sweet stuff 
five times. Then we shall come." His sister said, "Our 
mother is blind." He went to the house, drew one of 
his own hairs across her eyes, and immediately she could 
see as well as ever. They cleaned the house five times, 
and the fifth day the brother came with his wife and two 
boys. They had a feast and gave many presents. 

The boys were running around. Now Bluejay had his 
tomahawk ready to cut the boys in two, for he knew 
they were the grandchildren of Sun , he thought that it 
would be well to spread them out, not to have both in 
one place. All were astonished to see two children, so 
fastened together, run and step as one and shoot as one. 
Crowds of people came from every place to see them. 
The fifth day the boys ran outside, Bluejay was ready. 
He hit the boys and made two of them this killed both 
of the boys. The woman saw this, ran, caught her boys, 
and said, Til go back to my father Sun and take both 
of my boys with me, one on each side. Every time there 
is war in any place, I'll show myself with my sons on 
each side of me. When there is no war, I'll appear with- 
out my sons." The woman had given the relatives of 
her husband, who were Ants and Yellow-Jackets, many 
gifts, - - robes, skins and ornaments, fruit and vegetables. 
All these disappeared when the woman went away. The 
people tied them around their waists with strong strings ; 
but they pulled away, almost cut the people in two. This 
is why those people have such small waists now. The 
woman became the sun in heaven, and her sons are the 
shadows sometimes seen. There was no sun on earth 
before this. 

3 o8 

A woman and her two children lived below The Dalles. 
An old man lived some distance from them. One night 
the elder boy, who was about four years old, began to 
cry. The mother brought him everything there was in 
the house, but still he cried. At last she concluded to send 
him to the old man, whom she called grandfather. She 
said to the boy, "He will tell you stories; go to him." 
The boy jumped up and ran off to the old man's house. 
The old man asked, "What do you want?" "I want 
you to tell me stories." The boy lay down by the old 
man, and he said, "Once there was a spring, and water 
flowed from it, and grass grew around it, tawna, tawna." 2 
"Oh," said the child, "that is very short." - "No, 
that's a good story. It's long enough." The boy was 
angry and ran home. His mother said, "He must have 
told you a short story." - "He only said there was a 
spring, and water ran from it, and grass grew around it; 
then he said 'tawna, tawna,' right away." The woman was 
provoked because the old man did not tell the boy a 
long story and keep him quiet. She went over and 
scolded him. He said, "I thought that was enough to 
quiet him, and that that was all that was wanted." 

The boy cried again. She sent him again, and the 
old man told the same kind of a story. The woman 

1 There are no published Chinookan cognates of this myth. That it is not 
Chinookan in origin is further made probable by the fact that Sun and Moon are 
here male characters, whereas the Wasco words for "sun" and "moon" are both femi- 
nine in gender. Contrast Wishram Texts, p. 47 of this volume, where Sun is a 
female character. The tale evidently belongs to the group of myths accounting for 
the animals or people who become substitutes for the sun which does not behave 
properly. See, for instances, Boas, Sagen der Kootenay (Verb. Berliner Ges. fur 
Anthr., 1891, p. 164); Eine Sonnensage der Tsimschian (ibid., 1908, p. 776). 

u Tawna, tawna," is evidently a customary conventional ending, to show that 
the story is finished. Cf. k'.anik'.anl' (Wishram Texts, p. 130, line 28) and klone'- 
k'.one (Chinook Texts, p. no, line 9). 


scolded him for not telling longer stories. This happened 
five times. Then the woman was very angry with the 
old man, and determined to move away, and she moved 
off to some distance. 

This woman's younger boy talked like an old man 
when not more than a year old. He would tell about 
many things which had been and would be. He had 
a very large stomach. When the elder boy punched 
it with his hand, it sounded strangely, something like a 
bell. The elder boy was stupid, did nothing but cry and 

One morning the mother told him to take the little 
boy out and play with him on the sand. He snatched 
the child by the hair and dragged him out and around 
on the ground ; he could not walk yet. 

The father of the younger boy was Spider. The wo- 
man had left the father before the child was born, but 
the boy was constantly talking about his father. He 
would say, "My father is following us; he has gone up 
on a rock, and is looking for our fire ; he has crossed 
the river." This made the woman very angry; she would 
shake the child, but right away again he would be talk- 
ing about his father. He seemed to see him and to 
know all he was doing. 

The elder boy dragged his little brother around all day 
in the sand and dirt, nearly killed him. Next morning 
when the child woke up, he said, "My father is going to 
kill himself because he cannot find us, he will heat rocks 
under a tree, then he will climb the tree and fall on to 
the rocks." "Oali, oali," the child would sing, and so 
he went on day and night. He would rouse his mother 
in the night and say, "People over there are doing so 
and so," and he would sing, "Oali, oali;" he would roll 
over against his brother, and the brother would kick him 

3 io 

back, but the child did not cry ; he seldom cried. Again 
he would say, "I see a man hugging a woman over 
there." He looked everywhere, and saw everything that 
was going on 'in the world, and kept telling what he saw 
night and day. His mother and brother did not like him. 

One day the mother told the elder brother to take the 
younger one out doors and step on his stomach, saying, 
"Then all of that big stomach will go off, and he will be 
like you." The boy took the child out, put him on his 
back, and stamped on his stomach. Immediately snakes, 
frogs, lizards, and everything of the reptile kind, came 
out of the boy and ran off. Then he got up and went 
into the house with his brother, and stopped singing, " Oali, 
oali ;" he never sang it again. 

The mother told the boys to make bows and arrows, 
saying, "I'll give you five quivers, and you can fill them. 
I'll trim robes for you with shells, then I'll tell you what 
to do." The boys made the arrows. She trimmed them 
beautiful robes, then said, " I want to send you to kill 
Sun." In those days Sun never moved out of his tracks, 
always stood directly overhead, and no living being could 
go far and live so great was the heat. 

The mother said, "When you kill Sun, you can stay 
up there. One of you can be Sun, the other Moon." 
The boys were delighted. They started off and travelled 
south. When they got a little east of where Primeville 
now is, they wrestled with each other. Spider boy got 
thrown, and at that spot a great many camas-robts came 
up. At every village to which they came, they told the 
people where they were going; and all were glad, for all 
were tired of Sun and his terrible heat. Finally the boys 
turned and travelled east, till they were nearly overcome 
by the heat. 

At last they came to a place from which, looking to 

the left, they could see a great ball of shining fire ; they 
looked to the right, and there was a second ball of shin- 
ing fire. They had gone up in the air, and had come 
to Moon's house; it was on the left side of Sun's house, 
not far away. Old Moon and his daughter lived there. 
Moon's daughter was very lame. She waited on the boys, 
brought them fruit of all kinds, huckleberries, and other 
things. The boys were amused as they saw her walk. 

Moon's house was full of light, bright and dazzling. 
The boys ate, and then went out and came as near Sun's 
house as they could. It was so bright and hot that they 
couldn't get very near. They took their arrows and be- 
gan to shoot at old Sun, who sat in his house. With 
their last arrow they killed the old man. Immediately 
there was no more strong light. They pulled out their 
arrows and said, "We cannot both be Sun, we must kill 
Moon." They killed Moon. Then they argued as to 
which should be Sun. The elder said, "I will. I am 
older than you are. You can be Moon and take his 
daughter." The younger brother agreed to this. 

Now the people below were very anxious to know 
where the two boys were who had travelled to the east. 
As the heat grew less and less, they said, "It must be 
that the boys have done as they said." The mother knew 
that they had been able to accomplish all they wished for. 
Now they went through the sky, and Moon followed Sun. 


Five brothers lived at the foot of Mount Hood on its 
south side. The eldest said, "Let us sing, brothers, and 

1 This dance-festival myth corresponds, in a general way, to Wishram Texts, 
PP- 95-99 f this volume. The dance referred to is perhaps to be compared with the 
Nez Perce Guardian-Spirit dance recently described by Spinden (see The Nez Perce 
Indians, Memoirs of the American Anthropological Association, Vol. II, pp. 262-264). 

3 I2 

enlarge our house." They sang till they had a very 
large house with five fireplaces in it. Now they got 
Black-Fox to carry the news of their singing festival 1 to 
different villages, far and near. The eldest brother said, 
"Bring fir-bark." (They used to burn bark. They put 
a large log of wood on the fire, and put bark on top, 
and the wood was called "husband of the bark.") Now 
five Panther brothers, five Wolf brothers, five Wildcat 
brothers, and five Fox brothers came. The Panther 
brothers were taken to where the eldest brother had his 
bed, the other people were at the different fireplaces. 
There was one Elk to each fireplace; the eldest Elk had 
the first fireplace, and the youngest the fifth. 

At midnight the eldest Elk began to sing, then he arose, 
came to the fire, and said to the eldest Panther, "Get on 
my back." Now all the people were singing. Panther 
got on his back. Elk stepped astride of the fire, it blazed 
up on each side of him. The fire burned terribly, but 
Panther thought he could endure it if Elk could. Elk 
sang five songs and stopped five times before he stepped 
out of the fire. Then he said to Panther, "You have a 
strong heart. You are hereafter my brother, and are 
worthy to be a great hunter." 

The second Elk sang, took one of the Wolf brothers, 
and stood over the fire. Both were burned, but he sang 
five songs and stopped five times. Then he said, "You 
are my brother, and worthy to be a warrior." The third 
Elk sang and took the eldest Wolf on his back. He 
endured the fire; and Elk said, "You are a brave man, 
and shall be a great hunter." Elk was trying them to 
let them know what hardships they had to go through 
to be great hunters. The fourth Elk took Marten on 

Compare Wishram Texts, p. 17 of this volume, for the idea of deer or elks 
as singers par excellence among the animals. 

hk back, told him the same. The fifth Elk took Black- 
Fox. Black-Fox was burning, he twisted and squirmed, 
but he held on. 

Morning came ; they ate and then slept during the day. 
The second night they sang, and the eldest Elk put the 
second Panther on his back; each Elk put the second 
brother on his back, but they said nothing to them about 
being great hunters, for the eldest brothers had stood the 
test. The third night they took the third brother, and 
the fourth night the fourth brother. The Elk was burned 
almost black now. 1 

The fifth night Coyote came in; he was dressed very 
nicely in buckskin trimmed with pdrcupine-quills, his hair 
was hanging down below his knees. He opened the door 
and entered. Black-Fox took him by the hand and led 
him to the fire; he was going up to the eldest brother's 
fire. Fox whispered to him and said, "When they sing, 
don't you get on their backs. You see how we are burned; 
and don't you sing." Along in the evening the eldest 
Elk said, "A stranger is in our house to-night, and we 
expect him to sing; that is the rule of old times." Coyote 
was afraid, but he said, "All right." Coyote went away 
from the fire, took a club, began to beat time and sing ; and 
he used words, for he passed himself off for a Nez Perce. 
He sang, "I come, I come all the way." 2 He walked 
up and down the house several times, and at last said, 
"Whom shall I carry on my back?" The eldest Elk said, 
"Well, brother, carry me," and he put his arms around 
Coyote's neck. Elk's legs hung down, and he tried to 
pull Coyote over the fire; but Coyote said, "I don't dance 
over the fire as you people do." Still Elk pulled him 

1 The idea of an increase in heat with the advance of the song is found also 
in Wishram Texts, pp. 129-131 of this volume. 

2 See Spinden, The Nez Perce Indians (Memoirs American Anthropological 
Association, Vol. II, p. 263). 


towards it. Coyote kept saying, "The custom of my country 
is not to dance over the fire." At last he stopped sing- 
ing and sat down, saying, "It is the custom of old for 
the one who is carried to sing after the carrier stops 

Elk began to sing and wanted to carry Coyote ; he 
could not refuse. He threw off his robe and got on 
Elk's back. This was the fifth and last night. Elk sang 
three times away from the fire. It blazed high and burned 
Coyote, who said, "This is not the way our fathers 
danced ;" but Elk paid no heed, and Coyote was burned up. 

Next morning the sun rose, and the eldest Elk talked 
a long time to the people, told them what they would 
do for the people to come. Coyote lay outside dead. 
After all had gone away, Coyote came to life and won- 
dered how he came outside. He thought that perhaps 
they had made such a noise, that he came outside to 
sleep. Then he looked at the blisters on his hands, and 
remembered how he had died. 



James Grant Wilson 

Franz Boas 
Livingston Farrand 

Recording Secretary Executive Committee 

Marshall H. Saville James Grant Wilson 

Corresponding Secretary Franz B aS 

Marshall H. Saville 
Harlan I. Smith R T R Hyde 

Treasurer Livingston Farrand 

George H. Pepper 

Librarian, Ralph W. Tower 


Adams, Edward D. Fisher, Irving 

Adler, I. Gallatin, Frederick 

Bandelier, Adolph F. Giddings, Franklin H. 

Barrett, S. A. Gordon, Geo. B. 

Benedict, James H. Grinnell, George Bird 

Bell, Bertrand Hagar, Stansbury 

Bickmore, Albert S. Harrington, M. Raymond 

Boas, Franz Hearst, Mrs. Phoebe 

Bogoras, W. Hermann, Mrs. Esther 

Bowditch, Charles P. Heye, George G. 

Brown, Elias G. Hill-Tout, Charles 

Cammann, Hermann H. Hirsch, William 

Cattell, J. McKeen Hirth, Friedrich 

Chamberlain, Alex. F. Hodge, F. W. 

Crampton, H. E. Huntington, Archer M. 

Culin, Stewart Hyde, B. Talbot B. 

Curtis, W. Mattoon Hyde, E. Francis 

Dellenbaugh, Frederick S. Hyde, Elizabeth M. 

Dixon, Roland B. Hyde, Frederick E. 

Eames, Wilberforce Hyde, Frederick E., Jr. 

Emmet, Mrs. J. D. Jacobi, A. 

Farrand, Livingston Jochelson, W. 

Fishberg, Maurice Jones, William 

Kissell, Mary Lois 
Kroeber, Alfred L. 
Langmann, G. 
Laufer, Berthold 
Lee, Frederic S. 
Lehman-Nitsche, Robert 
Lenz, Rodolfo 
Lewis, A. B. 
Low, Hon. Seth 
Lumholtz, Carl 
MacCurdy, George Grant 
Maitland, Alexander 
Martin, Myra B. 
Mead, Charles W. 
Mills, Wm, C. 
Murdoch, John 
Montgomery, Henry 
Nuttall, Mrs. Zelia 
Osborn, Henry F. 
Owen, Charles 
Paltsits, Victor Hugo 
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Pepper, George H. 
Perkins, George H. 
Prince, J. Dyneley 
Prudden, T. Mitchell 

Putnam, Edward K. 
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Pyne, M. Taylor 
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Schiff, Jacob H. 
Sinclair, A. T. 
Skinner, Alanson. 
Smith, De Cost 
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Sumner, W. G. 
Teit, James 
Tozzer, A. M. 
Uhle, Max 
Vannote, H. B. 
Vroman, A. C. 
Von Ihering, Hermann 
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Wilson, James Grant 
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Worcester, Dean C. 


American Museum of Natural History 

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VOLUME I. 1845. 

Article I. Notes on the Semi-Civilized Nations of Mexico, Yucatan 
and Central America. By Hon. ALBERT G-ALLATIN. 

Art. II. An Account of Ancient Remains in Tennessee. By GERARD 

Art. III. Observations on the Grave Creek Mound, in Western Vir- 
ginia. By H. R. SCHOOLCRAFT, LL. D. 

Art. IV. On the Recent Discoveries of Himyaritic Inscriptions, and 
Attempts made to decypher them. By Professor W. W. TURNER. 

Art. V. Account of the Puncio-Lybian Monument, at Dugga, and the 
Remains of an Ancient Structure at Bless, near the Site of Ancient 

VOLUME II. 1848. 

Art. I. The Indians of North-west America, and Vocabularies of 
North America. By Hon. ALBERT GALLATIN. 

Art. II. Observations on the Aboriginal Monuments of the Mississippi 
Valley, with Maps and Illustrations. By E. G. SQUIER, M. A., F. S. A. 

Art. III. - - View of the Ancient Geography of the Arctic Regions of 
America. By Professor C. C. RAFN. 

Art. IV. Account of a Craniological Collection, with Remarks on the 
Classification of some Families of the Human Race. By SAMUEL 

Art. V. Sketch of Polynesian Languages. By THEODORE DWIGHT, Esq. 

Art. VI. - - Grammatical Sketch of the Language of the Indians on the 
Mosquito Shore. By ALEXANDER J. COTHEAL, Esq. 

Art. VII. Present Position of the Chinese Empire in Respect to Other 

Art. VIII. Sketch of the Mpongwes (an African tribe), and their 
Language. By Rev. J. L. WILSON. 

Art. IX. Progress of Ethnology : An Account of Recent Geographical, 
Archaeological, and Philological Researches, tending to illustrate the 
Physical History of Man. By JOHN R. BARTLETT, Esq. 

VOLUME III [PART I. 1 ]. 1851. 

Art. I. Observations on the Creek and Cherokee Indians. By WILLIAM 
BARTRAM. [Written in 1789.] 

Art. II. Observations on the Archaeology and Ethnology of Nicaragua, 
with some Account of the Present Condition of the Indians of that 
Republic; also Four New Vocabularies of Languages spoken by the 
Aborigines, hitherto unrecorded. By E. G. SQUIER, M. A., F. S. A. 

Art. III. - The Rio Wanks, and the Mosco or Mosquito Indians. A 

Art. IV. A Choctaw Tradition. By Rev. C. C. COPELAND. 

Art. V. - The Aborigines of the Isthmus of Panama. By BERTHOLD 

Art. VI. Cuban Antiquities ; A Brief Description of some Relics found 
in the Island of Cuba. By ANDRES POEY, of Havana. 



Published at irregular intervals. 

Berendt, Dr. C. H., Analytical Alphabet for the Mexican and Central 
American Languages (printed in facsimile). 


Vol. I, No. i. 100 pages. 1871-73. 


Vol. I. William Jones. Fox Texts. 1907. 
Vol. II. Edward Sapir. Wishram Texts. 1909. 

Only fifty copies of this part were saved from the fire which destroyed the 
tablishmcnt of the Society's printer, in the autumn of 1851. 

PM American Ethnological oociety, 
102 flew York